Skip to main content

Full text of "New Paris Guide, Or Stranger's Companion Through the French Metropolis: To which is Added a ..."

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



W E W 6VI DE 

or 

PARIS. 



MAP OF PABIS ABD TWELVE EWGRAVINGS, 

[ PABIS9 

' PUBLISHED BY A. AND W. GALlGWAHl, 

>•. 18, KOE VIV.ERI.E. 

MAY. 1827. 




^MH7IZ1,3 



r I 1 ■ 






PRINTED <fiY A. BELIN. 



XVII. Libraries and Museum* SH 

XVUl. Thorres, Public Gardens, Amuae- 

ments, etc 6:9 

XIX. Promenades, Bo nievards, and Barrien. 677 

XX. Cslacombs and Cemeterica Gi|3 

Environs of Pari 719 

T.ble of ffilcs 8»» 

Lilt of Streets in Paris S>3 



JLlUttAnUbi^, MU5JtUiYl5, ETC." 

BiBLioTH^QCEDD Roi, Tuesdays and Fridays, from ten 
o'clock till two. Students and Authors daily. Cabinet 
of Medals and Antiques, and Cabinet of Engravings at 
the Bibliotheque du Roi, Tuesdays and Fridays, from 
ten o'clock till two. 

BjBLfOTHKQUB MAZARiifK, cvcry day, except Thursdays 
and Sundays, from ten o'clock till two* 

BlBLIOTfl&QDB DB LA ViLLB (sCC page 5yu)» 

Mus^B RoTAL, at the Louvre, Sundays. Foreigners, 
cvei'y day, except Mondays. 

Gabiubt d'Histoikb Natubellb, at the Jardin des 
Plantes. Tuesdays and Fridays, from three o'clock till 
six. Foreigners, every day, except Sundays and 
Thursdays. 

CoNSEavATOiBB DBS Arts bt MiiiiBAS. Thursdays and 
Sundays. Foreigners daily. 

At the Conservation DBS Monombics Pobltcs, No. 29, 
rue de TUniversit^, the stranger ( by letter, " post 
paid," addressed to M. UDireeteur, or by personal appli- 
cation, upon producing his passport) mayoblaiu tickets 
of admission to ascend the column of the place Ven- 
d6me> and to visit the model of the Fontaine de TEle- 
phanl, and the ate liers de Sculpture . 

ENGLISH PROTESTANT CHURCHES. 

Hours of service. 

Ambassador's Chapel, No. 39, Faubourg St. Ilonor^^ 
half past eleven o'clock. 

HdTEL Marboedf, Champs Elys^es, morning, half 
past eleven ; evening, in summer six, in winter three. 

Oratoirb, rue St. Uonor^, three in English, also at ten 
on the first Sunday of every month. Amcric^an ser- 
vice at two every Sunday. In French at twelve on 
Sundays, and at two on Thursdays, 

* This list includes only those elablislinients which are open on 
fixed days. Those are omilled which are opon to Ihe pQ}>lic every 
A»y, or "to visit which tickets are required. To visit the puhlic in-- 
^tilutions, minute directions will I>e found at the end oi each articie. 



1 ilie uaupDJTt will ihcfl be a 
■e or Hpease. Tlx office is 
i ARRANGEME^T.S.— Befoi 



ley lo defray hii eipemci ftoin CiUis (o ilie meiropolis 
rancf . He n>av gel BankoF Enf-linct aolei, or guineas. 
jgcd ioto Frenct roone'f, on landipR in France ; ihoORh 



■■ Street, CotboMJi 



nay he paHhated of Mr, S 
rdeni Mr. Smart, 55, Prir 
Mr. Tbomat, loa, Corp: 



/ 



duclion of threepence in the pound. . The best plan, ho^ir- 
ever, is to get a letter of credit from a banker in London 
on one in Paris. This may be -sent previous to departure, 
to the Paris banker, and he may be desired to send credit 
for the sum wanted, on a banker in Calais, or wherever 
the traveller proposes to land, by a letter addressed to him, 
paste restante. On his arrival, he finds his letter at the 
post-ofBce, and gets of the banker of the place the sum he 
may require for his journey to Paris, where the balance of 
his letter of credit will be paid by the Paris banker. Some 
persons, however, prefer the circular exchange notes of 
Herries and Co., or Morland and Co., London, which cer- 
tainly combine security and convenience. We have stated 
the best and safest way of obtaining money from England ; 
we shall now indicate the worst and most insecure, which is 
having bank notes enclosed in letters. The numerous rob- 
beries lately committed upon envelopes are almost incre- 
dible, and call loudly for strict inquiry and severe punish- 
ment. 

The principal bankers in Paris, who correspond with Eng- 
lish houses, areLafitte and Co., No. i3, Rue d'Artois; Roths- 
child, No. 9, Rue d'Artois; Mallet, No. i3. Rue de la Chaus- 
see d'Antin; and Luke CaUaghan, No. a6, Rue Neuve des 
Mathurins. Their commission is about one per cent, be- 
sides a small premium when they pay in gold. 

MONETARY SYSTEM.— Accounts are kept in France in 
francs of 10 decimes or 100 centimes. Before the year 1795 
they were kept in hvres of ao sous or 34o deniers. The livre 
and franc were formerly of the same value, but the franc is 
now 1 74 per cent better; thus 80 francs equal 81 livres; 
and by this proportion the ancient monies have been gene- 
rally converted into modem. 

But by a decree of 18 10 the following proportion has been 
established: — pieces of 48 livres at \']{t. aoc. ; of 34, at 
23fr. 55c. ; of 6, at 5fr. 80c. ; of 3, at afr. 75c. 

• See Paris Directory. 




• • • 






MOHETAaT SYSTEM. lU 

thr- 
ill Plecet of S0 and 1 5 toos pan for ifr. 5oc. and ^Sc, but 

•fg^^ f hey are not considered a legal tender for more tiian 5fr. 

i]^ -The coins may be considered under two heads ; namely, 

ancient and modem ; the ancient gold coins are Louis of a4 

livres, and doable Louis of the value of 48 livres ; and the 

silver coins are ^cus of 6 livres, with halves, quarters, etc. 

^^ The modem gold coins are Napoleons of 4o and aofr. and 

"^^ Louis of the same weight, fineness, and current value. The 

ny^ silver coins are pieces of 5fr., also of .3, i, ^f^ */, 74 francs. 

]^^ The coius of mllon (a mixed meul) and copper are pieces 

ili^ of I decime or a sons, pieces of six liards or one sou and 

1 1^ a half, of 5 centimes or one sous, and of i centime. There 

^ of are also Uards and double liards, which are the quarter and 

-tm ^ half of a sou. 

g of In the monetary system of France, the coins, if accurately 

^g^ minted, may serve also as weights. Thus 5 firancs in cop- 

1^ per, 5o in billon, aoo in standard silver, or 3ioo in standard 

n^. i^ gold, should weigh i kilogramme. Hence the piece of i 

ji 1^ ^ franc weighs 5 grammes, and any other piece in the above 

p^^ proportion. 

Hence also i kilogramme of minted gold is ^^orth i5'/a 

kilogrammes of silver. 

I kilogramme of minted silver is worth 4 kilogrammes of 

billon. 

I kilogramme of minted billon is worth i o kilogrammes 

of copper, or any otlier weight in the same proportion. 

The gold coins of 20 francs and 4o francs, struck under 

the government of Bonaparte were called Napoleons and 

Double Napoleoiis ; and such is the force of habit that these, 

as well as pieces of the same value struck since the re- 

^J^ storation, continue to be so called. They are also desig- 

■'^^ nated pikces de vin^t francs and pieces de quarante francs. 

The silver coin of 5 francs each are frequently called pikces 

de cent sous. A piece of 2 francs is called ;9i^ce de quarante 

souSf and so on. 

The only notes issued by the Bank of France are of 5oo 

francs, and 1000 francs. These are changeable into silver 

at the bank during the hours of business, for three sous, 

which is for' the money bag; or, at a small premium, into 

silver or gold,, at the different money-changers. 

The French money being divided into decimal parts, in 

reckoning, instead of 26 sou?, it is said one franc a5 cen- 



e m 



r 






or francs are god 


isidered equal to 


If / — » 

the pound sterling. 


The following 


Table will be 


found useful to Stran- 


gers, who are not accustomed to reduce francs into 


sterling money. In this table the calculation is 


made at 24 fr. to the pound sterling, though the 


exchange is . 


sometimes higher. The difference it is 


easy to add. 




Francs. 


French. I. s. d. 


1 


Un 10 


3 


Deux 




, ^ 


I 8 


3 


Trow 






096 


4 . . 


Quatrc 






3 4 


5 


anq 






4 3 


6 


Six 






5 


I : : 


Sept 






5 10 


Huit 




, 


068 


9 


Neuf 






076 


10 


Dix . 






8 4 


• 

11 


Onz« 






09a 


la 


Douze 






10 


i3 


Treise 






10 10 


.4 


Quatorxe 




• 


11 8 


i5 


Qninze 






la 6 


16 


Seize 






i3 4 


\l : 


Diz-sept 






i4 a 


Diz-hoit 


• 




i5 


. 19 


Dix-neuf 






i5 10 


ao 


Vingt 




e 16 8 


ai 


Vingl-un 




17 6 


9a 


ViD|5t-deux 




18 4 


s3 


Vingt-troi« 




19 a 


H 


ViDgt-<ju»trc 




I 


a5 


.* Vingt-cinq 




I 10 


26 


Vingt-six 




1 1 8 


11 : 


Vingt-»ept 




I a 6 


Vingt-huit 




1 3 4 


29. . 


Vingt-neuf 






I 4 > 



Qiur>Dte-ciaq 



CinqDiDie-deui . 
CinqnADtc-rroit 
Cioqiuale-qiulTe 
Cinqaanle-ciDq ■ 
GnquiDU-iii 

Cinquauie-hail 
Cinqiiiiile-iiettr . 



Ceot qnatn 

CcDl *ii 
Cent tepi 
Cent kuii 
CentBenr 

Ccm on» 

CcDtdoOM 

Ccoi Irdu . 



WnOItTS AND MEASUIIE.S.— Weluvc I.erp ihrec «yi- 

tsum, aneA bcfurc ihc Kmich revolul'ion ; ilic Mclrir.,1 at 

trJmil -ly si™, eiiahlidie J in 1 795 ; and ilie Sysii^me Vsuct, 

ailcIcRaf rarrciaillHuhieu m .813. 

ThFiyatcmof I7!]5 it llic melricil <yitrni. williilpclmsl 

vi<iDn>, and i new VDcabnliry; and [liaiof >f|ii is alto lb« 

ririril lyilem, liulwiili binary division! anil tlie ancient 

ril.ular]-. 

Tbc deciniul sjaiem is used in all uholcsalc and gnvcrn- 

:ni concerns, and is ocU culculaicd 10 faeiliuiic the o|>cri- 

lai af ctanmcTce i bul llie binary tystcin (lliat is, dividin(i 

mdirdt into halve*, qnarlcvi, cigbllu, vtc.) it found more 



scientific for the common people, to whom the business of 
weighing and measuring the necessaries of life is chiefly 
committed in every country. In short, the decimal and 
binary systems seem to unite advantages, both for foreign 
and domestic trade, which perhaps no one system cocud 
possess. 

Ancient System.* — The ancient weight of France, called 
the Poids de Marc, was the same for the precious metals as 
for all merchandize. The livre or pound was divided into 3 
marcs, iG ounces, 128 gros, or 9216 grains. The ounce was 
also divided occasionally into 20 estlins, 4o mailles, or 80 
felins ; and the gros was sometimes divided into 3 deniers 
of 2^ grains each. 

Diamonds were weighed by the ounce of i44 carats, each 
carat being 4 grains. 

Apothecaries' weight was the poids de marc of 16 oancet, 
32 duellcs, 128 sciliques, 192 seztules, 256 drachms, 768 
scruples, or 9216 grains. 

The pound, poids de marc, answers to 0,489.1 kilo- 
gramme of the new weight, or 7555 English grains. 

The corn measure of Paris was the muid, which was di- 
vided into 12 setiers, 24 mines, 48 minots, or i44 boisseaux, 
and the boisseau into i61ilron8. The setier equals i,56 
hectolitre, or 4-4^7 Englbh bushels. ' 

The })rincipal measure for wine was also the muid, which 
was divided into 36 setiers, it^^qtuaxti, or 288 pintes. The 
muid answered to 2,68 hectolitres, or 70,80 English gallons. 
The pinte was divided into 2 chopines, 4 demi-setiers, or 8 
boissons; and answered to 0,931 litres, or 0,2459 English 
gallons, being very nearly an Enf^h quart. 

The old French foot {Pied de Rot) was divided into la 
inches, i44 Unes, or 1728 points; and equalled o, 32484 
metres, or 12,7893 EngUsh inches. 

* When the weights and measures of a country are altered, a 
knowledge of the old system, as well as the new, continues long ne- 
cessary ; and in the case of France it is indispensable, as the ancient 
system, is still partially retained, particularly in road measures, and 
in valuing the woilc of labourers and mechanics. In land>surveying 
too. it is constantly referred to. 



^ 



all otiic-r meiiuri 



Ibe iiaDdrant ha> 


Iweo aecii 


rtuineJ 1 


Iiy 


Me««. 


rauJM«l.i.i..,Ly 


mensurinij 




F.i. 




ecn ll.c iiaralUh u 


( Duofcirk 1 


Jiid Ban 


rcio 


ITand 


foauJ iTcoDLin i 


;i3o7io P. 


icmV lo 


;»> 


. Thii 


divided by ten million., kIto 


. 36..t4i3a8FreiMh 


liii'li i* llie n»trf. 


llieelcmc 


nl »r all 


ih 


c o<her 


, and wbicii i> equal 


'dm^'™. 


KDRlish i 








onion., 


Ihc 


follow- 


ularvofmmciliai 




.«d. 






liipliers,ihe«ord- 




















Hccln 































Z' 



lurcihe Quinlnl Metrique ol' luo kiioRramiiii'S uniuers In 
'!o,48(lll,.. avDirdupoit, or icwt. 3qr.. :>47.11b- 

COWKYANCES.— At ihe Golden Cross, C^liarlns Crost, 
iD(t ihf Croil RFy9,Wood Sireel. CDrrecI inrurdiilion may be 
ohlainfil respectiDC conveyances 10 France. Theic are ihe 
only office, in LondoD whleh correspond with the orKcr of 
'^•e Messageries Ri<}ales,^a. i>, Hue N'ou-c Uame des Vic- 
iDirei. Pirii. Here places may be secured lo Uoier, Cn- 
bii, Dunkirk, Oiieiid, Pari), Bruitels, c 



every n 



B for Do. 



and resume their journey at pleasure, without addilioail 
expense, provided it be oientioned vrhen the pboe is taken, 
))iit there are many inconveniences altendinj; this apparoit 
advantage. Persons who have a dislike to traveUin{j; in the 
ni{]ht can start hy tlie coaclies which leave London in the 
morning ; they then sleep at Dover, cross the water in the 
middle of the day, sleep also at Calais, and depart by the 
coaches on the following morning. Those who wish to sftTe 
time should travel by the evening coaches to Dover, iffhen 
they will arrive three or four hours before the packet sailf. 
Parcels dispatched to the Continent must- be accompanied 
by a written declaration of their contents and value; abo 
the name and address of the person who sent them. 

From the White Bear, Piccadilly, coaches for Paris start 
every morning and evening. From this office there are 
coaches for Ramsgate, Margate, Dover, and Deal. 

The Hirondelley an improved light coach from Paris to 
Calai.s, has corresponding coaches in London, which set ont 
every morning and evening from the Spread Eagle Office, 
Webb's Hotel, No. aso, Piccadilly; and the Spread Kade 
and Cross Keys, Gracechurch Street. The office of tke 
Hirondelle at Paris is the Hotel des Fermes, No. a4* A»o ^ 
Bouloy. 

From Hatchctt's New White Horse Cellar a coach sivtt 
for Dover and Deal every morning and evening ; and a 
coach for Worthing, and another for Margate every morn- 
ing. Coaches likewise leave the same inn for Hastings every 
morning, and for Brighton every evening. 

Brighton coaches also start every morning from the 
White Horse, Fetter Lane; Blossoms Inn, Lawrence Lane; 
and the Angel, St. Clement's. A coach for Dover leaves the 
Bell and Crown Inn, Holborn, every morning. From the 
Bolt in Tun, Fleet Street, a coach staru for live every Toes- 
day, Thursday, and Saturday morning. T)ie Dover and 
Portsmouth mails start every evening, from thcT Angel Inn, 
at the back of St. Clement's Church. 

The Royal Messageries of the Netherlands are connected 
with the (*olden Ooss, Charing Cross, and the Cross Keys, 



uire at Meurs. WofhI anil Co.s, Soaihimplon. A iarf.' 

l>et'en»about mice aweekfrom Havre loltaucu. 11ie 
wry it p ciurMque. 

pckrl suik rrom Soullumplon la Caen ahniitrwin i 
<ib. For tianiculars a|i|i1icauun muii lie ni;<il.- ai ilic 
icr place to Alcssrt. Wcckl, and al llic latter, la Mr. 



burgh. 

Persons wishing to learn further particulars respecting 
packets, may obtain them by applying to Mr. T. H. Ayers, 
Commercial Shipping Agent, No. 35^, Strand, or Mr. 
Coates, Packet Office, 36 1, Strand. At these offices goods 
and baggage may be insured, cleared at the Custom-house, 
and warehoused till shipped. 

The traveller -would do well not to encumber himself widi 
more luggage than is absolutely necessary, as most articles, 
particularly books, are much cheaper in Paris than in Lon- 
don. The weight of luggage usually allowed by the coaches 
towards the coast is i41bs. for each passenger, although a 
heavier trunk, if not too bulky, is frequently suffered to 
pass vdtb out notice. The extra charge for overweight is 
three-halfpence per lb. 

Presuming that the tourist is acquainted with the beauties 
of his native land, and that he will without difficulty find 
the best inns of the sea-port from which he Intends to sail, 
we shall not notice them here. He will generally meet with 
every necessary information respecting the packets, at the 
inn where he puts up ; from whence the porter will safely 
convey his luggage to the custom-bouse ; as it mast be in- 
spected previous to being put on board. The owner should 
accompany the luggage to the custom-house, where great 
civility is generally met with. Every package is opened, bat 
the contents are seldom much disturbed. When this exa- 
mination is ended, the trunks are again taken by the porter* 
and carried on board the vessel in which the traveller's 
passage is secured. 

The officers at the different ports are much more strict 
with passengers returning from France, and frequently 
search the trunks closely, particularly if they have aoy 
ground for suspicion. It is better to give up the keys with- 
out hesitation. 

If, after his luggage is put on board one vessel, the pas- 
senger should by accident or choice go by another, his 
trunks will be found safe at the custom-house, on the French 
coast. 



ilie iraveller does noi rewrn ilie same »iy, [he monoy may 
liR oblaincd upon sliaivin|< ilie receipt at tlie cus1oni4<uu9v 
of any olber |>:irl of (he Frcncli rmniier. 

A fjig, or any otlivr (no-Hlieeled cirriage, pays the siinc 

On leaving £n{;Uni1, ilie <luty on .1 liorse is itvo guinea), 
licuilts IDS. in ilie iiwl. aeeariliii{! to lis raliie. On arriv- 
ing; in Fraoee, (lie UiK) is i5 franc! for a liorse and S for a 

uie, are freely admiiled, but 



one-tenth of their value, and that on horses 8 francs 
FRENCH INNS.— The English traveller must not 
to find on the continent all the cleanliness and com 
^hich he has been accustomed in En^jlish inns. Th 
of the rooms is generally composed of bricks or tile 
but few carpets are to be met with. But the beds are 
neral good; fuel is dear and almost always consists of 
in a wide open chimney, which frequently smokes, 
lent coffee, and generally good bread and wine, n 
procured ; and if the traveller can become reconci 
meat boiled, stewed, and roasted to rags, with rich 
there are always plenty of such dishes, with good 
tables, and a copious dessert. A silver fork and a i 
are always laid before each guest. The wine is brot 
table in the black bottle, yrith a tumbler and a decai 
water ; for, as the French never drink beer at their 
they supply its place with wine and water, and only 
fine wines and Uqueurs in wine glasses, which th( 
verres h pied* These are seldom placed on the table 
asked for. The table-wine is called vin ordinaire^ 
generally very cheap and good. 

TRAVELLING IN FRANCE. —Since the peac< 
French have greatly improved their public convey 
which are much lighter and more decent than former! 
the same time, from the immense quantity of luggage 
they carry, and from tlie roads being ])aved, it is imp( 
that they can ever equal the stage coaches of England 
diligences in general carry 9 passengers, vis : 6 
and 2 in the cabriolet, besides the conducteur, who 
sponds to an English guard. There are some of them 
ever that carry 9 inside and 9 outside passengers; the 
also coaches with two or three bodies, whith carry i 
sengers inside, a few outside, and luggag«. The intei 
these vehicles is generally lofty and roomy, and a str 
net-work hang from the roof for hats and light parcels 
places are all numbered, and, when the traveller takes a 
the number of the scat he is to occupy is mention 
the receipt. The conductor always takes care that 
traveller shall occupy his place, by calling each in hii 



and iliould lie hired at 



k]i>II lie jKiitl Far hy (he person who lets il- 

I'he |iu9iiDg in t'raace being in ihe hanili orihe novccn- 



in France, and perhaps excels that of every other country in 
Europe. The postiUon drives, on an average, nearly as fast 
as in England ; and there is no danger whatever of drivers 
being drunk, or racing against each other. There are no 
turnpike-gates in the kingdom ; and the charge of posting* 
and paying the postilion is fixed. Thirty sous is paid for 
every horse, and a horse is allotted for each person. But 
they seldom put more than three horses to a carriage, and 
generally all abreast, with one postilion, except when the 
carriage has a pole ; it then has four horses and two 
postilions. It is therefore advisable for travellers who 
take their own carriage to have shafts instead of a pole, as 
this makes a- considerable difference in the expense of 
posting. If there are more than three or four persons ill 
a carriage with shafts, the post-master will perhaps order 
only three horses, unless the traveller insists on more, and 
then, instead of charging 3o sons for the fourth or fifth 
horse, which is not put to, he will only require a trifling 
addition for each of the three horses ; so that the journey 
is accomplished as fast as with the full number of horses, 
and at a much less expense. The legal sum fixed for the 
driver is i5 sous, but travellers never give less than 3o. 
A promise of to sous more will occasionally make them 
drive faster. 

It is seldom necessary to send a courier forward to order 
horses, unless in unfrequented parts of the country, or 
when there is an extraordinary run on the road. The post- 
masters and the postilions are civil and obliging. If the 
traveller does not choose to change, he may refer the pay- 
ment to the next post, or even to two or three posts for» 
ward (notwitlistanding the regulation to the contrary); 
but in case he travels diiring the night, or feels disposed to 
sleep, it is better to pay for several posts in advance, to- 
gether with the postilions. By this arrangement he may 
travel many hours without interruption. 

On arriving at Paris or elsewhere, a hired carriage must* 
be immediately sent according to the direction received on 
engaging it, in order to avoid disputes. ' 

A slow but pleasant mode of travelling for some p^rsoas^ 



nt for a family. The expense is generally a guinea 
r the journey, and as much for the voUurier to 
so that i£ the journey lasts iive days, the expense 
about lo guineas : hut different bargains may be 
different places. There are two establishments of 
in London: that of Dclayaud and Emery, at Mr. 
n», watch-maker, Cockspur-street, Charing-Cross ; 
t of Mr. Dejean, 33, Hay-market. The charge is 
uisfrom London to Paris, including every expense ; 
son is allowed a cwt. of luggage, and the journey is 
less than a week. 

yances of the same kind, but at a higher charge, 
bad at Calais, lleturn carriages of this description 
aetimes be met with on reasonable terms. The 
a always expects at the rate of one or two francs a 

er way of travelling in France is to ride on horse- 
lich is called a franc etrier. The rider must then 
)08tilion to attend him. The luggage is carried in 
tags, and the postilion will also carry a portmanteau 
him, if it does not weigh more than 3o pounds, 
tilion always rides before the traveller, who is not 
on any account to pass him. If the party consists 
than uiree persons there must be two postilions to 
them. A French post may generally he reckoned 



I J,, 



»«* *« ft«V«# MS 



carefully marked. The Livre des Pastes also contains th^ 
rules and regulations for posting, some of which we shal 
here insert, together with tables of the rate of posting, fo 
the information of travellers. This hook, nevertheless 
will he found of the greatest utility, and will prevent im 
position. 

Regulations relative to posting. — Post-masters appointei 
hy the government are alone permitted to furnish horses w 
travellers. 

The post-master must constantly reside at, or Dear, thi 
post-house. 

A postilion without a certificate of good behaviour can 
not be hired* 

Travellers are requested to enter every complaint the; 
may have against the postilion, or master, in a book whicj 
is kept at each post-house, and is regularly examined b; 
the inspectors. 

The post-master is answerable for any accident that ma] 
occur from the carelessness of the postilion, or restivenes 
of the horses. 

Travellers are supplied in the exact order in which they 
or their couriers, arrive. 

A carriage drawn by three horses can carry only i4olb 
of luggage — loolb. behind, and 4olb. before. 

The price of posting must always be paid beforehand. 

No carriage may pass another on the road, unless somt 
accident happen to that which goes before. 

Each post shall be run in the space of an hour. 

Explanation of the following Table. 

(First line) for 74 post for i horse, 38 centimes ; 

—For 1 horses, 7^ centimes ; 

— For 3 horses, i franc and i3 centimes; 

— For 4 horses, i franc and 5o centimes ; 

— For 5 horses, i franc and 88 centimes; 

— For 6 horses, 1 francs and 35 centimes; 

— For 7 horses, 2 francs and 63 centimes; 
and so bn. 



The following table will show the number of horses 
required for cabriolets and four-wheel carriages with 
shafts, called limonieres^ and for four-wheel carriages 
with poles. 

CABRIOLETS. 



Number of 
Persons. 



I 

2 

3 

4 



N amber of 
Horses. 



a 
a 
3 
3 



Charge for 
each Horse. 



fr. c. 

I. 5o 

I 5o 

I 5o 

a » 



Sam total. 



fr. c. 

3 n 

3 » 

4 5o 

6 n 



FOUR WHEEL CARRIAGES WITH SHAFTS. 



I, a or 3 



3 
3 



I 

a 



5o 



4 
6 



5o 



I fr. 5o c. must be paid by each person exceeding 
four in number. 

BERUNES AND OTHER FOUR-WHEEL 
CARRIAGES WITH POLES. 

1 3^ 3 or 4| 4 I I 5o I 6 » 
5 or 6| 6 I 1 5o I 9 » 

I fr. 5o c. must be paid by each person exceeding 
six in numher ; and on no account can more- 
than six horses ever be put to one BerHne. 



One child under seven years old is not reckoned. 
Two children, under seven years of age, are consi- 
dered as equivalent to one full-grown person. Every 
child above that age is reckoned as afuU-grown person. 




TRAVELL 



IN FRANCE. 



XXUl 



(^ 



horses 
es u//f A 
rria^es 




TS. 
o 

n 

ing 



EX. 

» 

ing 
9re 



consi- 
Every 
erson. 



o 



a, 

es 
1 



CO 



g* 

-S 

a 

w 

a 
o 

o 

o 

tit 

If- 



CO 



V 

Si 

o 



H 



«J 



CO • CI *>(^ao 






vwcovno r^OiO c«cow5«ooo 



fO<0 etiooo - r^OcO<0 Oiei 
coco O^ctkO O^MkOOO «" ^^00 



««4 



•VS-OO^ O^^0O<O J»*^00 «<P 
•-I CI CO >0 ;0 t^oo *• CI vt-ws 

»^ e9 CO vj-Ui ;o t^ Oi O *^ CI CO 



'^ C7> o>oo t>» t>»<0 M> w> -^^rvf CO CO 
.• « w CI CO "^vo «D t«*QO 0> O « 



r>*n CI t^io CI t^w5 c« 
« *- « CO CO ^<1-vo <0 ^ t^OO Oi 






r**5^oo^o « Oco O t>.'»^ — oo 
vo M ^ CI oo CO O^o ^ CI r^ 

M -» « CI CO CO ^*W5 \n t^ <o 



00 to C% O 00 CO c« 
eO t^ •-* \o 00 c< «0 



« oo <0 *^ « 
CO tN. *^ u^ 



w C^ d CO CO CO '^VJ" 



OiOO <0 V5 VI-CO - O OiOO t^^ 
ti^COWit^O'-'CO^OCOOO 00 

II KS ft ftMMMMMCICI 



.COWWOCO 

coco»}(Atf)tf>cocnc»)cotf)(A 
OOOOOOOOOOOO 

P^P^P4Pi4&4Pi(Pi(P4&4^^P^ 

-;5^>;^-SF. ^K.-;^-^ ^i^. ^:?1. ^SF- _ 

•- •« «N « « <S O C< CO 



The different Routes from London to Paris. 

X HE Traveller will not fail to be struck, on his arrivj 
in France, with the different aspect of the country to th; 
which he has left. No hedges skirt -the road, and the e^ 
8ur\'eys for miles one undivided expanse. The trees ai 
no longer scattered over the meadows, hut are eithi 
planted in clumps, or in woods and forests. The pave 
roads, remind the stranger of the change a few hours ha^ 
effected. The English farmer will object, perhaps, to tl 
French husbandry ; but he will hod little uncultivated lant 
The villages bear strong symptoms of the poverty of the 
inhabitants. The neat garden of the English cottager 
rarely to be seen ; nor are there any houses suited to tb 
middling classes of society. A solitary chateau here «d 
there, sometimes ready to fall, serves rather to creal 
melancholy than to enliven the scene. There are i 
every village a number of land -holders, occupying, pei 
haps, a few roods only. As to idlers and mentucants, the 
abound in all the hamlets of France. Tiie fruit trees ai 
planted, without any fence to protect them, along the sid 
of the roads leading from the coast to Paris. 

There are two principal and direct roads from Londo 
to Paris ; one by Dover and Calais, the other by Brighto 
and Dieppe. Tue road by Dover and Calais is certainly tli 
shortest, surest, and most expeditious ; but in .scenery, aa 
as it respects the beauty of the country, Dieppe is preferabli 
and the distance from London to Brighton is shorter tlui 
to Dover, and Dieppe is also 90 miles nearer to Paris tha 
Calais, still, when the greater length of the sea passage 
considered, the former route will appear to have the advai 
tage. The expenses by Dieppe are much less than by tb 
Calais road. — 

No I. — Route to Paris hy Calais. 

There are three roads from Calais to Paris; one by Be.iv 
vais, 32 posts and a half (about 178 English miles), an 
other by Amiens and Clermont, 34 posts and a half (aboi 



' hnisbcd; hui, in i8^o, it«airFCoinmcn«.l,andisinlcnilc<i 
10 <.'ninn>c morale llie ri:iloralian of ilie Uourlnni. 

B0L'I.IJ(;N'K.— -1 liis lawn il cunroscd In tlDii.l •iniin ilie 
i<c of ilic anticoi Gtssoriitum, ihe u|.iL-J of ll<e JM.irn.. 
in Cmar'B lime ', anil here ii i> ibounlii ilisi VMitalii com- 
BitieJ ilic urt uF fnlly recordcil 1-y Suctoniui, oforderino 
\m «.htKTs Ic> rush <m llic Hods and collect tlii-IU sihI ,ieh- 

!lo.il,',|.,i« i<< .lividrd inio ilie Higd anil Low inwn, hoil. 
*<rll buili. I1in Sleep strcel whirli ronnens lliem it called 
'■ ijnnde me. Tlie jiurt in ftirmed hy ilic tiiinll river Liaiis, 



aud -was much enlnTQed and embeilistied by Bonaparte, at 
the time he projected the invasion of England. The high 
town, situated on an eminence which commanda the \om 
town, is almost entirely inhabited by annuitants and the 
noblesse. It is surrounded by a rampart planted with trees, 
which forms a pleasant pubhc walk ; on the west is a fine 
sea view ; and in clear weather the English coast is distinctly 
seen. The walk on the sands also, under the cliffs, is agree* 
able. The principal trade of the town is in fresh and salt fish. 
The population consists of about i3,ooo souls, bssides the 
English, who, in time of peace, often amount to a third of 
that number. There is a theatre at Boulogne, and a puUw 
garden for dancing. The principal church, in which are 
many ex-voto pictures, and the hospital are worth visiting. 
It carries on a brisk contraband trade in brandy, wine> lace, 
silks, etc. At Boulogne the two best inns are the Hotel des 
Bains and the Hotel de Londres. The diligence stops at the 
Hotel de France ; the mail does not enter the town. It con- 
tains good baths. The public library is large and select, 
and contains some curious ancient manuscripts ; a copy of 
the Museum Florentinum, one oi Seba's Natural History, 
3 vols, folio, and other rare and valuable works.' 

The road continues hilly between Boulogne and Mon- 
trcuil. About half way from Cormont we enter tlie forest 
nf Longvilliers, half a league in length; after which an ex- 
tensive prospect opens, with a view of Montreuil, on the 
summit of a rock. After passing a marshy piece of land, 
near a mile long, the road crosses a bridge and the forti- 
hcations, and, ascending a steep hill, enters the town of 

MONTREUIL, which has a population of about ^ooc 
souls, and is supposed to be impregnable, having onl^ 
two entrances which are closed by gates. This town wai 
celebrated in ancient limes, and many vestiges of its splen* 
dour remain, though it now offers a miserable contrast t< 
the beauty of its situation. It was formerly divided inti 
5 parishes, and had as many churches, but one only re* 
mains. The church of Notre Dame is a noble ruin. Steni« 
mentions this town. — Inn : Hotel dc France. 

From Montreuil to Abbeville the country is woody, wid 
a chalky soil, in some parts flat and barren. After feavinj 
Nampont, the road crosses the river Authie, which sepa 
rates the department of the Sorome from that of the Pa 
de Calais. A few miles farther on begins the foreat o 



ROUTB TO PAKIB BT OALitS. xxiz 

6 or 7 1t°|p"- in drcmafcrcDCD, laenMinbk la 

|n>tly rcMmbline ■ pliouiion of cumoi or gaott- 
mba. On ihc riflhi, bcyaiid Noutjod, i> Men dw 
It toso of Siidi-Viler;, neir die mouth of dii 
e; a indiDf; place villi aboui ^ooo inhabilinu. 
lEVILLE, on die river tiomme, ii ji large, ilroDR, 
K miDofactariiig lown, coniaiDing aboui lO/MM io- 
01*. tu bmow clolh manufiiclory h« miieh degi- 
it and die Dumber of iuwfaldiv mercbinit ii grndy 
d. The bouies are cliiefly of hriek, and the nnlf 
jble bnUdiPEi are die Uoibie chureh at St. Wini- 
he front of nbich i> a fiae spcdinen of Goibic mr. 
Bic, and [he FoundliDfl Hoipiial. The raupani form 
ia walk ind are planleil xiih (reel. 
re ii aODiber rnad from Calaii lo Abbeville, b; St. 
■ndHeHliD, and die dcligbiRil valley of Canchj. 
En St. Omer and Heidin, ibe road pauci near Agin- 
a tpot immorlaliied in hislor]', bjr ilit viclorv eiioed 
■T ffenrf V, in i4i5. The neat litlle fbrlihed una 
lin ia iboot balF way be[»een Aeineoun and Crecy. 
::il>!> to Abbeville, by diii road, the diatanre ii i^ 
Tboie who niih 10 proceed la I'arit throDgh liouan, 
>Mim AU>eville lo £u and ibence io Dieppe, wlurh 

™e^o Rouen'!"'Tbere ira'™^aR™hea[«°al Ah"- 
-Inn : T*te de Bwuf. 

ISEILLE i» a picturesque viKaee in a pretty valky 
with ireea, and watered by die rivulcl Hcrbonval. 
nnlry, laid out lu gcueral in rorn-beldi, ii varietal: 
e and there with grovea, each of vrhich CDnceala a 
, KeordiUf; lo the cusioin in Picardy of surrounding 



7\'AIS, the < 


■hief town of the 


Jepar 


tment of the 


It about i4.o 




lostiy I 


nanuf..eluriri 


len. and tape 


istry, die latter ne 


arlycq 


ual lo thai ol 


lelina. Tho 


neh buili of wood, it 1 


it hand»an>e. 


«t. »» »ide 


andUiehoiise>n. 


fat; Ih. 


: grande phct 


oui. and lb. 


e Hotel de yilk, : 


lowlde 


ro ediH^ic ol 


chilecture. 


The cadiedral »a 


B nevet 


fini.bed:aU 


■la u die A 


oir and the tran» 


:pl, ■»!. 




ere dtilined 


la have fonne.d . 


aLaii^ 


, ct'oM. Th= 



the celchruted sculptor Coustou, and three admirable 
piece;} of tapestry ; one representing the Healing of the 
Paralytic is a masterpiece. 

The church of St. Etienne is a Gothic buildinjr, -with 
some painted windows in good preservation. On the ex- 
terior of the north wall is a monument in relief, thought 
to be Itoman ; and, in the inside, is a fine painting of 
Christ bearing the Cross. 

There are some fine mineral springs and a theatre in this 
town. 

The origin of Beauvais is unknown, but its antiquity is 
inconiestalde. It can boast of never having been taken, 
though often besieged, and has thence been denominated 
la pucelle. In i44>^ t-^e English were repulsed from it ; and 
in 1472, being besieged by the Burgundians, it was saved by 
the courage of a woman, named Jane Hachette, who, pat- 
ling herself at the head of a troop of women, flew to the 
rampart, snatched the standard of the enemy just planted 
there, and threw the soldier who held it into the ditch. 
In memory of this action, a solemn annual procession 
takes place, on the loth of July, when the women walk 
first. " 

There is no town in France which, considering its popu- 
lation, has produced so many illustrious men as Beauvais. 
Ai^ng them are the famous lawyer Loysel; the Abbe 
Dubos and Lcnglet Dufresnoy, authors ; Restaut the gram- 
marian, and Vaillant the traveller and antiquary; the tvro 
Villiers de Tile Adam, one marshal of France under 
Charles VII, in the i5th century, the other grand master 
of Malta ; and the learned Dominican, Vincent dc Beau- 
vais, preceptor to the children of Saint Louis. ScveraL 
councils were held at Beauvais, one of which, in iii4» 
was remarkable for the excommunication of the Emperor 
Henry V. — Inn : Hotel d'Angleterre. 

The road from Beauvais is pleasant from the variety of 
the views and the rural aspect of the country, which it 
also fertile in corn-fields. 

BEAUMONT, a small town of 3000 inhabitants, is agree- 
ably situated on one of the hills which border the rick 
valley of the riTer Oisc. * 



ROUTE TO PARIS BT CALAIS. XXx'l 

h. , Nocbii^ remarkable is met with between tbit plare ami 

OS ■ hn$ except tbe town of Saiot Denis, for wbicb, and the 

by idgiiboiiring; spots, see Efwirons of Paris. 

>Ie 

^*^ 2. Road by Amiens and Clermont. 

ih nOH POSTS. PROM POSTS. 

t. ' CiuuioAbbevilJc . . ; 13^/4 Wavignies to Saint-Jusl . a 

•/^ Cleimoxt a 

»/4 Laigneville i«/l 

Cha?itillt |»/j 

'/a Luzarches i»^'j 



bt AiUf4e-haai-clocher 
of- Fuecoiit 

Kcquigny. 

iaius . . 

Beliecoait. 

ftri . . . 

Ireieuil. . 



II 



If 



Ecouen i>yi 

SAIIfT-DElfIS I'/i 

•/a PARIS I 

, — -'A 

I Posts 34'/, 

V The road passes through the marshy valley of the river 
• . >S>mjDe, chiefly remarkable for peat or turf. Half a league 
ft' ^ni Picquigny is an ancient camp, in a good state of pre- 
J lervation, attributed to Cxsar, but, from its form, it is 
I probably a work of the Gauls. 

9 AM1E\^ is seen at a considerable distance, in the midst 
L of fields, entirely destitute of trees. The lofty and beauti- 
ful cathedral of this ancient capital of Picardy |)rodiices an 
extraordinary eflect, which justifies the celebrity it has 
obtained. It was begun by Everard, Bisliop of the diocese 
in 1220, and continued by his successor, Godefroy. Their 
tomhs, in bronze, stand on each side of the grand entrance. 
The height of tbe nave and the delicacy of the pillars, i *>.(> 
ia Dumber, of which 44 ^cc detached, chiefly excite the 
idmiration of visitors. Three circular windows oF painted 
glass are very Hue. There are many monuments in the 
ioferior ; pariicubrly one behind the choir, of a weeping 
child, in white marble. In one of the chapels is part of 
ihe scull of John the Baptist, brought from Constantinople 
io i2o6. This beautiful church is ?t66 feet long, 5o broad 
ittdading tlie chapels, and i32 in height. The nave istlie 
finest in France ; and it is commonly said that to form a per- 
fect church, it should have the nave of Amiens, the choir 
oi Beauvais, the front of Rheims, and the stee])lc of Char- 
tres. The pulpit, with the 3 statues which support it, re- 
presenting tne three theological virtues, is much admired. 



ship as exists. They were finished in 1 5 19. 

Amiens is an episcopal see, and the seat of a prefectare, 
a civil tribunal, and a royal couj*t. It has also a royal col- 
\ef,e and a large hospital. The tovrn, containing 40)000 in- 
habitants, is in general well built, both of brick and stone, 
and has several broad straight streets. The ramparts form 
a pleasant -walk round the tov?n ; and the public prome* 
uade , called VAuU^y is delightful. It is an island, tur- 
rovnded by canals, and intersected by magnificent avenuet 
of lofty tufted trees. The river Somme runs through 
Amiens, and being cut into numerous canals, gives one part 
of it the appearance of a Dutch town. 

Amiens is remarkable in history for having been taken 
by an ingenious stratagem of the Spaniards, in 1597; ^^^ 
it was soon retaken by Henfy IV of France, in person. 
Here also the short-lived peace between France and Eng- 
land was signed in 1802. 

The name of Amiens is derived from the people called 
Ambianij of whom it was the capital in the time of Catsar, 
and is mentioned by him in his Commentaries under the 
name Samarobriva ; the Roman emperors frequently Tisited 
it, when they caniC'into Gaul. It has produced some emi- 
nent characters, among whom were Gabrielle tVEstries, 
the favourite mistress of Henry IV, Voiture, Peter the Her- 
mit, who preached the first crusade ; the famous botanists 
John and Gaspard Bauhin, the learned Ducange, and Eo- 
hault, an expounder of the Cartesian philosophy. 

Amiens is generally considered a cheap and pleasant 
residence, in consequence of which many Fnglish £gimilies 
of small income dwell there. The pates of Amiens are sent 
all over France. There is a small theatre in the town. — Inn : 
Hotel de la Paste. The -diligence - office and post-house 
are in the rue des Cordeliers. — The manufactures are linens 
and woollens; the latter employ 10,000 workmen. The 
genuine Picardy costume may be witnessed here on a 
market day, and will afford much entertainment to the tra- 
veller. The men's powdered heads and the women's gro* 
tesquc blue petticoats are remarkably striking. 

The country between Amiens and Breteuil consists in 
general of extensive fields, shaded with pear and apple- 
trccs. Agriculture is carried on upon a large scale herc^ 
and the soil is very fertile. 



lie roaiJ |>iocecils i1irgu{ili ^inl Denis tn I'ai 
3. Road by St. Omer and Ainien':. 



iV> PiKlS . . . 



^ 



'■1 



fourths of the distance, when we come to a very remarkable 
bridge, called sans-pareil, where the two canals from SC; 
Oiuer to Calais, and from Ardres to Gravelines, meet. A 
league and a half from Ardres is the small town of Guires, 
and between them the field of the « cloth of gold,* m 
called from the famous interview which took place there 
between Francis I of France, and Henry VIII of England. 
Ardres is a small but very strong town. The road does not 

Eass through it. Beyond Ardres the road and the country 
oth improve. 

SAINT OMER is a large dull town, containing aboal 
20,000 inhabitants. The only remarkable building is the i 
Gothic cathedral, which is worth visiting. The college pot* 
scsscs a library containing 20,000 volumes. 

AlBE, a very strong and neat town, contains about 6000 
souls. The hotel de ville, on the qrande place, has a- fine 
effect ; the church of St. Paul is a handsome Gothic struc- 
ture. The barracks can contain 6000 men. 

The road from Aire to Lillers is excellent, and diversified 
with numerous villages and verdant meadows, planted with 
fruit-trees. The same aspect of country, though occa« 
sionally hilly) continues to Doulens, which is remarkable 
for its citadel, one of the largest in France. Nothing worthy 
of notice presents itself between Doulens and Amiens. 

N<^ II. — Route from Dieppe to Paris. 

There are two routes from Dieppe to Paris. One by 
Gisors, 2o'/4 posts (about iii miles) ; the other by Rouen, 1 
22^1 posts (about 125 miles). The diligence takes the 
latter road. 

I. Road by Gisors. 

FROM POSTS. FROM POSTS. 

Dieppe to Bois-Robcrt. . . I'/a Gisors to Chars a 

Pommereval 2 Pontoise a»/4 

Forges ■ 3 Franconville i'/' 

Gournay 2'/' Saint-Denis 1'/' 

Gisors 3 PARIS > 

Posts 2o74 




[Env it ■ luKC baiuUomg urn of grcii miiqaity, » 
MHitk irftfae ri*i!T Arqaa, vhirh tocmt a long umw 
, tMnrccn rocki on ihe one nde, ind a quaj on the 
r. ft vu bomlunled and alouuE ileitroved by th« 
bb IB 1694. The ilrcru are iinii-bl aad* ihe Iwaw* 

iwWkit. 'The church ofSl. Jacqnei ii vonh a niit, 
lennrfrora ihe lower it eiuoiiie, and if prmiiuMin 
■il the eaille can be ubuiocd, ilie progpec:! it very Sat. 
priocipal Irade ifl in fith aod loya. TUift jjort h(!p)^ 
cr Pant iIud any iwlKr, ii ii frrquenied for letJu. 
|,»daBpplic«P*ni*ilha ureal quaniily of fiih. Uei- 
t «c*mU only can enier ihe hai>«ur, ihlps of iht line 

T are (n or ifuee good inn) on the ijuay; ihe ben are 
or*i boielf underthe arcadeBf aod thclluml Je l^ndrea, 
bj Priir. The coiiuiot, and particularly the beid> 
• oflhevonenai Dieppe iKeryimuular. The popa- 

ii an immenie Celiic eocaoipaient in ihe Gneitpre- 

HGES il celebrated for iu minenl waten, and ii BDch 

>OaNAT il in a fertile, agreeable coimlry, and il re- 

KdforiUlHiller. 

HOnS, on lUc Kiiall river Epic, ha* a population of 

>)oiili. A i-reii trade in iron it carried 00 here; ihe 

ch il decoraied with loperb vindow) of painted glaat 

CKnl amamcDIi in iculplure. Tht chateau of Giion 

taili by Philip Au<;iutui towardi ihe end of the twelfib 

iry, and il very curioni. 

IVrOlSF: oai fonnerlv i:etibraled for a Hron^catlle 

a hy tiraiaRCDi in i43S hy ihe KoMiah, under Lord 

[, lird CliFFord ordered hit niEn 10 poi their ihiritOTer 
dolhet, advance bclbt^ day.)>reBk cloie to the town, 
lie cooccaled in the *no«. Aa looD at ihe e^lc' ««<« 



There are two roads from Rouen to Pan's ; one called the 
high road, la foute d'en haulfhy Ecouis and Pontoise, whid 
is the sliortest; the other, tlie low road, or la route d'en has, 
which is hy far the most a;>reeable, and presents some of 
the most beautiful and picturesque scenery in France. It 
runs nearly the whole way along the side of the Seine. We 
shall first nolice the route d'en haut. 

FROM POSTS. FROM POSTI. 

Dieppe to Omonville ... 2 Ecouis to Thilliers . . . . s 

Totes I '/a Magny a 

Cambres i^/a Bordeau de Vigny . . . . i»/i L 

Rouen 2 Pontoise a 

Forge-Feret I'/a Franconville i»/i 

Bourg-Baudouin 1 Saint Denis i>/i 

Ecouis i3/4 PARIS 1 

Posts as^/i 

The road from Dieppe to Rouen is hilly, and the countjrf 
agreeable. It is enclosed, woody, populous, well cultivateo^ 
and much resembles many parts of England. 

ROUEN is an ancient town, hut the epoch of its founda- 
tion and the etymology of its name are unknown. It is one 
of the largest, richest, most populous, and most commercial 
places in France. It contains 81,000 inhabitants. It val 
formerly the capital of Normandy, and is now the chiel 
place of the department of the Seine Inferieure, has a coart 
of appeal and other inferior tribunals, and is also the see of 
an archbishop. Rouen is situated in a plain surrounded 
by hills, on the right bank of the Seine, over which is a 
curious bridge of boats, invented by a friar, which riiel 
and falls with the tide, and opens to afford a passage ftir 
vessels and ice in winter. It is composed of timber restinf 
upon 19 barges, and is about 33o yards in length ; it wal 
begun in the year 1626, and costs annually about 10,000 
francs to keep it in repair. Just below the bridge there it 
a celebrated ruin of 11 arches of an ancient stone brid^t 
built by the Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I. of Ei^ 
land. The streeu are in general narrow and crooked, and 
many of the houses are of wood. 



hii been cauhlislied from Havre lo Haotn. whirh uerrnrms 
llie voTafie in ,-ihoni i s hours ; iraverBmg a beaiiliful roun- 
tn. The eipenie of ihe coniepnce is less ihsn hy ihc 

ilAKFLI^dlt, on (he road lo Bolhet, is cvlehralcd in Enf^ 
lish hislury, for iis siejjB nnd ramure under Henry V. 

•■ " -' valley; the hcad-drel ' 



■rally e 



, .764. 



very considerable. 
: ittn has, lilt dittaiu 



i 



from Havre to Koueu, is through a fertile, rich, and pic 
turesque country.* 

Another road from Havre to Rouen, by Lillebonne and I „ 
Caudebcc is still more interesting, and occasionally pre ^^ 
gents magniBcent views of the windings of the Seine; but it 
is not always easy to procure horses. 

N** IV. — Route from Dunkirk to Paris, 

There are two roads from Dunkirk to Paris ; one by 
Amiens, 34 posts; and the other by Lille, SS'/a posts. 

I. Road by Amiens. 

FROM POSTS. FROM POSTS. 

Dunkirk to Bergues . . . i Aire 1^/4 

Cassel a'/a PARIS a;'/* 

Hazebrouck i»/a • 

Posts 34 

DUNKIRK, is one of the best built towns in France. It ii 
a league in circumference, and its population is nearly 
3o,ooo souls. Most of the houses are only one story in '* 
elevation. The champ de Mars is a large handsome sqiure, ^ 
surrounded by neat houses. In the midst of the plact 
Dauphinet planted with trees, is a bust of the celebrated 
mariner Jean Bart. The only remarkable building is the 
church of St. Eloi, in the front of which is a portico of tefi 
fine Corinthiau columns, in imitation of that of the Pan- 
theon at Rome. 

Dunkirk was one of the strongest places in Europe under 
Louis XIV ; but it was dismantled and its fort destroyed 
after the peace of Utrecht, in 1713. Its present fortifica* 
tions arc insignificant, but the new port can contain 4o ship* 
of the line, and there are two dry docks for building vessett* 
The Dunkirk roadstead is one of the finest in Europe, and 
its port was formerly one of the most frequented in Franci> 

The country from Dunkirk to Bergues is flat, but ridif 
and the road runs alongside the canal. 

BERGUES is a fortified and commercial town, with about 
4)Ooo inhabitants. In the church of 8t Winox are i4 
small pilasters painted on copper, attributed to Robert Van 

* For road from Rouen to Paris, sre pagexxx>i. 



1 b: farm, xli 

Boeef. A ppnwd ntad n amdamrM ihiomii » ricfc 'wodj 

jimed M^ the matt lofty bill in Flanders, it beiBtf abovt 
3lSolHl]ii|^ The view firoai it U parlMipt Bn>qnilMhy 
ssylidK world. 

like food firom Castel to Aire panet in tlie audst of 
fieUi, grores, and orchards. The groand appeact a com- 
jilete garden soil, and the coltiration c(»iiists of oleayioons 
and leigominoas planis, tobacco, hops, natural and artiicial 
■ cad o w s , aU kinds of fimit trees, and clui^»s of fine forest 
trees regnbrly cnt only once in 60 years. Cattle and hotter 
•re the chief produclioos. 

HAZEBROUCaL is a pleasant town, delightlolly lilnftted. 
^ contains a fine place, with a snperb hdtei d9 mile, adorned 
.irilh poriiooes siqpporting a Done colonnade of fret-aiooe, 
vfaidk is die oMire extraordinary, as, in ibis part of the cdoo- 
dry sione is as precioos as marble at London or Paris. This 
tvmi has two theatres, and abounds wilh wealthy inhabi- 



' v^ABE and- the remainder of the road throaah AaHOM to 
9Cibha*e been described.* 

3. Road by Lille. 



1 IMK POSTS. PBOM 

AiRiiaK to Bef^nes ... 1 March^4frf ot'to Fo&cfaes . 

ObmsI a*/' Roye 

laiilea! a7> Conchy-les^Ms 

Af snti^res I'/a Ca?illy 

lout a Goomay 

.hnt4-Marcq ' i^a Bois-de-Lihus 

"^ LT sVa COnc-Saiote-Mazeoce . . . 

kttboichenl ..... i*/^ SenHs .' 

LT i*/a La Ghapelle 

!*/> louvres 

1 */* Bonmt 

S .........3' PAntS * . . 

■wth^e-Pot ...... i*/a 




•A 



Posts 38 V> 

* See p. xzxiv^. 

[ T* Another rood from LiUe to Peronne it by Garvin, Lens, Arras, 
r ErriUefs, and Sailly. The amnber of posts it die same. 



The road from Dunkirk to Cassel is described at p. il. 

LILLE is a large strong town, situated on the Deule. 
It "was founded in the 17th century, on marshy ;»round, 
surrounded by -water, from whirh it derived its name. 
Most of the streets are regular and well built, particularly 
the rue royalcy which would not disgrace the proudest city. 
Its modern edifices display good taste, of which the most 
remarkable are the general hospital, the com magazine, 
and the h/kcl de ville. There is also a good theatre. At 
Lille great use is made of large dogs for drawing carts. The 
))opnlation is about 60,000 souls. The chief manufactures 
are soap, oil, lace, and woollen and cotton cloths. There 
are two inns, viz. the Hotel de Gand and the Hotel dt 
Bourbon ; the former is comfortable and commodious. 

The citadel of Lille is one of the 6nest and strongest 
in Europe. The town was taken by the Duke of Marl- 
borough, in 1708, and was severely bombarded by the 
Austrians, in 1792. ' Round Lille there are more than aoo 
wind-mills, which give it a singular appearance. 

From Lille, instead of following the road pointed otit, 
the traveller may go to Arras by Douay, a large, strong, 
handsome town, on the Scarpe, with 19^000 inhabitants. 

ARRAS, the chief town of the Pas de Calais^ formerly 
capital of Artois, is also on the Scarpe, and is an an- 
cient, \^r^,ty populous, and very strong town. The bar- 
racks, in the citadel, by Vauban, form a magnificent 
building. The town is handsome, most of the houses 
being built of stone, and several stories high. The 
squares are magnificent, and the two largest, which are 
contiguous, arc surrounded with houses in the Gothic 
style, supported by arcades. The cathedral is very large ; 
the pillars and architecture of the choir and transept are 
much admired, but the rest of the building is 'not equally 
elegant. The architect, it is said, died before the work 
was completed. There are seven parish churches. The 
public library is one of the finest in France, and contains a 
collection of ancient monuments of art formed daring the 
revolution. The walk on the glacis and ramparts is very 
pleasant, the manufactures are woollens, linens, hosiery, 
sugar, leather, etc. The inns are the Soleil d'Or and the 
Ix>ndon Hotel. 

SENLIS, on the small river NonettC) contains .^f^o^^i"' 



MKT PARIS. site 



riUbfe CBcept tbe catliedn>> *',« .^vimv w/ wludi ^ om 
<hcl%i»if W yjrtmeg. A^ ^eittt((eme« took place 
■•'la i8i'4» between Bhicuc« end fienerals VandUunnw 
if^CSte«d^. Tlie maDnfiuMnref are cduod, paper, laoa^ 
jtMMfe; H lias a celebrate«l manufactory of poreelaui 
ji WiJiii^'grooiHb. The inn is good. Noiniiifvo^ 
ti mdee pecnn lictween this pbce and tlie cnfiwi 

rV 'V.-^BmOefiom Ostend to Paris. 




&7. 



. . 3 'liLLk ........... a 

*. ."3«/» PAKIS. ......... isl 




Fotli S7*/b 

cbimdDt ia,ood'{tilkabittatt, and U a cttuMi^ 
ill die Netherlands, ^fh a |pM>d pbrt, iho^ 
ft'Uradbiftr datigerotfs except at high tiater.'llie 
ileam MMite to Ostend is nn ikdleif. llie'boitei 
are low, bat n^ell bnih, and the town^iiall,' eirMt«id 
is a handfeooie strnfcture. There is i canal from 
et. The inns are jrodd and cottiforrahle. Ottend 
ikle Ibr haYing endared, in the h^gimklnf; of die 
MttontH century; one of the loDgCst iieges recorded 
itililem history,' when it reMsted thie power of the 
for 39 moEfths, and at length cftpitulsted on 
te terms. Some fine tpecimens of the Fleroith 
sare to be seen here.-^Inn: Jfdte/fie/fevue. Between 
Jiittf: and London, a steam-packet, in which there is good 
ll^likodatiDn, runs twice a-week. 
JMH after leaving Menin, a toirnof ahont 6,000 inhabi- 
ih»*Ae road crosses the river Lys and enters the French 
niMiy by the dipartement du Nord, 6ne of thef richett, 

ii fc^ i miul ons, and^nost indnstribos inTrance.* 

- • ■• , . 

* For road ftoaa mie «a Paris, set fage «]iJ. 




Antwerp and Brussels, to Faris, 

FROM POSTS. FROM POSTS. 

Helvoetsluys to Brill . . . I'/j La Gerette to Toigiiics . . I'/i 

Rotterdam 2 '/a Mons 2 

Strycnsaas 3 '/a Boiissa i>|i 

Moerdyk 1^/4 Quievrain i»/| 

Cruyslaeste 2 Valenciennes i>/j 

Coin d'Argent 3'/a Bouchain a>/4 

Antwerp S'/a Cambray 9 

Mechlin 2^/4 Bonavy I'/i 

Vilvorde I'/a Fins i»/i 

Brussels i'/4 Peronne a 

Hal 2 PARIS . , i6*/| 

La Gerette i '/a • 

Posu 60^/4 



HELVOETSLUYS is a strong sea-port in the island o( 
Voom, and is the principal port for the English packett ^ 
from Harwich. It is a neat town, built on the banks ol 
the great sluice from which it derives its name, and tk 
harbour can contain the whole navy of Holland. 

The road from Helvoetsluys to Brill lies through • 
country resembling the fens of Lincolnshire, planted witb 
lofty trees, and interspersed with farm-houses. Brill is • 
fortified sea-port, and the capital of the island of Voom, at 
the mouth of the Meuse. The harbour can contain 3oo 
vessels, and the number of the inhabitants, who are mosdf 
fishermen or pilots, is about 3ooo. Brill was taken froB 
the Spaniards by the Dutch, in 1 673, and in it was then bid 
the foundation of the Batavian republic. It gave birth to 
the celebrated admiral Tromp, and to the vice-admiral de 
Wit. A coach and a boat start every day for RotterdaiDi 
and once a week for Amsterdam, the Hague, and SchiedaiB- 
The principal inn is the Golden Lion, 

To travel by land it is necessary previously to cross the 
ferry to Mauslandsluys. A boat, which conveys the coacht 
will take both passengers and carriages. From Mausland- 
sluys, a beautiful village, the road leads through meaddfi 
and corn-fields, and the country presents a perfect QV- 

• For road from Peronne to Paris, see page xli. 



\ 



f 



ROUTE FROM HELYOETSLUYS TO PARIS, xlv 



ujh 



. I 
. 1 



1 



. I 
. I 



broken leTel, like an immense roarth or bof^ drained by 

canals and ditches. The most pleasant way from Brill to 

lotterdam is to sail up the river. SchuytSj or jiassagc 

boatSi at very moderate fares, sail every tide at low water, 

K«r and reach Rotterdam in aboat three 6oiirs. The river, 

crowded with ships, presents at every windin^^ the most in- 

teresiin;; views. 

' ROTTEIIDAM, seated at the confluence of the Rotie 

^ and the Meuse, is second only to Amsterdam in size, iu 

the beauty of its bnildin{;s, and in commerce and riches. 

Its population is aliont 55,ooo souls. The streets are 

intersected with canals bordered with trees, and are deep 

enoufjh for the larf,est ships to unload at the doors of the 

warehouses. The finest street is the Boomquay, ezlendinf; 

icl I mile and a hatf alonj; the river. The cathedral is the 

— • only cliorch worthy of notice. The lirass balustrade, 

Hs 60 vhich separates die choir from the nave, is much admired, 

and the orjjan is very fine. There are 5onie handsome 

and! ttonumenis in this cliurch, and the view from the tower 

^skX^ includes almost the whole of South Holland. The statue 

nks : ^ Erasmus, in bronze, stands on an arch crossing; one of 

nd li ^c canals^, and the house in which he was born is still 

ihown. The Exchanj^e is a neat buildin(;. The mills for 

ii^h nwiiij; wood are numerous, and bcinf; hi{>h, and painted 

d wi. in a whim.Mcal manner, present a sinf;ular appe.'irnnre. 

ill is The best inns are the Boan Herrd, and the Marechal de 

ona, : Turenne. 

11 jJo The traveller may continue his journey from Rottenlam 
mosi^ * Brussels by posting;, the diligence, or the boat called 
T frcr TredcschuYt. A diligence starts for Antwerp every day, 
eu b< *^ treckschuyts set out almost every hour. The latter 
irth I >lford the cheapest and pleasaniest mode of convcvancc, 
iral c ^t the former is more expeditious. 

rdar ANTWKRP is surrounded by numberless villas .^nd 

eiLu prdens, which owe their origin to that lirilliant jx'riod 

^hen this city wjs the emporium of the commerce of the 

>5s tb *orld. In 1 568 it contained i5o,ooo inhabitants. It h.-is 

?oac: "o^ on^y 56,ooo ; but it is still esteemed the capital of 

sl.'>n- hutf-h Brabant. The numerous stately buildings, in the 

ado« ••Id Gothic style, which Antwerp yet contains, testify its 

n HI- hrmcr grandeur. The street called P^r<?rfe JVfer is almost 

unrivalled in its extraordinary breadth and length, the 

Mimptnousnets of its honses, and the splendour of every 



thin{> iQ Its ueighbourbood. llie city is in tlie form of a 
semicircle, and about seven miles in circumference. The 
Scheldt, ou which it stands, is 20 feet deep at low water, 
and vessels anchor close to the quays. The docks, arse- 
nal, and all the public works are on the f^randest scale. 
The citadel is extremely formidable. Bonaparte expended 
immense sums in improving the harbour and fortifications 
of this town. 

The cathedral contains some of the finest paintings of 
the best Flemish masters, and is one of the noblest struc- 
tures on the continent; its spire is 4^0 ^^^t high, and is 
beautifully carved. In the church of St.. James is a 
monument in honour of Rubens ; the painted windows 
also are much admired. In the church of the Dominicans 
are some valuable paintings of Rubens and Vandyke; 
the former of whom is buried there; and in the church- 
yard is a very remarkable representation of Mount Calvary. 
The church of St. Augustin also possesses some works of 
tlie same painters ; and in that of St. Walburgh is the 
justly-celebrated altar-piece by Rubens, called the Eleva* 
lion of the. Cross. 

The Exchange of Antwerp was the model of that of 
London. It cost 3oo,ooo crowns of the i6th century. 
The town-house is a noble edifice, entirely of marble. The 
public library contains i5,ooo volumes, but is not other- 
wise remarkable. — Inn: Hotel d'Jngleterre. 

Travellers not pressed for time may proceed from Ant« 
werp to Brussels by the canal. 

MECHLIN or Maunes, so celebrated for its lace, is situ- 
ated on the Dyle, and contains about 20,000 inhabitants.. 
The cathedral, 35o feet high, is a grand pile of building, 
begun in the 1 3th century, but not finished till the 1 5tn. 
There are some other churches worth visiting, as they 
all contain paintings by Rubens, Vandyke, and other 
great masters of the Flemish school. Near the Antwerp 
gate is the famous convent of the Beguines, the chapel of 
which is an elegant building, and contains some valuable 
pictures. The ramparts of Mechlin afford an agreeable 
walk. 

On quitting Mechlin, we cross the canal of Louvain, and 
pass through a level but luxuriant country to Vilvorde, the 
church of which is worth visiting. The carving of the 
stalls of the choir is not inferior to that of any cathedral in 



.' Tindal, the tmnslator of ibc New TenaneDl, 
. nartyrdom here m 1 536. 

KMt convenient and pleasant way froiii Vilvordc to 
is by the canal, the banks of which are nearly co- 
ith country-hoases aod pleasure- {jrouiids. The 
xnt palace of Schcenberg, of which the canal 
a complete view, will principally attract the stran- 
eotion. On approaching the city, we enter the ce- 
walk called lAlUe Verte^ composed of a triple row 
. on the banks of the canal. 

SEI^y said to be 7 miles in circamfercnre, is the 

f the kingdom of the Netherlands, and is situated 

river Senne. So long ago as the year 900, it had 

and was (mce surrounded with a stone wall, some 

iC which itill evist. A minute description of 

i city, of its edifices, and remarkable objects, would 

a volame. For an accurate account of both its an- 

id Dodem state, we refer the reader to '* Gatignn' 

weUer*i Guide through Holland and Belgium.' In 

e work will be found all the details the traveller 

ih respecting the field of Waterloo, which is 

ioe miles from Brussels. It was about the i3ih 

that John II, Duke of Brabant, commenced the 

in front of which there is a spacious square ; and 

if the gates of the park stands the pleasure-house 

order of Charles V. The turret of the Hotel de 

54 feet high, is an admirable specimen of Gothic nr- 

re, aud on the top is a statue of St. Michael 17 feet 

hich turns with the wind. The opera-house, and 

ice of Lacken are deservedly objects of interest. 

this city suffered much from bombardment, when 

itiful churches and 4^>ooo houses were burnt. 

is celebrated for its lace. The London Hotel is 

inn. 

■oad from Brussels to Hal, and indeed all the way 
^rench frontiers, is very beautiful. It is varied by 
ision of hills and valleys, which form a pleasing 
to the marshy flats of Holland and the open 
of France. The cottages, which appear at every 
the road, are clean and substantial, and the soil is 
ighcst state of cultivation. 

S, which contains 22,000 inhabitants, is built on a 
I marshy soil throujjh which the rivers Trouille and 



-J ' * --- , 

the latter is a fine building; the side altars are all of jasper, 
and there is a remarkable marble tomb. A celebrated 
battle (Jemappe) \vas fouf;ht near Mons in 1792. 

From Mons, the traveller may take another road to Pa- 
ris by Maubcuge, Lnon, and Soissons. 

Immediately after leaving Quincorain, the second post 
from Mons, the road enters France, and conducts us to 

VALENC1ENN£S) a town containing about 3o,ooo inha- 
bitants. It was founded by the Emperor Valentine in 867* 
who invited criminals to come there in order to people iu 
It is large and strong, pleasantly situated on the Scneldtn 
and possesses q citadel by Vauban. In 1798, it surreiH 
dered to the allied army, undfr the Duke of York, after > 
vejry severe siege. The historian Froissard and the pain- 
ter Wateau were born here. It has manufactCNries <^ 
lace, woollens, etc. The best inn is the Pot d'Etain. 

BOCJCHAIN has nothing to recommend it to QOtice 
but the strength of its fortifications. 

CAMfillAY, though a very ancient town, with about 
1 4,000 inhabitantK, possesses no remarkable edifice 0r vfkOn 
nument of art worthy to detain the traveller, exd'ept the 
cathedral and the new abbey church, so celebrated for iti 
pictures, in imitation of bas-reliefs, by a painter of Antwerp. 
The remains of the virtuous Fenelon were once deposited 
in the old cathedral here, which is now puUed down. It 
had formerly many convents, and among them one of Eng* 
Ush nuns. Its manufactures are lace, linen cloth, cambrid} 
and soap. The best inn is the Grand Canard. 

SAINT QUENTIN contains about 11,000 inhabitants, 
and has very extensive manufactories of linen, lace, and 
cambrics. The cathedral is a fine Gothic building. 

From CUVILLY, the traveller may turn off to Com- 
piegne, a fine royal palace with a noble forest,* from 
whence he may proceed to Paris instead of following the 
direct road indicated above. 

■ * See Environs of Paris. 



( ^l^ ) 

SECTION IV. 

Arrival and Sojourn in Paris. 

VliduB two or tbree days after reaching Paris, the 
travellrr should present his temporary pass)»ort at the Prc- 
fcnure of Police, when his original one will ho returned. 
If he purposes to make only a short stay in the French 
capital, hy having it countersigned immediately, and the 
peit place he intends to visit specified, future trouble will 
kt avoided. If he proposes to remain for a considerable 
9mt at Paris, the original passport can he left at the Pre- 
lactare of the Police till within a few days previous lo 
departure. Many travellers leave tJieir passporu with the 
keeper of the hotel, who for a small fee takes the trouble 
^K>a himself. In his excursions through Paris, the tourist 
voald do well to carry his passport about him, as it will 
odtcvin him admission to several museums, and is convenient 
in case of emergency. 

Travellers will iind, in every part of Paris, comfortable 
l>djiagi_ which may be had by tiie night, week, or month ; 
Im in the great hotels apartments are seldom let for less 
ckiB a week. In the spacious and elegant hotels in the 
fiahiooable quarters of Paris, the charge for apartments 
il high, but in the faubourgs, and the interior of the 
dty, it is moderate. Lodgings in general in Paris are 
lat so dear as in London. An agreement should al- 
vap he made (even for a single night) previous to taking 
aj^rtments in any hotel ; the price of a bed-room for one 
light varies from 3 to 5 francs. We would particularly recom- 
mend travellers to have an agreement in writing, with the 
fiourietors of the bouses where they lodge, with respect 
(0 the notice usually required upon quitting, as they will 
thereby avoid disputes. 

Furnished apartments may also be had in private houses, 
nd ilirre are several boarding-houses upon different scales 
<>f charge, both French and English.* Unfurnished apart- 
ments may also be easily obtained, but seliiom for a term 
I'M than three months. Furniture may be procured from 
wpludstcrers, or purchased cheap, at second-hand shops. 

* For \}e%t hotels and boarding-houses, nee Paris Directory. 



"who iniend to make a long stay in Paris. 

In whatever hotel the traveller may fix himself, it is not 
necessary that he should take his meals there ; if he pays 
for his apartment, it is all that is required. He may either 
hreakfast and dine at a cnjc or restaurant , or order what he 
pleases to he sent to his own room. There are (jenerally 
coffee - houses, and restaurateurs and traiteurs in the 
neighbourhood of every furnished hotel, from whicli a 
stranger may be supphed with every thing he needs. But 
it is more advantageous for a single person to resort to the 
restaurateur's for dinner, though a family or a party are 
often well served at home. The restaurateurs and traiteura 
charge more for the dinners ihey send out than for those 
served at home. 

To an English traveller no hotel in Paris offers 90 many 
advantages as Meurice's hotel. No. 223, rue St. Honore. It 
is situated in a fine and agreeable spot near the palace and 
garden of the Tuileries. Apartments may be had by the 
day, breakfasts are served in the coffee room or in private 
apartments, and visitors may dine at the table d'hdte or if 
their own rooms. A list is presented to every stranger 
which contains the charge for every article, seinrants, etc 
The bill is sent in every week ; the linen is washed thref 
miles from Paris with soap, and not beaten or brushed as ii 
the custom generally in France. The greatest regularity 
prevails in forwarding and delivering letters, and informa' 
tion of every kind is furnished. From the first of Novembei 
until the end of May, Mr. Meurice makes arrangement 
with single persons or families, as boarders by the day 01 
by the montn, eithet* at the table d'hdte, or in their apart* 
ments, wine and every thing included, except wood, wbid 
they are at liberty to purchase. He also lets lodgings wilhoa 
board by the day, week, or month. In tliis hotel there is ai 
office for changing money ; and confidential couriers, inter 
preters, return carriages for Calais, Boulogne, and all part 
of the Continent, etc. may be obtained. 

HOURS FOR MEALS.— Before the revolution, when tw< 
or three o'clock was the latest hour for dinner, the Freod 
seldom ate a regular breakfast, but contented themselve 
with bread atid wine, or some fruit. But- during the las 
3o years, men of business in Paris having multiplied greatly 
the mode of living is entirely changed. A substantia 



SOJOURN IN PARIS. Il 

4, called dejeuni it laJmtrcheUe, is roiiimoDly takrn 

ten and twelve, and the dinner is put off till six or 

fn many families, tea is taken at ten or eleven 
It ni{;ht. 

S.—^afis abound in Paris, particularly in the prin- 
•ctsand die boulevards. It is impossible to conceive 
leir number, variety, or elegance, without havinf; 
:m. In no other city is there any thing to resemble 
and they arc not only unique, but in every way 

for convenience and amusement, 
ig a more domestic or les4 gay people than the 

one tenth part of the number would not find sup- 
>at in Paris many are crowded to excess, and almost 
veil frequented. 

e are Parisians, and many strangers, that lounge 
early the whole of the day in cafes, of which there 
least 2,000, without reckouiog as great a number of 
rior order. 
I places is the difference of character between the 

and the French so fully displayed as in these 
In London, the parties in the cofPee-honses are 
id select ; except those near the Royal Exchange, fre- 
l by men of business. In Paris, all classes mix together, 
■sconverse with each other, some play at dominoes, 
:id the newspapers and periodical publications, and 
up their colYce, drink' their sugar and water, or 
'leir glass of lemonade or liqueur. Every one who 
s greeted by what the English tourist would call the 
d, but which the Frenchman regards as the pre- 
livinity of the ])lace. Attired in :i most elegaut 
: and frequently adorned vridi jewels, she occupies 
ited seat, where, amidst the fulsome compliments of 

and the gaze of vulgar eyes, she directs the servwc 
reives the money. A Frenchman would deem it 
e to omit taking off his hat and paying his respects 
tow, both on entering and departing. Ladies, as well 
tiemea, frequent the cafes to lake refreshment. 
tei'S are active and attentive, and as the charge for 
rticlc is generally presented in a printed bill, the 
r is not liable to imposition, 
lar dinners are not generally served at die coffee- 

as in London, but at most of them may be had 
I d la fourciiette, either hot or cold, at which all 



nished. 

The Cafes^ as well as tbe dininf^-rooms oF the restaiira^tas 
are not divided into boxes as in England, but the whol 
room is thrown open and small tables arranf,ed round it 
Tbe effect produced by the numerous map,ni(icent object 
with which the Cafes are adorned is very striking. Statue: 
vases, time-pieces, columns, and lamps, multiplied to thou 
sands by immense mirrors, mingled with the variou 
groups of different nations distributed round the room, er 
joying their respective luxuries, form altogether an impoi 
ing scene. Nay, even the lowest Cafes, to which "we d( 
scendby a dirty flight of steps, are embellished with ntirror 
vases, etc. which, contrasted with the shabby furniture, prt 
sent a most extraordinary appearance. 

In the Palais Royal there are subterranean haunts whet 
the stranger, if he ventures to enter, should be npon h 
guard against the designs of the courtezan and the picl 
pocket. 

I'he charge for refreshments is nearly the same in al 
They give tea at all the coffee-houses. 

When Caje Estaminet is written up, it implies that smol 
ing is permitted. 

In frequenting such places, it is prudent to avoid poUtici 
matters. 

The following are a few of the principal cafis :— 

Cafedes Mille ColonneSy Palais Royal. (See page 175). 

Caje de FajTy Palais Royal. (See page 17G). 

Cajede laJRegence — This is a very old established hotisi 
in the Place du Palais Royal, famous for chess-players, 
was the favourite resort of the celebrated Philidor, who : 
the game of chess was without a rival. It was also fr< 
quented by Jean Jacques Rousseau, and other distinguishc 
men. Although the most celebrated chess-players are no 
dead, interesting parties are formed who pass hours at tl 
game in profound silence. 

Cafe HardL, Boulevard des Italiens. — Noted for breal 
fasts, and much visited by men of business of the high* 
orders. 

Cnfi de la Rotondcy Palais Royal. — (See page 1 76 ). 

Cafi de la Paix^ Palais Royal. — (See page 176). 

Caja TorUmi, Boulevard des Italiens. — This Cafe is rel 
brated for ices, and as the rendezvous of fashionables, pa 



CAF^. RBSTAnRATEURS. Hll 

ticalaily in the summer. Persons of the haul ton flock 
toTortoni*s after the opera to take ices. The ladies fre- 
quently have tliem brought to their carriage. In the even- 
ing, this cafe is the resort of speculators in the funds. 

Cafe Laiter^ corner of the rue ile Rivoli and the rue 
Castiglionc. This is an excellent restaurant, and ranks 
with the first houses of the capital. 

Cafe Hardy, Boulevard dcs Ilaliens, corner of the rue 
d*Artois, is a restaurant of considerable standing and 
respectability. This house has acquired a repatali«)n for 
firo«, when ordered beforehand. 

Cafe de Paris, corner of the Rue Taitboul, boulevard 
des llaliens.— Nothing can be more splendid than the 
interior of this establishment, which was o])ened in i8a3. 
Its situation is most happy, and dinners are served here 
in a very superior style. The proprietor of the Cafe Tor* 
loni was so cleenly affected at its being opened, that he 
cut his throat with a razor. 
Cafe Turc. — {Sec Jardin Turc, page 663.) 
Cafe de la Bourse et du Commerce, Rue Vivienne, at 
the corner of the rue desFilles St. Thomas, kept by Mor- 
aet. — This establishment is much frequented by theEng- 
lisfa, and is the resort of good company. The refreshments 
are of excellenl quality. It possesses'a billiard room kept 
by Charrier, the most skilful player in Parisj and takes 
in Galignam^s Messf.ngf.b, and the Londor and Paris 
Obsfaver. Breakfasts, hot and cold, and dinners, at 
home or abroad. 

Cafe des Cinq Sultanes, Palais Royal. — (Sec p. I'rG.) 
KtfSTAURATEURS and TRAITEURS.- Formerly, pri 
vileged persons alone could keep eating-houses in Paris. 
In 1765 a cook freed the public from this restraint, and 
! having prepared a room for refreshments, placed over the 
I door the following parody of a passage of Scripture: 
'! '* Venite ad me omnes qui stoniacho laboratis, ct ego re- 
stnunibo vos." — This attempt was successful j and afler- 
j wards, when the revolution brought many strangers to 
I Paris, and the domestic habits of the Parisians were al- 
tered, these establishments increased every year, and arc. 
now to be found in all parts of Paris. In llie restaurants 
there is generally presented a bill of fare called la carte, 
with the price oF every article, and some of these bills 
contain upward* of 3oo dishes. 



cabinets particuUers, in which two friends or a party 
mav <!ine in private. 

To become acquainted with the best dishes, a little 
practice is required ; but to the novice "vre "would recom- 
mend, in choosing his wine, to order P^in Ordinaire, 
unless he desires to have that of the very best quality } 
for, generally speaking, the intermediate wines are hardly 
to be distinguished from the common table- wine. 

'Yhe gourmand mdLy dine in Paris much more luxuri" 
ously than he can in London for the same charge. Be- 
sides the principal and second rate restaurateurs, where 
the dinner is a la carte, there arc other houses where 
dinneis arc served for a fixed sum per head. At the best 
of these houses a plentiful dinner, including wine, may 
be had for a francs. 

To give an idea how luxury and economy may b^ 
combined in this Capital, it is only necessary to observe, 
that at several of these eating-houses, where the price is 
lixcd at so much per head, soup, 3 dishes at choice, a 
desert, bread, and a portion of wine, may be had for 
ai sous. Nevertheless, we would recommend to those 
who wish to eive such houses a trial, not to order the 
made'iS\sh.eSy for obvious reasons. 

There is also another class of cooks in Paris, caviled 
'^raiteursj or Petty Restaurateurs, whose principal bu- 
siness is to send out dishes, or dinners ready dressed to 
order. A family residing in lodgings, or at an hotel, 
will find it the cheapest mode to make a bargain with the 
traiteur, to be supplied for a fixed period, with acertain 
nnmber of dishes daily, at any hour agreed upon. A per- 
son may also dine at these places, bui it is not consi- 
dered comme iljaut. 

A good English house is kept by Tilbrook, 17, rue Le- 
pblletier, facing the French Opera house. 

The Restaurants are nearly as numerous and as splen- 
didly adorned as the Cafes. To the latter it is cust 
ternary to retire immediately after dinner, to take a 
dtmi-tasse of colfee and a petit verre de liqueur, instead 
of !(ittiiig over the botde, as in England. Coflee may 
however he had at the restaurants. 

For Restaurateurs, sec Paris Directory, 



READING ROOAIS, ETC. Iv 

In fXiDcIudingf 'we caanot help advertinf; to the alitunl 
prejudice stilL prevalent in England afjainst the nativrt of 
France, for eating frogs, \?hich is deemed by the Knglith to 
be a mark of poverty and wretchedness. Tlie truth is, that 
the French do eat fricasseed frogs, which are of a peculiar 
kind, fattened in a particular manner, and of which it re- 
rpiires a great number to make a small di»h, as the thighs 
only are used for that purpose. They are an acknowledged 
and ciquisite laxury, and are rarely to be met with, on ac- 
OMintof the excessively high price. 

READING ROOMS AND CIRCULAXINO LIRRARIKS.-^ 
Thertare many establishments of this kind in Paris ; but thr 
Bost distinguished and most frequented by Frenchmen and 
foreigners, particularly Englishmen, is that of Messrs. Gali(;- 
Bani, No. i8, rue Vivienne, which is conducted on a mont 
extensive scale. The reading rooms are spacious anil 
handsome, decorated with maps, and are well liglited and 
sired. The tables are covered with all the periodical publi- 
cations worthy of notice ; the newspapers of America, and 
erery European nation, pamphlets, monthly and qiurterly 
nagaxines, the army and navy hsts, etc. etc., and upwards 
of 30,000 volumes in the English, French, IiaUan, German, 
amd Spanish languages. Contiguous to the rooms is a largi- 
garden, for the use of the sid)scribers. 

The philosopher, the politician, and the student, may 
bere enjoy their favourite pursuits, whilst the victims oi' 
ennui mak-Y pass their hours with ]>leasure and advantage. 

The Circulating Library of Galignani, which is conspi- 
ruous auiong several in Paris for the best selection and 
{greatest number of volumes, is the only one where English 
iiooks are to be found. The subscription to either of 
these establishments is by the fortnight, or month. 

STREETS OF PARIS.— The streets of Paris were first 
paved under Philip Augustus, but until the reign of Louis 
XIV they were obstructed by heaps of rubbish, dung, and 
ordure, which had been collecting for ten years against the 
vallt of some of the houses. Since that perioil, they 
have gradually improved, but still are very dirty during 
the greater part of the year. The old streets in general 
are narrow and crooked, but those of modern date are 
v'ide and handsome, and if a project of the Count de Clia- 
f»rol for improving them be carried into execution, they 
»ill be unequalled by those of any city in Europe. 



It was not till the year 1728 that the useful plan was 
adopted of placiog tl^, names of streets and squares in a 
conspicuous situation ; and the names then {>iven to them 
remained without variation till the revolution. Previous 
to that period, there was scarcely a street in Paris that had 
not changed its denomination several times, and these 
changes generally had their origin in some fiivolous cir- 
cumstance, such as the name of a distinguished personage, 
or a singular sign which excited the public curiosity, 
or an extraordinary event that had occurred in them. Ser 
veral streets derived their name from their habitual Hlthi- 
ness, others from the robberies and murders committed 
in them, and others from being haunts of debauchery. 

The traveller will find it useful to pay particular atten- 
tion to the system of numbering the houses in- Paris, which 
is far sufierior to that of the British capital. Every street, 
quay, and boulevard presents on one side a series of even 
numbers; whilst on the other, the series of numbers is 
uneven. The streets parallel with the course of the Seine 
are distinguished by red inscriptions and numbers, and 
the series of numbers begins at the most elevated point of 
the river. In the streets perpendicular to the Seine, 
I he numbers are black, and the series begins at the 
point nearest to the river. 

Until the reign of Louis XVI, Paris was lighted during; 
only nine months of the year, and then never except in 
the absence of moonIip,ht. That monarch decreed its con- 
tinuance during the whole year ; as in London, it is lighted 
by lamps with reflectors, but in Paris they are mostly 
hung in the middle of the street. The number of lamps in 
Paris is between 5 and 6,000. Lighting by gas has been in- 
troduced into a great number of Cafes and shops, but is not 
generally adopted for the streets. 

SERVANTS. — In almost every furnished hotel there are 
servants who may be hired for a month, fortnight, week, or 
day. The charge is geuerallY4 or 5 francs a day, as they 
.find themselves with every tning. They are called La- 
tfuais de Place. 

GOMMISSIONNAIRES.— Porters, under this name, are 
found at the corners of all the principal streets. Letters or 
parcels of any kind maybe safely entrusted to them, and their 
charges arc moderate, varying according to the weight or 



DILIGENCES, ETC. Ivil 

ihe (^stance, from lo sous to 20; but a bargain should al- 
ways be made. 

INTERPRETERS.— There arc in^aris iaterpreten of 
ererr language in Europe and the East, and ofKces held by 
tmiilUtors s^t^orn before the poh'ce. 

DILIGENCES. — - Diligences, or stage coaches, For all 
nrts of France, vill be found at the Messagt'rws Royoles, rue 
Notre Dame des Victoires; but, as it sometimes occurs that 
all the places in these are previously engaged, or that the 
hours of departure are not convenient, -we here give a list 
of that and other of^ces where public conveyances may 
be found. 

Calais. — ^There arc two coaches to Calais daily, from 
the Messageries Royales^ rue Notre Dame des Victoires, in 
vhich passengers may be booked to London. The first 
Harts at 9 o'clock in the morning, and performs the jour- 
ney in ^o hours; fares inside to Calais, 4-^fr-; to London, 
Sjfr. Outside to Calais, 35fr. ; to London, 65fr. The se- 
cond leaves at half-past five in the afternoon ; fares in- 
tide to Calais, 4ofr. ; to London 82fr. Outside to Calais, 
3ofr.; to London, 6ofr. This diligence passes one day by 
Amiens and St. Omer's, and the other by Amiens and Abbe- 
ville. A third coach called L' Hirondelle, leaves the Hotel 
des Fermes, Rue du Bouloy, at nine o'clock in the morning, 
and arrives at Calais in 3o hours; fares inside to Calais, 4<)fr. 
and 45fr. ; to London, 85fr. and gofr. Outside, to Calais, 
S.'ifr.j to London, 65fr. 

DiFPPE. — A coach SI arts for Dieppe, by Ronen, every morn- 
ing froru the Hotel des Fermes^ rue du Bouloy, at six o'clock. 

i Fares to Rouen, i2fr. and i5fr., and to Dieppe, 'iHfr. 

i and 23fr. A second coach, /e* JumelleSy leaves No. 9 rue du 
Bouloy, every evening at seven; fares to Rouen, lofr. i2fr. 
and i5fr. ; and to Dieppe, i6fr. i8fr. and 53Fr. A third 
starts from the rue de la Jussienne every evening at six 
o'clork ; fares, igfr. and ^afr. Two coaches set out 
from the JSlessngeries Royalcs, rue Notre Dame des Vic- 
toires, one at six in the morning, and the other at six in 

I the evening ; fares to Roiicn, Bfr. lofr. and i2fr. ; and 
lo Dieppe, I'Mv. i6fr. and 2ofr. 

RouKN. — A diligence starts every evening at seven, from 
the Hotel des Gaules^ No. 11, rue Coq Heron ; fares, 
'ofr. lafr. and i5fr. Three diligences start fromNos. 19 and 



21, rue de la Jussienne, oue at six in the raoming; fB 
another at six in the evening, and the third at elcYeii F 
at night ; fares, lofr. lafr. and i5fr. 

Havre. — There are 5 coaches to Havre, >iz. 2 

Hotel des Fermes^rue du Bouloy. — Every morning at six; - 
fares, aafr. and 27fr. i 

Lcs JumelleSy No. 9, rue du Bouloy. -^E\ery evening at , 
seven; fares, 2ofr. 22fr. and 27fr. 

Messageries Resales. — Every evening at six; fares, i4fr« 
i6fr. and i8fr. 

Rue de la Jussienne (two roaches). — One at half 
past six in the morning, the other at six in the evening; ' 
fares, 22fr. and 27fr. 

Boulogne. — Union coaches at 4 o'clock, daily, No. i3, 
rue de la Jussienne ; fares to London, including sea pas- 
sage, Gofr. 77fr. and 82fr. 

The following list will be found useful : 

Rue du Bouloy, No. 22. — Voitures for Caen, every day. 

Rue de la Jussienne, No. 21. — Diligences for all Nor* 
mandy. 

Rue du Bouloy, No. 24. — Voitures, every day, for Of' 
leans, Blois, Tours, Saumur, and Fouiainebleaa. 

Rue du Bouloy, No. 24. — Messagerie de CEclair. Voi- 
tures every day for Amiens, Lille, Dunkirk, Brussels, Ant- 
'wei'p, Amsterdam, Dort, Rotterdam, Liege, Maestridit, 
Aix-Ja-Chapelle, Cologne, Coblentz, Frankfort, etc. 

Rue des Vieux Augustins, No. i3. — Diligence for 
Amiens and Arras. 

Rue Contrescarpe St. Andrd des Arts, No. 5.— 'Diligenceit 
every day, for Orleans, Blois, Tours, Saumur, and Fon- 
tainebleau. 

Rue du Faubourg St. Denis, No. So. — Diligence for 
Compicgne, Seulis, Pontoise, Nanleuil, Chateau-Thierry, 
Chantilly, etc. 

Rue des Fosses St. Germain I'Auxerro's, No. 26.— 
Diligences for Chartrcs, Vcndomc, Tours. 

Rue Git le Coeur, No. 6. — Hdtel de Toulouse, Veturinos 
for Lyons, Geneva, Avignon, Marseilles, Nice, Mont- 
pellier, Nismcs, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Bayonne, and all 
•Soutliern France, Lausanne and all Switzerland. Turiiiy 
Milan, Home, Naples, and every part of Italy. 

Hue Git le Coeur, No. 11. — ndtel Muntauban. Cac^ 



JIN FOft TIEWINO PARIS IN A WEEK. Ixi 

B ciOled ParisienneSf Condoles, Celenf&res, Veloci' 
^Miinmce^ etc. They are very convenient. It is 
iM ■ ulace in them beforehand. 
ES DE HAUTE^EINK.— Passage-lMiafs called 
wu, are esUbluhed on the upper part of the river, 
' tniTeltert to any village or town on the hanks of the 
Uarne, and into Champagne or Rurgundy. Their 
« OD the quat Dauphin, He Saint \jo\\\9. No. 6. 
ont frcHB tne Porte Saint Paul, No. 8, at 7 in tVc 
in the tammer, and at 8 in winter. They travel 
very slowly, and seldom have good company on 

1.^-A boat 10 called formerly went every day in 
at to o'clock, to Saint Cloud, from the Pont Royal. 
i|^ laiu about two hours, and costs about 16 sous. 
nly goes daring the fetes at Saint Cloud in the 
if oeptCMber. A steam boat also carries passen- 
t. Cioiidatthat period. A very amusing descri)>- 
lif eicnnion has been published, entitled Voyage ik 
mdpar mer, et retour par terre. 



iQl to leaTing Pans, the traveller must send his 
to the British Ambassador, No. 89, Rue du Fau- 
. ilonore, to be countersigned. His Excellcury 
f between i r and i . It is tlieo carried to the Pass- 
le. Prefecture de Police, where it is likewise couu- 
. Here he is recommended to lake the passport 
tore to the office of the minister for foreign affairs, 
A des Capucines, where a fee of lofr. is demanded ; 
itter formality is not necessary, and by omitting to 
of lofr. is saved. Some trouble may be avoided 
■ tfacaaatter of the hotel to transact every thing rc- 
jbe paitport for departure. 



FOR VIEWING PARIS IN A WEEK. 

Oft convenient mode of visiting the curiosities and 
Hidings in Paris, is, to go to those succefsivcly which 
tmuwarrmub'ssement. The PanoramicMap annexed 
Mind of the utmost use, as, at a glance, the si ranger 

h 



PIAN FOR VIEWING PARIS l.N A WEEK. 1x1 

ThcM are called Parisiennes, GondoloSy Celerif&res^ Felori- 
fires, VEspiranve, etc. They are very ronvciiicnc. It is 
beitt CO take a |)lare in them beforehand. 

COCHES DE HAUTE-SEINK.— Passage-boats, railed 
caches tteau, arc established on the upper part of the riv«;r, 
to couvey travellers toany villaf^eortownonthcbanks of the 
Sfcine or Marne, and into ChampagDc or Burgundy. Their 
offices are on the quai Dauphin, He Saint l^uis, No. 6. 
They set out from the Porte Saint Paul, No. 8, at 7 in tVc 
morning in the summer, and at 8 in winter. They travel 
however very slowly, and seldom have good company on 
board. 

Gatiote. — A boat so called formerly went every day in 
summer, at 10 o'clock, to Saint Cloud, from the Pont Itoyal. 
The voyage lasts about two hours, and costs about 16 sous. 
It now only goes during the fetes at Saint Cloud in the 
month of September. A steam boat also carries passen- 
gers to St. Cloud at that period. A very amusing desrri]>- 
tion ofihh excursion has been publishea, entitled Voyage a 
Samt'Cloud par mer,et retour par terre. 



Prerioos to leaving Pari.s, the traveller must send his 

Kassport to the British Ambassador, No. 89, Rue du Fau- 
onrg St. Honore, to be countersigned. His £xccllen(!y 
signs only between 1 1 and i . It is theu carried to the Pass- 
port Office, Prefecture de Police, where it is likewise coun- 
tersigned. Here he is recommended to lake the p»ss})urt 
for signature to the office of the minister for foreign affair.s. 
Boulevard des Capucines, where a fee of lofr. is demanded ; 
but the latter formality is not necess.nry, and by omitting to 
go a sum of lofr. is saved. Some trouble may be avoided 
by leaving the master of the hotel to transact every thing re- 
lative to the passport for departure. 



PLAN FOR VIEWING PARIS IN A WEEK. 

The most convenient mode of visiting the curiosities and 
public buildings in Paris, is, to go to those successively which 
areint1iesameaiTirmdi55ement The PanoramicMap annexed 
will be found of the utmost use, as, at a glance, tho stranf^er 

I- 



mny ascertain ihc local conti^yuity of the various places 
worthy of notice, an.4» consequently, form the plan of his 
daily tour with the least possible trouble, and at a (^reat 
savin{v of time. To aid him still further in the prosecution 
of this method we shall here insert a list of the principal 
buildin(;s and establishments, classed in their respective 
arrondissemens. 

First Jrrondissement. The Pont des Invalides or de 
FEcoIe Militaire, the quai de Billy, the manufactory de la 
Savonnerie ( carpets ], the Cours la Reine, the Steam 
Engine of Chaillot, the quarticr de Francois I, the triumphal 
arch de I'Etoile, the Institution de St Ferine, the Champs 
Elysees, the Jardin fieaujon, the Palace de TElysce Bourbon, 
the stables of Monsieur, the HopitalBeaujon, thePepiniire 
du Hoi, the Church of St. Philippe du Roule, the Abattoir dn 
Roul^, the Park of Mouceaux, the Barracks de la Pepini^e, 
the expiatory Chapel of the rue d'Anjou, the residence of 
the British Ambassador, the mineral water ^aths of Tivoli, 
the Jardin de Tivoll, the royal College de Bourbon, the 
Church of St. Louis, the Panorama of the Boulevard del 
Capucines, the Column of the Place Vendomc, the Church 
de la Madeleine, the Gardc-Mcublc de la Couronne, the 
Place Louis XV, the Pont Louis XVI, the church de I'At- 
somption, the Barracks of the tjardcs a pied, the Palace and 
Garden of the Tuileries, the triumphal Arch of the Place da 
Carrousel, the Pont Royul, the grand Gallery of the Louvre 
or of the Museum, the King's Stables, the Theitre du 
Vaudeville, the Stamp Oftice, the Chateau d'Kau de la PUce 
du Palais Hoyal, the Stables of the Duke of Orleans. 

Second Arrondissemcnt. I'he Church of St. Rorfa, die 
Marchc St. Honore, the Palais Royal, the Theatre Fran^aii, 
the Boyal Treasury, the Royal Lottery OfKre, the Biblio- 
th^que Royjlo, the Italian Opera House, the new Exchange, 
the Theatre Fcydeau or de I'Opcra Comique, tlic PanoraiDM 
of the boulevard Montmartrc, the Theatre des Varietrfs, 
the French Opera House, Frascati's Gaming House, tlic 
Tht^atre Favart, the Chinese Baths, the Abattoir Mont- 
inartre, the Barracks of Clichy, the Jardin du Delta, the 
Gaz Establishment, the Church of Notre Dame de Lorctte, 
the lotendance des Thciitres Royaux, the church of St. Yin- 
rent de Paide. 

Tlvrd Arrondissement. The Church of St. Eustache, the 
Marchc a la Viande, the Place des Virtoires, the Statue of 



i 



finieli, ibc Theiir^ <lu Fanorania tJrainalique, Ibe Jinlui 
Tun. 

Sivenlh Anandissemenl. The Ponl au Chance, the 
Pom Noire nime, ilie Hydraulic Mictiidc of lh« Pom 
Noire Dame, ihe Cliurrh of Si. Merry, ihe TrLhtinal of 
CoKimerte, ilic Lmheran Cliureh. ilit Jewl' S)oaB'>G''*. 
ihe Church of Si. Franroii, ihe Palais Jo Artiiive., the 
Mom de Picle, ilie Church de6 Blanct Manieam, the 
Royal PrinlLnn-Oflice, the Prison de la Grande Force, ih 



e Forci 



Foniai 



Eijhlh __ 

ihi^ Place Royale, ihe Ponl du Jardin 
Emit del PonUel Chan >! eel. the Hoipicei 



I Plau 



tlie Marche Beauvcuu, the Hopital St. Antoine, the Piii 
Glass Manafactory, ilic Barracks of Popiucourt, theChur 
uf St. Ambroise, the Abattoir de Popincourt,! the Cem 
tery of Pere Lachaise, the Church of St. Margueri 
the Barrier du Trone. 

Nhitli Arrondissement. The Boulevard Bourdon, t 
Gare de 1' Arsenal, the Fontaine de TElephant, the Pla 
de la Bastille, the Greuier d'Abondance, the Arsenal, t 
Biblioth^que de Monsieur, the Pont de Grammont, the B; 
racks des Celestins, the Barracks de I'Ave Maria, the Po 
Marie, the Protestant Church de la« Visitation, the Chur 
of St. Louis, the College de Charlemagne, the Church of • 
Gervais, the Place de Gr^ve, the Hotel de Ville, the Bihl 
theqne de la Ville, the He St. Louis, the Church of St. Lot 
en I'llc, the Pont de la Cite, the Archbishop's Palace, t 
Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Hotel Dieu, the Pout 
Double, the Petit Pont, the Morgue, the Marche a 
Fleurs. 

Tenth Arrondissement. The Mint, the Institute, t 
Pont des Arts, the Church of St. Germain des Pr^s, t 
Military Prison de I'Abbaye, the Hopital de la Charii 
the Fontaine de Crenelle, the Church of St. Thoii] 
d'Aquin, the Hotel des Gardes du Corps, the Palace 
the Legion of Honour, the Palace of the Chamber of E 
puties, the Palais Bourbon, the Church and Barracks 
Belle Chasse, the Royal Snuff Manufactory, tlie Steam K 
gine of the Gros Caillou, the Hospital of the Roi 
Guards, the Church of the Gros Caillou, the Ch.tc 
de Mars, the Ecole Militaire, the Chateau de Grenel 
the Civil and Military Gymnastic School, the Abatt< 
de Vaugirard, t\ic Hotel des luvalides, the Church 
St. Val^re, the Hopital de Madame Meeker, the H6pi 
des Enfaus, the Hospice des Incurables Femmes, t 
Hospice des Mdnages, the Abbaye aux Bois, the Barrac 
de Babylone, the Church and House des Missions Etra 
g^rcs. 

Eleventh Arrondissement. The Cour des Comptes, t 
Pont St. Michel, the Sainte Chapelle, the Palais de Justi< 
the Prefecture de Police, the Place Dauphine, the F< 
taine Desaix, the Pont Ncuf, the Statue of Henry IV, t 
Marche des Augustins, or a la Volaille, the Ecole dc N 
decinc, the Fontaine d'Esculape, the Marche St. Germa 
the Church of St. Sulpice, the Seminary of St. Sulpi< 



PARIS NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES. 



mi draoiaiic mielligence. TJuan the press becaiaini; free, 
in 1789, a |>real Dumber of daily papers -vie r* publiahed, 



Heme. Wh<:n 
vit as tifior- 
■r of ihc p"li- 



restnraiion tlie number vras augmented, hut the ceniorshi 
continued to he exercised with greater or less severity. A 
length the censorship 'was abolished, hut no politics 
journal could appear without the special authorisation c 
the government, and such as abused the liberty of tli 
press were hable to he prosecuted and suppressed. By ai 
ordinance of August i5, i824} the Censorship was renewed 

NEWSPAPERS. 

Galignani's Messenger .{bji English Newspaper), pub 
lished every morning at 6 o'clock ; for 1 5 days, 5fr ; boi 
month, gfr. 5oc ; 3 months, 25fr ; 6 months, 46fr. — Adver 
tisements received. This is the only English politica 
journal published on the continent. 

Tlie Weekly Register, a Sunday paper, i4fr. 3 months. 

OfiQcc for both these Papers, i8, rue Vivienne. (See Prospectu 
at the commencement of this work.) 

Moniteur Uniuersel, aSfr. for 3 months. No. 6, ru 
des Poitevins. 

Journal de Paris, i8fr. 3 m. ii, rue de la Monuaie. 

Journal des Debats, i8fr. 3 m. 17, rue des Pretres Si 
Germain IMuxerrois. 

Gazette de France, i8fr. 3 m. 5, rue Christine. 

La Quotidietvw, i8fr. 3 m. 3, rue Neuve des Bon 
Enfans. 

Le Constitutionnelf i8fr. 3 m. lai, rue Montmartre. 

Journal du Commerce, i8fr. 3 m. 10, rue St. Marc. 

Courrier Francis, i8fr. 3 m. i4» rue Tiquetonne. 

Le Drapeau Blanc, i8fr. 3 m. la, rue des Filles St 
Thomas. 

L'Aristarqve, i8fr. 3m., 12, rue des Filles St. Thomai 

VEtoile (evening journal), i8fr. 3 m. 33, rue Croix dc 
Petits Champs. 

Le Pilote (evenipg journal), i8fr. 3 m. 8, me de I 
Sourdi^re. 

La Pandore, i5fr. 3 m. i5, rae du Faubourg Mom 
martre. 

Le Diable Boiteux, i5fr. 3 m. 3, rue Joquelet. 

Le Corsaire, i5fr. 3 m. 4> i^e da Faubourg Montmartre 

Courrier dies Spectacles, i5fr. 3 m. 167, rue Moni 
martre. 



Balklin de la Sodile d'En'oiinvitmfnt pour fladustrie 
\alii«ale, monllily, Hiiiard, 7, luc dc miwron. 

^hrcul■e rfii ig"' Sik:U, Journal Liiicraire, pubUtheil 



niais, mnodify, 35fr. a ytir, 11, nic de la Monnaie. 
Joiiniil General de rimprimene c( ilc U Librairie, everij 

tranijere, mrmthly. 



lial General de la Lilt 
y»r. 17, rue JeBourl 
•inl antral de ti Lim 



Archives du Christianisme, 6fr. a year, 6, rue de TOri 
(oire. 

Journal GSndral de Meddciney monthly, a3fr. a yea 
Croulfebois, rue des Mathurins St. Jacques. 

Gazette de SantCy every lo days, i8fr. a year, Golas, 3 
Rue Dauphine. 

Journal des Sciences Medicales, monthly, agfr. 6 d 
Crevot, 3, rue de fEcole de Me'decine. 

Journal de Pharmacie, monthly, 1 5fr. a year. Colas, 3 
rue Dauphine. 

Journal de Guitare, monthly, i6fr. a year, Meitsonnle 
i^, rue Montinartre. 

Journal d' Euterpe y ou Nouveau Journal du Chan 
monthly, i3fr. a year, Garaude, io8, rue St. Honore. 

Journal des Savons, monthly, 36fr. a year, 17, rue c 
Bourbon. 

Annates de V Agriculture Francaise, by Tesster, diontU' 
aSfr. a year, Huzard, 7, rue de I'Eperon. 

Annates de Chimie et de Physique, by Gay Lnsia< 
monthly, 34fr- a year, Crochard, 3, rue de Sorboime. 

Amnales de Mathdmatiques, monthly, a 1 fir. a year, Coui 
cier, I a, rue du Jardinet. 

Journal Militaire, monthly, 3ofr. a year, Magiteel, < 
rue Dauphine. 

Journal des Dames et des Modes, every 5 days, ^fr. .H n 
de la Mesang^re, i83, rue Montmartre. 

Petit Courrier des i)am«5, eyery 5 days, gfr. 3 m. a5, n 
Mesl^e. 

L'Obseruateur des Modes, gfr. 3 m. 179, me Mm 
martre. 

%* Subscriptions received for all the above Papers at Galigntni 

Library, 18, me Vivienae. 



!:• 11! (Til ) " LAKKJAL'UtXLH, rue dc la SourJi^rc. 

IIAI.Y (h,! CI C. RODIN.SOS, rue Je Pro-encc, No. jfi. 
ll.WILUER (Jn CI Ui ] ei C",rue Basse dii Reuiiian, 

hl.CHAl-EAL'nOL'GE el O' , rue Je la Micliodiire, 

\l'\ti:l!ni.\L (Louis), place de) VicioLrcs, No. 5. 
DIl.lXiEHTclC-.rucCoqHftun, >o. .*. 
I>M.1SLV: Cniiiinas). rue Blaoi:he, Ko. 3. 
DKSCBA.VGEScil'KLLKNtJFlLM, ruBdesMoulius, N.>, ly. 
liKTCUfXlOYKS (J. L. B.), rue Niuvc <\n Cajiuciois, 



DUMOUSTIER (E.), rue des Fosses Montmartrc, No. 8. 

DURAND (L.), rue Caumariin, No. i. 

FABAS (Louis) et Cie , rue Lepelletier, No. i8. 

FOULD (B. L.) et FOULD OPENHEIM, rue Berg^rc, 
No. lo. 

G08SWE1LER (Freres) et Cie , faub. Poissonni^re, No. 5. 

GUEBHARD (Louis), rue de la Michodiere, No. 8. 

GUERIN DE FONCIN et O* , rue de Grammont, No. 17. 

HaGERMANN, rue d'Artois, No. 7. 

HOTTINGUER et O' , rue du Seniier, No. 20. 

LAFFITTE (Pre.) aine, rue St. Lazare, 79. 

LAFFITTE (Jacques) et C«, rue d'Artois, No. i3. 

LAPANOUZE (Cesar de), rue Paradis, Poissonni^re, No. 4a. 

LEFEBVRE (Jacques) ct C« ,rue de la Paix, No. i. 

LEROLX (J. A.), rue de I'fiehiquier, No. S5. 

MALLET (freres) et O* , rue de la Chaussee d'Antin, 
No. i3. 

MARTIN D'ANDRlfi et FILS, rue Chantereine, No. 54- 

MECHIN (Bo«), faub. St. Martin, No. 88. 

MEJAN (Laurent), rue Taitbout, No. 17. 

MENDELSSOHN ET FRANCKEL, rue St. Georges, No. 4. 

MEURON (C. F.) et C«, rue Basse du Rempart, No. ai. 

NOUALHIER (Ve.) et C«« , rue Pavee, St. Andre, No. 16. 

ODIER (Gabriel) et C*'« , rue de Provence, No. 19. 

OPPERMANN MANDROT, et C'S rue St. Georges, No. a. 

OUTREQUIN (F.J.) et JAUGE, rue Neuve du Luxem- 
bourg, No. 29. 

PARAVEY (P. F.) et C«, rue Paradis - Poisjonniire, 
No. 21. 

PERIER (Frferes) et C«« ,nie Neuve du LAixembourg, No. 27. 

PICTET (P. J.), rue de la Michodiire, No. 8. 

PILLET-VVILL et 0«, boulevard Poissonni^re, No. 21. 

RECAMIER (Jacq.), rue Basse da Rempart, No. 48. 

REY (Camille), rue Thevenot, No. i5. 

RIB0LTT6, rue Taitbout, No. i5. 

ROBIN-GRANDIN et 0« , rue St. Joseph, No. 6. 

ROLLAND (Nicolas), rue Cadet, No. 26. 

ROTSCHILD, Freres, rue d'Artois, No. 9. 

ROUGEMONT DE LOWENBERG, rue Bergftre, No. 9. 

SAILLARD (Armand), rue de Clichy, No. 70. 

SARTORIS'D'ESGHERNY et Ci<,ruede la Chaust^e (TAn- 
tin. No. 32. 



KKS, ruedel»Piii,So. :n. 
.Lll':it, rue de Itivoli, No. \<;. 
IGKRS, rue Vivjeone. ^D. 'i. 
>E. nicdc RiDhdieu, No. loi). 
>K B.ITKLIERK, rue Grange llBlcliere, No, i . 
m. nii^ ilu Helder, Nu. o, near the boulevard, 
hr MuUine FiTZ-P<it>icK. EnnliiU i< spolon. ! 
inis and Hiiicii dF upailnKnti, cImuiIt Furniilicil an 
rkabJv clean. BreakfaEli uiul duiniin are »[ved. il 
red. ■ 
l\l>i':, rueilclaPaii,h'D. iG. 



a-niontn. DreaKrast, or tea or coirec, irr. losous; a new 
egp, 5 sous ; ham or tonpue, i5 sous; a beef-steak, ifr,; 
mutton-chops, ifr. ; a plate of soup, losous; bread for di 
4 sous. Dinner may be had d la carte, or at 5fr. per ! 
without wine. Wine per bottle: Macon, ifr. losous; Bei 
3fr.; White Reaunc, 2fr. ; Bordeaux, ifr. i5 sous, and 4fr. 
Champagne, 6fr. ; London porter, ifr. 5 sous; tes, ifr. 5: 
demi-tasse of coffee, lo sous; a small glass of brandy, 5 : 
and of liqueur, 8 sous and lo sous. 

ILES BRITANNIQUES, rue de la Paix, No. 5. 

LONDRES, rue du Mont Thabor, No. i3. 

LONDRES, rue de I'Echiquier, No. i5. 

MAIL, roe du Mail, No. 28. 

MARS, rue du Mail, Ne'. i4- 

MEURICE, rue St. Honore, No. 323. 
For particulars of this excellent hotel, see p. I. 

MONT BLANC, rue de la Paix, No. 24. 

MONTMORENCY, rue St. Marc, No. 12. 

NEliSOM. rue Neuve St. Augustio, No. 44. 

OXFOBD, rue Godot de Mauroy, No. 3. 

PAIX, rue de la Paix, No. 10. 

PARIS, rue de Rivoli, No. 52. 

PRINCE PONIATOWSKI, rue Clery, No. 26. 

PRINCE REGENT, rue Si. Hyacinthe St. Honore, No. 

PRINCES, rue de Richelieu, No. 1 1 1 . 

RASTADT, rue Neuve St. Augustin, No. 49- 

RHIN ET MOSELLE, place Vendome, No. 4. 

RICHELIEU, rue Neuve St. Augustin, No. 3o. 

RFVOLI, rue de Rivoli, No. 26. 

SINET, faub. St. Honore, Nos. 52, 54. 

SUfeDE, rue du Bouloy, No. 3. 

TERRASSE, rue de Rivoli, No. 5o. 

TOURS (Grand), rue Notre Dame des Victoircs, No. 32 

Situated near the public walks and theatres. Suites of room 

single rooms, elegantly furnished, on moderate terms. B 

fiists and dinners served in the French and English style 

warm and cold baths ready at any hour. English spoken. 

VENDOME, rue Neuve des Pctits Champs, No. 76. 
VIVIENNE, rue Vivienne, No. i4. 
WAGRAM, rue de la Paix, No. 9. 
WINDSOR, rue Neuve St. Augustin, No. 5-j. 
YORK, boulevard Montroartre, No. 12. 



rmcT Ijtms, 5, rue dr CiMigliont. 
mtErt (Baron), Priwipil Surf-con lo ihc Durhni 
iil«nie mil ilie Dachru at Brrry, and Head fiur- 
ibe H£tel Dicu, 4. Plarr da LouTrr, ani) 37. 



MAS, 8. 


me de Mon 


stem 




<D, Hen 


Tie TaranDe 


,fir.tP), 


vsician 10 (he Ho>|<ii:il 


ifarySorgeo 


n, 4fi, r 


ue .le Richelieu. TI.e 


deSinli 


, .., Grand. 


: mede 


Chailloi.ii under 1I1.T 


a of M. 


LaroDd, CO 




wiiK M- Dutal, wh« 


TLt 


? tpoi. Thi 
■be eapilal 


1, ii ad, 


idimenl, onh ten mi- 


"G-J*" 


> and fine a 




ery favourable 10 (he 




regDaal lad 




Hnd il an anreeable 


' K.lJf 


Dt>d ha> pro 


Ted hy liii Traile dcs Ihntits. 


e™.) ind by lie perfectio 


n of hi. French and 


■T/c^o 


1, that he . 
iim to Sur{ 


licd'An 


rj;"^«,.-at. 


him 10 t 


■ffert iBvera 


i radiea 


I curei opou chilJreii 

I I and he liai been 


«lhai 




irlj nictsssfal ia case) of 




1 Llom, 


•i£Lt. 






lodbcd. 


I_(raie 1 


>in>ple .-.d iigeuLou., 



cester, sells all kinds of English Patent Medicines, partici 
larly those of Savory and Moore. Also the dep6t of Henr^ 
Magnesia and Aromatic Vinegar. Drugs of the best qui 
lity. Physicians' prescriptions carefully prepaA*ed. 

SURGEON-DENTISTS. 

Desirabode, 1 54, galerie de Pierre, Palais Royal. Mr. 1 
extracts teeth, and operates on those of children with gre 
skill. His artificial teeth are highly approved. 

Dubois de Chemant and Son, Dentists to their Majc 
ties the Rings of France and England, inventors of tl 
incorruptible mineral paste teeth, or terre m4talUquey 
rue Vivienne. At home from eleven till three. 

DuRnUTHT, inventor of a new process for fixing sing 
teeth or complete sets, 27, rue dcGrammont. 

Marmont, member of the Society of Medicine, and inve 
tor of the patent Esthiomenief a process which immec 
ately stops the cariosity of teeth when it begins to fori 
This operation, which prevents the teeth being too mu< 
diminished by the use of lime, causes no pain, and 
performed by M. Marmont alone, who has been habi 
uated to perform it since 1807, 7, rue Beaujolois, Pern 
du Palais Royal. 

Theaclt, 1 5, rue Vivienne, Member of the Faculty 
Medicine, and authof of several ingenious means relative 
dental mechanism, which were exhibited at the Louv 
in 1823. His inventions are shown at his cabinet, whe 
he may be consulted upon all diseases of the mouth. 

ENGLISH ATTORNEYS. 

Allen, i4, rue de Grammont. 
De la Grange, 27, boulevard des Italiens, corner 
the rue de la Michodiere. 
Mills and Gunning, 12, rue du faubourg St. Honor^. 
Sloper, 12, place Dauphine. 

DRESS AND CORSET-MAKERS. 

Benoist (Mad.), 33, rue Neuvedes Petits Champs. El 
gant and fashionable ball and court dresses. 

Heutte (Mad.), 20, rue de Richelieu. This lady 
distingnished by the perfection of her work, and the el< 
gance of her taste. 



LINEN-DRAPERS AND SU.K-MERCERS. 

UARDtnoui, 90. rue St. Hoiiore, tells all kiuds of .<lk 

^oDils, nrinled calicoei, woollen clolhs anil kerscvmcrL't. 

siJk anJ coiiOD hose, ihavh, ccarh, liamlkercliidi, linen 



nl or linen clolli, ibee< 

cry kind of fancy anirle 



DuRAND (Mile.) and Co., dealers in lace, cambric and 
linen drapery in general, i8, rue Vivienne. 

DuRAND {au Bras (VOr), 3j and 38, nalerie du Cafe 
de Foy, Palais Royal, sells silk goods, sha^^ls and fancy 
articles, and makes gendenien's clothes, douillettes, mnn- 
iles, Pelisses and Spencers. 

A LA FiLLE Mal Gab dee and Au Diable Boiteux, 9 and 
II, rue de la Monnaie. This warehouse is mudi fre- 
quented by English ladies. It contains a large assortment 
of silk goods, shawls, linen cloth, cambric, etc., at fixed' 
prices. 

Gaillard {Aux PrMendus), 8, rue de[^a Paix, This 
house has been distinguished since its first establishment, 
for a large assortment of goods, reasonable prices, ancf 
making no abatement. It has always for sale an extensive 
selection of silk goods, scarfs, handkerchiefs, cambrics, 
silk hose, fancy articles, etc. 

TAILORS. 

Barde and Go. [Musde de la Mode), 8, rue Vivienne. 
This house enjoys a high and merited reputation, and die 
articles are of the best quality and newest fashion. 

Baron, caUed Martin Baron and Jcft, 10, rue Vi- 
vienne. 

Deguelle BiLcoT, 8, rue de Richelieu, near the Th^4tre 
Fran^ais. 

Froger, 1 5, boulevard desltaliens. Coats in the newest 
French or English fashion; uniforms, riding-habits, etc. 
This is an excellent house. 

HuMANN, Successor to M. Hoffmann Renard, 5, rue 
des Filles St. Thomas. 

Laroux, from Stultz*s, London, 8, rue de Castiglione. 

Lehr, from Stultz's, London, 22, rue de la Paix. 

Lenck, 4> rue du Mont Thabor. 

Manche (L. M.), 255, rue St. Honor^. 

Sentis and Son, Woollen Drapers, Tailors, and Habit 
makers, 5, rue Vivienne. 

BOOT AND SHOE-MAKER. 
Ashley, to the Ring, 16, rue Vivienne. 

HATTER. 

Chervv, 20, rue Fevdeau. 



ITIIOLSTJ:liKHS.— iHlO\Zi:ASDOTIlF.llOHNAMESTS. 
Le<.ir.K (,; rVmnn rf™ Jr(i), ■x, rue r.rii.j;.: Iliiuli^rc, 
i-orncr ul iIk' l.t>ulvu»nl. ■■■ lliis Hari^liuiisv h an eituiiBivR 
isMitiiactitul'iiialiuipny unit other furnilurv, lironici, liniG- 
|>iccL'S, ronilelalirKB, vaiu, luUm, laukiii{i,-f,liHea, flain- 
\,vuK. |i(ire('l:iin. (ibjctn of art and ciiriosily, oiati^rialu fiir 
li:mi-Wi];s, cH'. »luu.i» pckcil. anJ win I" any ilimancc. 



Highness the Duchess of Angouleme, and several so- 
vereigns, II, boulevard des Italiens. This establishment 
is one of the most extensive and distinguished in Paris. 
In the show rooms may be seen daily a large collec- 
tion of the newest and most fashionable articles in furni^ 
ture of every kind, plain and inlaid ; bronzes, time-pieces, 
and every article of fancy and curiosity. M. V. sends 
packages to England almost daily, and corresponds widi 
Simon and Lightly, i23, Fenchurch Street, London. 

ViBERT, upholsterer, 86, rue de Richelieu. 

Werner, upholsterer and bronze dealer to. her Boyal 
Highness the Duchess of Berry, and his Majesty tne 
King of Bavaria, 1 26, rue de Crenelle, fauJiourg St. Ger- 
main, manufactures all kinds of furniture of foreign and 
indigenous wood, hangings, looking-glasses, carpets, 
bronzes, and lustres. M. W. proceeds to any country to 
receive orders and take plans for furnishing ; and charges 
himself with the safe delivery of goods at the place of 
their destination : his connections enable him to send 
packages at a low charge, including duty. 

N. B. M. Werner has fitted up the mansions of Messrs. 
Hope, Baring, and La Bouchere, of London, and has been 
honoured with extensive orders from England. 

ENGRAVING AND PRINT-SELLERS. 

Charles Constans, No. 5, rue Ncuve St. Augustin. This 
office for lithographic printing is unquestionably the best 
in France. Of this artists are so fully persuaded, that the 
finest and most valuable productions are printed here. La 
Joconde, La Danad, the portraits of M. de Chateaubriand, 
and M. de Seze, by Messrs. Girodet and Aubry Lecomte ; 
the prints of Hero and Leander by Messrs. Girodet and 
Dassy ; and the interior of Michael Angelo's house, clearly 
jirove that the most costly productions may be confided to 
this press. To convince amateurs that they may find at the 
ddpot of M. Constans fine lithographic prints, it is suffi- 
cient to mention the beautiful productions of Messrs. Be- 
ranger and Zwezinger, and tne landscapes of Messrs. 
Robert and Wanmark, and other paipters of the royal 
manufactory of porcelain at Sevres, to which the artists 
/ just named, as well as M. CoNSTANSy are attached. We 
understand that M. GoRSTANs will commonicatc his process 
10 English getttlemen, upon terms to be agreed on between 



STATIOSERS. 

RhDii,, lo, racVivieniic, sells F,nj]li8li wriiiiie |iaj" 
ncv paper. |iiiriliilio», pw'hci-bnokK. vfriiiiiQ-dc^LSf a 
ory anil Ic in Halioncry of llie hesl <[nalilY. 
ClMUi,i>, Siaiinner to tlic Kiri|-. ihr Dukr at Orli-:.i 
,cl ihe Ministers of llic.Finanecs, War, ilic Marii.c, e 
*;, eorner of llie rtic il'Orldans, and J iB, ru.- Si. Houo 
;iT lilt Talais Itoyal. 



(le la Rc'gence. This house has a well - merited repu- 
tation. 

OPTICIAN. 

Chevallier (the Chevalier), i, Tour de riiorloge du 
Palais, opposite the Marche aux Fleurs, Optician to the 
King and the Royal Family, inventor of the " sight pre- 
server,** author of the Essai sur I' Art de ClngSnieury and 
inventor of the Opera glasses called acUniques and the 
iso-centrical glasses for reading, writing, and seeing from a 
distance, for which patents were granted to him. To 
this celebrated artist, the sciences are also indebted for the 
invention of sun-dials for different latitudes, the mechani- 
cal barometer, the Saccharometer, and the Galametcr ; 
and the execution and perfection of the ariomhtre centi- 
grade of M. Bordier Marcet ; the Gleuco-aeoometer, the 
Galactometer, and the Cafeometer contrived by M. Cadet 
de Vaux ; the chemical Polymeter, and the small'alembic 
for the essay of wines, invented by M. Descroizilles 
(Bronze Medal, iSaS). M. Chevallier was honorably men- 
tioned by the jury of the late exhibition at the Louvre, 
for his various instruments ; but his celestial and terrestrial 
telescopes of from thirty-two to forty-two lines, marie of 
French flint-glass, particularly attracted their attention. 
Messrs. Arago, Biot, and Breguet, expressed their uocpiali- 
fied approbation. Several object glasses of 5 inches not 
being finished, could not then be put to the test. 

CUTLER. 

Carter (the only English cutler in Paris), 24, rue de 
rOdeon, manufacturer of all kinds of cutlery, surgical in- 
struments, various apparatus for the relief and cure of 
every species of deformity, patent and other trusses, back- 
boards, monitors' collars, horticultural implements, etc. 
English soaps and fancy articles for the toilet. Cutlery 
carefully repaired. 

JEWELLERS. 

Levy, 18, rue Vivienne. An extensive assortment of 
jewellery of the newest fashion, and a fine collection of 
curiosities. Several languages spoken. 

Mellerio and Son (commonly called Meller and Son), 33', 
rue de la Paix, jewellers to her Royal Highness the 
Duchess of Orleans. 



i: and Ddvu. iaaz Awis del Arts), galcric dc 
Pausge dc rOpera, lioulnard dei Italieni 

A at thR fim floor). Sketchei, ihadcd drairin{;i, 

:, oil peiniinn of the mDdern irhaol, academical 

id liihograiduc coDfciions of all kiadi. plain and 
Otgecu of an, picture! cleaned, framed, etc. 

leloni fiir copying. 

FEMCING-MASTERS, 

ND (Jonior), Feaciiw-niasler 1o the Xing'! boaie- 

rne Poi»oDnitre. 

r (MjlTHIEd), FencinK-mailer to the Gardei-du 



>. Galigna 

n, Italian and French Mailer, ], rue du Lycce, 
'alaii Royal. . 

N,(Mad.) Iialiao and French, Ceogrspby, Hiitory, 
adilreii apply at Henn. GaUfinani'!. 



Williams, English Master. For srddress apply to Messrs. 
Galignani. 

NOTARY. 

Narjot, 77, rue St. Anne, corner of rue Nenve St. 
Augustin. 

APPRAISER AND AUCTIONEER. 

BouLE, Theoflore, 16, me Vivienne, appraises fdrniture, 
and other effects, -with the greatest exactness, and sells by 
auction upon decease, departure from Paris, etc. 

MINIATURE PAINTER. 

SiEURAC, 56, rue de Seine, faubourg, St. Germain. The 
beautiful portraits of Moore and Washington Irying, pub- 
lished by Messrs. Galignani, are engraved from his minia- 
tures. Mr. S. gives lessons in drawing and miniature painting. 

MONEY-CHANGER. 

Emerique, late English partner of Salmon and Co. ao, 
Galerie Richelieu, Palais Royal. The only English office in 
Paris. Bills on England cashed on moderate terms. 

RESTAURATEURS. 

Bbauviluers, a8, avenue de Neuilly. 
BiFFi, 98, rue de Richelieu (an Italian house). 
Boissier, 83, galerie de Pierre^ Palais Royal. 
BoRREL, au Rocher de Cancale, 61, rue Montorgeuil. 
Cbampeaux, 1 3, rue des Filles St. Thomas. 
Chauchard, 6, rue du Hazard Richelieu. 
Dunn, an English house, 9, rue Vivienne. 
Grignon, 4j rue Neuve des Petits Champs. 
liAVENNE, 336, rue St. Honor^. 
Lemardelat, too, rue Richelieu. 
Lemelle, 5, passage Montesquieu. 
Lenglet, successor of Beauvilliers, 26, rue de Richelieu. 
Lointier, 6, rue Grange Bateli^re. 
Martin, au Veau aui tette, place du Ch^telet. 
TiLRROOK, an English house, in, rue Lcpelletier. 
Very, 83, galerie de Pierre, Palais Royal. 

BOARDING-HOUSES. 
(For address of the best, apply to Messrs. Galignani.) 



, me VJTieiiDe. GeDuiii« Madeira (imported 
id oiher foreiga viaci, Frencb winci, a large 
of ^een and black teas at very moderate pricei. 
itobiui keep! a general agenry-allice Tor ihe 
f Foreieneri, and he givei eTery neceiiary in- 
ir the greatest ecanooiy in tbeir eiptnset. 



TEA-DEALERS AND GBOCERS. 

e Tea. 



, lo, rue Si. Marc-Ferdeau. Grauine 
hoase haa been eitabJisned iipwordi of ty 

^a-deaiei to hii Serene Uigbnei) the Duke of 

'iKBOT (Cii» of Lnndon], 107, rue Monlmarlre. 
e Bad old establiihed home for lea, coffee. 



1 pecco, iifr, 10 i5fr.; hywn, 6fr, lo lofr.; 
and inperial, lofr. 

ITAUAN WAHEHOUSE 



Rounds of beef, briskets of beef, and neat's tongues, 
pickled d I'anglaise, constantly on sale. English families 
may place confidence in M. Cbeval. 

PASTRY-COOKS. 

Douglas (from London), English pastry-cook, 36, rue 
de Rivoli. Established in 1816. 

Michel, English pastry-cook and biscuit baker, 4, rue 
NeuTe du Luxembourg. 

DYER AND SCOURER. 

SouuER, English dyer and scourer, 10, rue Neuvc du 
Lnxembourg. 

SEEDSMAN AND NURSERYMAN. 
Tripet aine, 1 3, bouleyard des Capucines. 

COACH-MAKERS. 

BuGLEL, 5, rue P^pini^re. 

Morton (from London), 5, rue du faubourg St. Uonore. 

H0RSE!^DEALERS and LIVERY STABLE KEEPERS. 

Bryon, from Park-lane, London, 28, Grande Rue Verte, 
faubourg St. Honore, lets cabriolets, gigs, horses, etc. 

Dra^e, boulevard andhdtelde la Madeleine, lets horses, 
carriages, etc. 

BATHS. 

Bains Chmois, kept by M. David, boulevard des Italiens, 
at the comer of the rue de la Michodicre. A complete 
bath, including a fond de bain, a combing-cloth, 6 to^rels, 
and a dressing-gown, is 3fr. Do. "when 6 tickets are taken, 
2fr. 10 sous. Do. when 12 tickets are taken, afr. 5 squs. 
A bath without Hnen, ifr. 10 sous. Do. by taking 6 tickeU, 
ifr. 5 sous. The charge for a bain de voyage (a bath 
generally taken after a journey), in addition to that for the 
complete bath, is 4^'''. 10 sous: For a bath of perfumes, 
called the Toilet of Princes, the additional charge is i5fr. 

Bains de la Botonde, Palais Royal, facing rue Viricnne. 
This new establishment is conducted with the utmost clean- 
liness. The charges are very moderete. 



:s was apprehended. To llicjr fortress ihey 
l)ic name ol' Lutece, and ihcmseJvtS assumed 
oi Pa.-isii, which most probably whs derived 
I ibeir contiguity to the country of the ScnonM, 
,vord /lar auil inr bcin;; synonyjiious, and sig- 
mgfronlier. Aceoidiiiy to this derivation the 
!*ii would be dwellers on thefrontier. 
uon the conquest of Gaul by Julius Casar,hall' 
ntury before the Christian era, he found the 
isii one of the siMy-four tribes of llie Gallic 
federalion, wliose chief town was Lntire. Tin- 
id, covered with rude huls, wa? derendcil )'y 



the waters of the Seine, over which there were two 
bridges. The banks of the river were covered with 
gloomy forests or extensive marshes, and the inha- 
bitants; who were remarkably fierce, employed 
themselves in navigation and fishing. 

Caesar convoked at Lutece an assembly of the 
Gallic tribes, to consult upon their diversified inter- 
ests. Shortly after, being obliged to return to 
Italy, the Gauls endeavoured to shake off the 
Roman yoke. A league, into which the Parisii 
entered, was formed against the conquerors, and 
a general revolt broke forth. Labienus, Cajsar's 
lieutenant, presented himself before Lutece, and 
was twice repulsed; but having made himself 
master of Melun and the banks of the Seine, he 
descended upon the Parisii, The latter set fire to 
their fortress, and, with Camulogene at their head, 
awaited upon the adjacent heights the attack of 
the Roman legions. An obstinate and bloody 
action ensued, in which the Gauls were compelled 
to yield to numbers and superior military skill. 
Camulogene and many of his brave men perished, 
and those who escaped fled to the adjacent forests. 

Caesar rebuilt Lutece, fortified it with walls, and 
defended the approach to it by two forts at the ex- 
tremities of the bridges. The ferocious divinities 
of the Gaiiis were then exchanged for Roman su- 
perstitions, and human blood ceased to flow upon 
the altars of the Druids. Jupiter was worshipped 
at the eastern exU'emity of the island; Mars had a 
temple at Montmartre; Isis was adored atlssy and 
upon the site of the abbey of St. Germain desPris3 
and Mercury had a temple upon the Mons Leuco- 
titiuSf now called Montagne Ste. Geneviipe. The 



According to a legend of ibe monksof St. Denis, 
the gospel was first preached at Paris, about ttie 
year 25o, by Si. Denis, the areopagile, who suffered 



jrljrdom upi 
igoorant where 
scmbHcSibutas 
a chapel, cledic 



the hill of Moutmartr 

[he first Christians held their as- 
early as the reign of Valentinian J, 
ittd to St. Stephen, was erected 
here the cathedral of Kotrc Dame 
stands. The Franks conqncicd Paris in the 
48ti;and, twenty- two years after, Clovis made 
e scat of his empire. Upon the conversion ol 



this monarch to Christianity, he built a church 
which he dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, but 
which shortly after was placed under the invoca- 
tioa of St. Genevieve, who died in his reign. Chil- 
debcrt built the abbey of St. Germain des Pres and 
the church of St. Germain I'Auxerrois. 

Under the kings of the first or Merovingian race 
the bounds of Paris were considerably extended j 
but the arts, laws and literature, introduced by the 
Romans into Gaul, fell into decay, and the civili- 
zation of the Parisians retrograded. 

Few of the princes of the second or Carlovingian 
dynasty resided at Paris. Charlemagne afforded 
powerful protection to letters and the sciences, 
aftd did more for the establishment of the mo- 
narchical authority than any of his predecessors ; 
but under his feeble successors, Paris becai!ne the 
private patrimony of hereditary counts. Id 845, 
the Normans, attracted by the riches of the churches 
and convents, made a descent upon Paris, which 
they sacked and burned. At length, after several 
successive attacks, they besieged it in 885. In vain 
did the Parisians appeal for succour to Charles le 
Chauvc. Their own courage, seconded by the va- 
lour of Count Eudes or Odo, compelled the enemy, 
at the end of two years, to raise the siege. Charles 
was then deposed, and the crown given to Eudes, 
in whose familv it became hereditary in the per- 
son of Hugnes Capet, elected king in 987. • 

Under the early reigns of the third or actual dy- 
nasty, many privileges were conferred upon the 
Parisians. A royal prepot was appointed to admi- 
nister justice in the king^s name 5 and a prevot dex 
marchands to watch over the municipal interests. 



inned a body of rcspecluble mn^istinlcs. 
'iiig the captivity ol'King Jolm in Ei inland, 
rt-as liHitaletl by the faction of ibo Haillolins, 
J by Etiennc Marcel, pr^-i-ot d^s manhaiuh, 
lallg'ated by Cliarlcs le Mauvals, Tlie Dau- 
wlio in alai-iii had quilted Paris, collected an 
and returned. Marcel was killisl by his own 
ansj and the Dauphin, aRer quelling the tu- 
punishcd tlie ringleaders ^l'lhe I'aclion. 
ler Charles V the fauboarHS being much ex- 
.laiulrreflueiitWindanjjerlVomllic incursions 



oC^he English, new ditches and walls were begun 
in i547) and completed in sixteen years. During 
this period the Bastile and the palais des Tournelles 
were built. In i5S4 the pont St. Michel, and in 
1 4^4 t^6 pont Notre Dame, were erected. 

The prosperous reign of Charles Y was followed 
by troubles. During the insanity of Charles YI 
the capital was occupied ^by the English. Under 
Charles YII it was desolated by famine and the 
plague; notwithstanding which the population, 
under Louis XI, amounted to 3oo,ooO' souls. In 
1470 printing was introduced and the post>office 
established. In the reign of Francis I, who was a 
friend to literature and the fine arts, Paris assumed 
a new aspect. The old chateau of the Louvre, an 
assemblage of towers and heavy walls, was demo- 
lished, and a palace begun on its site. Several 
churches were rebuilt, a royal college for gratui- 
tous instruction in the sciences and learned lan- 
guages was founded, and communications Of^ened 
between different parts of the city. 

Besides a number of streets which were rapidly 
built and peopled, the quay de la Tournelle was 
formed in i552, the place Maubert in i558, and tlic 
chateau and garden of the Tuileriesin i565. About 
the same time the arsenal was constructed near the 
Celestines. To the revival of letters and the fine 
arts succeeded the wars of religion and their 
dreadful consequences. The massacre of St. Bar- 
tholomew, under Charles IX, brought the royal 
authority into contempt, and alienated the affec- 
tions of the Parisians to such a degree, that they 
rebelled against Henry III, and drove liim from 
his capital. Henry lY having restored peace to the 



In llie reign o{ Louis XIV, uoUvlllist l[)dln^ tlic 
lon'_'.in<l<Iisostioii5 wars of the Fronde, ihe projuls 
of Ik-nrv IV and Louis XIII were Ciirried into e\rcu 
lion. More ll.an ciglily new slreels wcic opcn.tl 
and most oftlie old ones improved oiidemlicllislicii 
Tlic place Vcndiimc and llic place dcs ^laoiii^ 
were formed. Tliii-UMliree cluirthrs werLerttlcH 
most of llie qiiays'iveie tilled willi slonc, and ■• 
new one formed; and for tlic greater con\cnienrt 
of llie courts of justice, llie building of iIip ^< m 1 



Chatelet was erected. The magnificent hotel des 
Invalides, a foundling hospital, the Observatory, 
the beautiful colonnade of the Louvre, the Pont- 
Royal, which forms a communication between the 
TuiJeri^s and the faubourg St. Germain, and the 
planting of the Champs Elys^es, were among the 
embellishments of Paris in the reign of Louis XIV. 
The palace of the Tuileries was enlarged, and the * 
garden laid out upon its present scale. For the old 
city gates were substituted triumphal arches, of 
which those of St. Denis and St. Martin still remain \ 
and the boulevard which they ornament forms, 
with ihe Champs Elys^es, an uninterrupted suite of 
promenades, which contribute equally to the salu- 
brity and beauty of the capital. 

Louis XV was not less anxious to embellish the 
metropolis. The faubourgs St. Germain and St. 
lionorc were decorated with sumptuous hotels j the 
palais Bourbon was erected; the Ecole Militaire 
was founded, and the new church of St. Genevieve 
arose on a majestic plan. The place Louis XV and 
its colonnades were begun, the Champs Elysees 
replanted, and the Ecole de Medecine erected. The 
manufactory of porcelain at Sevres was established, 
and boulevards formed on the south of Paris. 
Several fountains were erected j and among them 
that of the rue de Grenelle, by the celebrated 
sculptor Bouchardon. Another foundling hospital 
was established ; the fronts of St. Sulpice and St. 
Eustache constructed, and the King's Garden en- 
larged and enriched. 

Louis XVI was desirous of completing the embel- 
lishments begun by his predecessors.. He continued 
the churches of St. Genevieve and La Madeleine, 



The ncrw walls of Purls, with their barrlc: 
triumphal gales, were raised towards the e 
Ihis rcit;n. Thcj increased the siiperrieles ol' 



aspect I 



n.gs. 



c galhries of the Palais Royal, furnished wll 
shops of every kind, gave ihc Parisians an idea 
the liauaars of Egypt and Persia ; am! the Moiil i 
Piele was iTislituted in the Marais, 

Upon the breaking out of Uic revolution, tl 
Itiisllle was demolished, and the vtign of ten- 
lljreatencd the monuments of the fiDe arts wi 



destruction. But under the Directoiy, the mu9um 
of the Louvre was opened, and during the consular 
and imperial government, Paris assumed more than 
its former splendour. Grand projects of public 
utility were adopted, and many were executed 
with unexampled celerity. The place du Carrousel 
was disencumbered of the deformed buildings 
which arose in front of the Sovereign's palace; the 
Louvre was completed; the new gallery between 
that palace and the Tuileries was begun, and the 
garden of the Tuileries was improved, while the 
magnificent rue de Rivoli gave it a more striking 
appearance, and the streets carried through the 
place yend6me to the boulevards, established a 
fine communication between that garden and the 
Ghauss^e d'Antin : a new and spacious market was 
formed on the site of the convent des Jacobins, 
near the rue St. Honors ; and two others near the 
abbey of St. Martin des Ghamps^ and that of St. 
Germain des Pr^ : three handsome bridges were 
built, and new quays were formed on each bank of 
the river. The place de la Bastile, intersected 
by a navigable canal, was begun, with a spacious 
basin for boats and barges, and where a colossal 
monument, while it strikes the spectator with 
wonder, will afford an ample supply of water to 
the neighbourhood. Near it a vast granary of re- 
serve was constructed ; ihe Bank of France was 
established in theHotel Toulouse, and a magnificent 
Exchange was begun. The canal de I'Ourcq was 
brought to the gates of Paris, and a spacious and 
elegant basin formed for it near the barrier de la 
Villette. Fifteen new fountains were erected in 
different parts of the city, and several wide streets 



at the extremities or tlie fiiiibourgi. The 
s of Paris, devastated during the revO' 
vere repaired and embelliabed. More than 
lions sterling were expended on these works 
lellishments !□ the coui'se of twelve years. 

XVHI, restored to the ihrone of hie ances- 
s given orders to continue VKith acLivilj all 
trovemcnts and embellish men ts of his ca- 
The waste ground between Chaillot and 
ill be laid out in elegant streets and public 
haded with trees ; the abattoirs hare been 
for public mej the equeslnaa statue in 

of the great Henry, " the hero and father 
ibjecta," has resumed its appropriate station 
Pont Neufj an equestrian statue ofLouis 
IS been erected upon the plaec des Vic- 
a new qaartier commenced near Chaillot; 

barriers completedj a new opera-house 
a chapel constructed in the Temple, and 
' in ihe roed'Anjou; several convents and 







CHAPTER II. 



OF THE PRESENT STATE OF PARIS, PHYSICAL AND MORAL. 

Situation and Climate. — Paris is situated at 
48° 5o' i4" north latitude, and 20° iS" east longi- 
tude of London. The French reckon their first 
meridian from the royal Observatory of Paris. The 
longest day is sixteen hours six minutes> and the 
shortest eight hours ten minutes. The distance 
of Paris, in leagues of 2,000 toiscs, from the prin- 
cipal towns of £urope and France is as follows .- 



FROM LEAGUES. 

Berlin a47 

Consiantinople .... 600 

Copenhagen 183 

Dresden a^o 

Lisbon ••• 4^^ 

Amsterdam i5o 

Harabtirgh .• 166 

London io5 

Madrid Sao | 



FROM LEAGUES. 

Milan aii 

Naples .^ • 474 

St. Petersburgh . • • 680 

Rome • • 38a 

Stockholm 4'^ 

Vienna 380 

Lyons* 1 IQ 



Marseilles a( 

Bordeaux ]47 

Its circumference is 13,897 toises, or 6j^ leagues, 
twenty-five to the degree 5 its surface is 5,439 hec- 
tares 5 its diameter about two leagues. The greatest 
mean heat is 27° of Reaumur, though in 1802 it 
rose to 297 degrees. The mean term of the cold 
is 7° below zero. The Seine is commonly frozen 
at the eighth degree below zero. In 1709 the ther- 
mometerfell to iS^degrees, andin 1788 to 167 below 
the freezing point. The mean temperature is io» 



RlVEI;S.— The Seine, ivlilcli traverses tlic c; 
Irojn easlto west, rises in the lorest of M, i 
liillicdopurLiiiciitortlieCote-d'Ur. Itruiisst." 
Ii'iigiics iiiiil receives the Aulte, llie Vonne, an 
Mdnie, belitrc il enlcrs Paris helneeii tliR ba 
ol LiiIia[)ceanilLTGarrc. The lenglliofilsct 
in tho interior of Paris, is ahoiit tno len)|iiics 
breadth, iit the Pont <lu Jardin dii Koi, is lour 
dred ami twenty French fect^ at ihe Pont 

Chaillot only four hundred and eighteen )W 
dliall' Tlie mean velocltv oC vhe waler !id 
di« I'oLit Neiif and the 'Ponl f\oyal is n 
jutheb; ill a second. Jls inundations ai-e no 



jfni:.3c<i^i oiAic ur rAni9< 



quent, only fifty-three being reckoned since the 
year 822. Its greatest elevation, which was measur- 
ed with much exactness, was in 171 1, when it rose 
to twenty-four feet nine inches. Upon the Pont 
I\oyal and the Pont de la Tournelle are metrical 
scales by which its elevation may be ascertained. 
After having watered Paris, and received the Oise, 
the Cure, and the Rille, it pursues a course of eighty- 
five leagues, and falls into the sea near Havre. The 
water, though commonly limpid and salubrious, 
is apt to prove .laxative to strangers. Chad, eels, 
carp, perch, lampreys, salmon, and trout are 
caught in it; but its chief advantage is the easy 
and cheap means it affords of supplying the capital 
with articles of consumption. It is covered with 
barges and floats laden with wood, charcoal, wine, 
corn, fruits, and all the other productions of the 
country and its foreign commerce. 

The small river Bi^vre, or des Gobelins, rises at 
Guyencourt, near Versailles, and falls into the Seine 
above the Jardin du Roi, after having traversed part 
of the faubourg St. Marcel. It is not navigable, nor 
is its water fit to drink; but is useful by setting 
in motion several mills, and is excellent for dyeing. 
Islands. — The Seine forms three islands in the 
interior of Paris; the most eastern, called Ilede 
Louviers, is uninhabited, and serves as a depot for 
lire-wood j it has a wooden bridge which leads to- 
wards the Arsenal. Next is the lie St, Louis^ sur- 
rounded with quays, and inhabited since the time 
of Louis Xm ; it communicates with the city by 
three bridges. The third island, called Tte de la 
Cite, formerly terminated at the rue de Harlay, 
behind the Palais de Justice. Its prolongation was 



coach pioprlclors, 13,000 door-porters, 80,000 ser- 
vants oC both sexes, 6, ono students of law. medicine, 
etc., 34,000 scliool-boys, pupiis in collcfjes, etc., 
47,000 widows, 5oo conmiercial agents, etc, 74 
bankers, ^lo clerks, etc., of tlie Post-Oflice, 5oo 
drivers ofditigences and mail coaches, i, '200 dancing- 
masters, music-masters, etc. — 366,ooo persons live 
by their revenue or industry ; and 548, oon by daily 
lahoor, including 77.193 who receive relief, On the 
ist of January, :822, there were in the hospitals, 
3,987 patients, 9,771 old and inlirm persons, and 

•All tlitsc CBlciil-itlons arc Rivcii li. tl.e l.iter.l rciio.U 



lU PRESENT STATE OF PARIS, 

12,580 foundlings. The population of the prisons 
i is reckoned at 5, 000. 

Consumption. — In 1822 the consumption of Paris 
was as follows: — wine 858,5 1 3 hectolitres}* brandy 
42,764 hect. ] cider and perry, 8,955 hect. ; vinegar, 
16,176 hect.; beer, 176,759 hect.j grapes, 3,196,146 
demi-kilogranimes. 

Oxen, 75,945 j cows, 8,820 ; calves, 77,754 ; sheep, 
370,531 j pigs and wild-boars, 88,925} coarse meat 
sold without weighing, 1,677,964 kilogrammes; 
offal, 479,170 kiL 5 dry cheese, i,3oi, 682 kil. 

Sea-Hsh sold in the markets to the amount of 
3,498,842 francs j oysters, 988,862 fr. ; fresh water 
fish, 53i,6o4 ^^' 5 poultry and game, 8,147,^27 fr. ; 
butler, 8, 1 03,707 fr. ; eggs, 3,693,23ti ; fr. hay, 
9,oo3,225 trusses; straw, i2,865,ioo bundles; oats, 
1 ,092,354 hectolhres. 

In 1 82 1 there was consumed of baVley, 87,744 
hectolitres ; hops, 63,583 kilolitres ; i ,000, x35 steres 
of fire-wood; 3,949,454 faggots; 1,019,804 voies 
of charcoal; 565,864 hect. of coals. 

The consumption of flour is estimated, in ordi- 
nary times, at i,5oo sacks a day. When bread is 
dearer out of Paris than within, it is carried with- 
out the city instead of being brought into it; and 
then the daily consumption has no iixed rule* In 
1 823 the loaf of four pounds varied from twelve 
to thirteen sous. 

According to the calculations of Lavoisier, 
the consumption of Paris in 1789 amounted to 
199,720,000 livres. A calculation of M. Benoiston 



* For comparative scale of weights and ineasares, see 

Introduction. 



maps, public conveyances aiiil passports, a,ooo,i><io 
fr. ; lollery, ^5,ono,ocio fr. ; whifili forms a total of 
7J.ooo,ooo fr. To this must be added a'!,ion,0'.c. 
fr. of excise duties levied by tlie city of Paris, 
at the barrii'i'S; 6,5i5,ooo fr. levied upon pro- 
vinioiis sold in tlie markets; and 7,7^6.601) fr. upon 
the prollts of the gamiiij; bouses, whlcb form a 
grand total of 1.1 i,3l'i 1,600 fr. To thi? sum may 
slill Ite added the custom duties paid upon all 
foreign produce entering the capital, which carrier, 
(lie annual amount of the public ami nuLuirlpnl 
l;.xts levied upon the inilabitanls of I'uiis lo iTi:! )■■ 
l,nrhc..l. 



A At MM^^Mak^ * h»« A A» A A4 %« A ■> ^AA« A*^ • 



Tariff of the Excise and Entrance Duties.— V^ine 
in wood, 23 fr. locent. perhectolitre j do. in bottles, 
35 cents. ; vlniegar, verjuice, etc. in wood or bottles, 
i4 fr- 85 C.J brandy in wood, (under 2Q degrees) 
47 fr. 3o. c. J do. (from ii to 28 degrees) 78 fr. 10 c. ; 
do. (28 degrees, and upwards), spirituous liquors 
aijd odoriferous spirits in wood or bottles, 121 fr.5 
cider, perry, and mead, 12 fr. 10 c. ; beer (brought 
to Paris), 4 fr* 4oc* 5 ^^' (brewed in Paris), 3 fr. 3oc. ; 
olive oil, 44 ^r. ; other oils, 22 fr. Oxen, 24 fr. per 
head J cows, i5 fr.j calves, 6 fr. ; sheep, i fr. 5o.c. ; 
hogs and wild boars, 9 fr. j coarse meat sold with- 
out weighing, 20 cents, per kilogramme ^ ofTa), 
5 c. Fire- wood, 2 fr. perstere; white wood, i fr. 
5oc. Fagots, 3 fr. per hundred; charcoal, 75c. 
for two hectolitres. Coals, 5o c. per hectolitre. 
Dry hay (in trusses of five kilogrammes), 4 ^^' P®r 
100 trusses J straw, i.fr. ; oats, 5oc. per hecU^tre ; 
quick lime, i fr. 20 c. j plaster, 36 c. Rough stone, 
60 c. per cubic metre. Hewn stone, i fr. perstere, 
(one stere of marble and granite reckons for 10 of 
hewn stone). Large slates, 5 fr. per 1000 ; small 
do. 4 ^^' 5 bricks, 6 fr. j tiles, 7 fr. 5o c. 5 square 
pavements, 5 fr. Potters* clay and sand, 60 c. per 
stere. Turf, i fr. per 100. Laths, 10 fr. per 100 
bundles. Wood, various rates per metre, or per 
stere, according to the quality or form. Dry cheese, 
10 c. per kilogramnYe; salt, 5o c. j white wax and 
wax candles, 3oc. ; bees'- wax 20 c.; hops, 10 c. 
Tallow, and tallow candles, 3 fr. per 100 kilo- 
grammes. Barley i fr. per hectolitre. 

Detailed instructions are annexed to the tariff, 
by which its application is regulated in all cases, 
iind abuses in levjring the duties are prevented. 



of a tine equal to the value of tlie articles ia 
on. The officers have power to make any 
cation necessary to ascertain the truth of his 
'ations. Any article introduced without har- 
;en dedared, or upon a false declaration, is 
to be seized. Persons In private carriages 
springs cannot be detained far the eiami- 
1 of their packages, such detention being con- 
d an abuse of authority. EvcrJ person, how- 
iuspected of availing himself of such eicep- 
in order to defraud the revenue, is liable lo 
his carriage examined, but if no fraud be 
, can lodge a complaint against the dfficer. 
icise olTicers cannot use the probing'iron in 
exsmiaatioTi of boies, packages, etc. deciar- 
cootsin goods that may suffer damage. Dili- 
>, waggons, carts, cabriolets and all hired 
ges, orcarriages for transport, are subject to 
tamination of tlie officers. Ko individual, 
ver be his dlsoitv, oflice. or functions, is 



fr. ; feathers and flowers i5,ooo,ooo fr. j gloves and 
perfumery 3,ooo,ooo fr. 5 ornamental hair and 
wigs 2,000,000 fr. 5 millinery, fringes and ribbons 
2,000,000 fr. ; washing 2, 5oo,ooo fr. j gold and silver 
goods 2,000,000 fr. ; clocks and watches, i,5oo,ooo 
fr.j upholstery 3, 000, 000 fr. 5 toys i,4oo,'ooo fr. 5 
musical instruments 1,000,000 fr. ; gilt bronzes 
600,000 fr. ; hardware 3,000,000 fr. ; cutlery 700,000 
fr. J locksmiths' work i ,5oo,ooofr. ; sadlery, carriages, 
and harnesses 800,000 fr. ; blacksmiths' work 
1,848,000 fr. 5 writing paper 12,000,000 fr. 5 books 
and binding 1,400,000 fr. ; engravings, plates, etc. 
1,000,000 fr. 5 paper hangings 1,600,000 fr.j porce- 
lain 2,5oo,ooofr. j glass-ware 1,200,000 fr. 5 earthen- 
ware i,5oo,ooo fr. j optical instruments 5oo,ooo fr. ; 
braziers-ware 1,000,000 fr. ; tin ware 3oo,ooo ir. ; 
rents 54,ooo,ooo fr. ; house building, and repairs 
16,000,000 fr. 5 theatres, etc. 6,000,000 fr. ; judicial 
proceedings, etc. 8,25o,ooofr^ children atschools and 
colleges 6;5o2, 000 fi'. ; postage of letters 3,65o, 000 
fr. 5 journals 2, 5oo, 000 fr. ; hired carriages 6,876,000 
fr. 5 gaming houses, etc. 24,000,000 fr. ; lottery 
25,000,000 fr. ; prostitutes 800,000 fr. ; physicians 
and surgeons 3,ooo,ooo fr. j mineral waters 600,000 
fr. 5 public baths 32o,ooo fr. ; chairs in churches, 
gardens, etc. 3oo,ooo fr. j direct taxes or those 
levied upon articles of consumption 60,702,000 
fr. 5 funerals 1,000,000 fr. y miscellaneous articles 
7,5oo,ooo fr. 5 forming a total sum of 217,000,000 
fr. for the consumption of the articles above 
enumerated. The general total expenses of the in- 
habitants were estimated in 1789, at 321,947,100 
fr. J and in 1817, at 64^,896,000 fr. j which makes 
it 48 sous per day, or 9o3 fr. per annum for each 



lalcd Ui augment the prosperity of commerce. In 
orJcr lo settle differences ihat arise ainonj,' llic iner- 
cliantsofPari3,l)icjcliooscrrom nnioni^ tlienisclves 
a Iriliunal, consisling of a pi-csideut, eii^lit judgcg, 
and sinleen assistants (suppleaiis) ivliose nomina- 
tion is confirmed by the king. Tlie tradesmen of 
Paris are computed at thirty-eight thousand. 

MAMJFACTfHES. — Manufactures were in a lan- 
Kuishiji}^ state in France before tlie administration 
of Colbert. Louis XIV established the manufac- 
tory of Plate Glass, In the faubourg St. Anlolnu ; 
of tapestry, cMcd des gobelins s and of carpets, i" 
tlic buildings of the Savonneric. These pulihc esl:i- 



blishments and a few private enterprises Were at- 
tended with success. Upon the breaking out of 
the revolution, France being cut off from com- 
munication with other nations, was compelled to 
employ her internal resources, and many new in- 
ventions, with machinery and ingenious processes, 
were introduced. Some great capitalists, assisted 
by skilful artists, established in the vast buildings 
of the suppressed monasteries, manufactories of 
every kind. There are now in Pans, 2 i,ooo looms 
for spinning, carding, and weaving wool, silk, and 
cotton ; 7,000 workmen are employed in the hosi- 
ery-trade, and not fewer than 460,000 pairs of hose 
are annually made. The manufactories of porce- 
lain produce 2,5oo,ooo pieces of all kmds.* The 
annual exportation of shawls amounts to 4t8oo,ooo 
fr. J of silk goods, to 4»8i7,ooo fr. j of millinery, 
feathers, flowers, and ribbons, to 11,000,000 fr. 
The produce of clocks and watches amounts annu- 
ally to 19,000,000 fr. } of upholstery, to 12,000,000 
fr. ; of musical instruments, to 2,000,000 fr. ; of 
optical instruments, to 2,000,000 fr. Of hats not 
fewer than 10,000,000 are made every year. The 
books exported amount to 2,5oo,ooo fr. j and en- 
gravings, to 590,000 fr. Colours, mineral acids, 
and salts, formerly purchased abroad at a great 
expense, are now fabricated by the chemists of the 
capital. The paper for hangings exhibits great 
elegance of design, and beauty of colouring. Eyery 
kind of elegant furniture is made, as well as steel 
ornaments, cutlery, and arms, firon^e is fashioned 
in a thousand forms, and some present chefs-dPoeuvre 
in statuary and chasing. Paris has long been famous 
for jewellery and trinkets remarkable for their 



tare, and archllectiire ; and a small number of 
privileged scholars were sent to Rome to study 
the masterpieces of anliquily. The buildings erectctl 
in the reign of that Prince, arc impressed v.illi 
graiiiJeiir. Under Louis XV the beautiful was 
substituted for the sublime. In the reign of 
Louis XVI, Goiidouin produced, in the School ot 
Medicine, begun under Louis XV, a specimen of 
architecture pure, simple and liiiished ; and \ icn 
created a new School of Painting. At present Paris 
possesses many artists who tread with honour in 
the steps of llieir predecessors. A lively interest 
for the Fine Arts was excited when the Loiivrc con- 
lainert the finest paintings of the different schools. 



trx\tu*3LJi-^.M. «jx/k.xij vr x'AUiOi 



and the most renowned statues of antiquity; and 
the ready access to the Museums, afforded to all 
classes of society without expense, contributes in 
jio small degree to cherish an attachment to the 
Arts in the public mind. Every two or three years, 
since 1673, there "has been, at the Louvre, an exhi- 
bition of the productions of living artists. 

A distribution of prizes is made annually, by 
the Academy of Fine Arts of the Institute ; and 
the successful candidates are sent to Rome for 
three years, at the expense of the government. 

Sciences. — The age of Louis XIV was remark- 
able for the excellence of the scientific works pro- 
duced in France ; and the successors to the great 
writers of that age kept up the literary fame of 
their country during the long reign of Louis XV. 
In the early stages of the revolution, literature and 
science declined, but shortly after, the Polytechnic 
School, the INormal School and the Institute were 
created. The^physical sciences have been culti- 
vated in France, during the last thirty years, with 
the greatest success j and the names of Lagrange, 
Laplace, Bcrthollet, Vauquelin, Chaplal, Lacepede, 
Cuvier, Di^pin, Gay Lussac, Arago, De Lamark, 
Thenard, and Haiiy must be familiar to most of our 
readers. The Academy of the Sciences in the pre- 
sent day is one of the first societies in Europe. 
Scientific men of every nation arc always anxious to 
attend the meetings, to which they can be intro- 
duced by a member, to whom they are personally 
known, requesting that favour of the president. 

Manners and Customs of the Parisians. — In this 
great city, where nearly a million of persons, hav- 
ing very little knowledge of each other, are col- 
lected, every one fixes in the quarter most suited 



pic^trit, the Parisian soon foij^cls his nlllic:lioiis, 
consoles liimsdlnltlilln! anmsfmcnts olUic il^.y. 
and is ti)o gay Lo lliiiik o( llic fuiuve. I'ai-is lias 
produced many gi-cal (;c[iiusi^s in llie sciences, lile- 
rature, and IIlu line nrts. Tlie coiiversatioD of ihc 
liijjhcr classes is polislied, and llic learned are easy 
ul' access and communicative. The middling and 
luwer classes arc good end Itind; and allliougli 
llie revolution lias liad an tinravoralile influence on 
llieir lialtils and morals, il is ccrUin that vice does 
not present itself at Paris will" such effronlcry. »i 
ill llic middle of ihe cighlccnlh century. 



The tradesmen of Paris, and indeed of all France, 
have an impolitic custom of asking much more 
than they will take. Even their own countrymen 
are obliged to bargain and cheapen with the 
greatest obstinacy. Travellers, therefore, should 
be very circumspect in the purchases they may 
make. Those shops which profess to sell a prix 
fixe are in general little better than the others. 

A stranger should certainly fix himself iu the 
neighbourhood of his business, of the society he 
frequents, or the amusements he wishes to enjoy. 
In the magnificent hotels of the faubourg St. Ger- 
main, in the environs of the TuilerieS, and in the 
faubourg St. Honor^, are collected the nobility, 
the ministers, the foreign ambassadors, and stran- 
gers of distinction. The qnartier Feydcau, the 
Chaussee d'Antin, and the boulevard des Italiens 
are occupied by bankers, capitalists find stock- 
brokers. The environs of the Palais Royal are 
peopled by rich tradesmen and shopkeepers. Here 
may be seen the richest dresses, newest fashions, 
and most precio'us trinkets. The hotels in this 
opulent and active quarter, which is at once the 
centre of business and diversion, are generally 
filled with strangers. 

Luxury diminishes as we approach the rue St* 
Denis,' warehouses of silks, stuffs, and linen, are 
found towards the Pont Neuf. The quay de la 
Ferraille displays its hardware. On the quay des 
Orfi^vres are the principal goldsmiths and silver- 
smiths. On the quay des Lunettes are the op- 
ticians and shops for mathematical instruments. 
The Ha lies and the rue des Lombards are famed 
for their wholesale groceries. In the rues Sainte- 



PHYSICAL AND MORAL. ai 

Apolline and Mesl^e are the principal manufac- 
tories of gauze, shawls, and fancy stuffs. 

The inhabitants of the Marais are annuitants or 
persons of small fortune. Lodgings here are spa- 
cious and very cheap, and the manners resemble 
those of the inhabitants of a provincial town. 

In the tranquil and airy faubourg St. Germain, 
many persons, and chiefly the old nobility, live in 
a handsome style. Here also lodgings are cheap. 
The quortier St. Jacques is peopled by professors, 
men of letters, and students of law and medicine. 
In the neighbourhood of the Palais de Justice re- 
side a great number of advocates and persons con- 
nected with the courts of law. As we approach the 
faubourgs, we find the labouring classes^ including 
a great number of weavers and cotton spinners, col- 
lected in the vast buildings of the ancient mouas- 
teries. On the borders of the river Bievre, are 
tanners, dyers, brewers, wool and cotton spin- 
ning manufactories, and manufactories of pottery 
and blankets. The extremities of the faubourgs 
are occupied by waste grounds, or gardens which 
supply flowers, vegetables and shrubs, for the 
wants and luxury of the metropolis. 

One of the most distinctive characteristics of the 
Parisians, and of the French in general, is that 
uniform politeness which pervades all classes. One 
is surprised at the ceremonies of courtesy, the 
bows and scrapes, and expressions of politeness 
among the lower orders. They greet each other 
in the streets with great ceremony, and always 
address Monsieur, Madame, or Alademoiselle. It 
may be observed that Boxing is nearly unknown 
in France. 



The prostitutes being all under the immediate 
inspection of the police, are by no means so ob- 
trusive and troublesome as in London. They have 
generally some settled occupation during the day, 
and are not so profligate and degraded as in 
other large towns. ^ 

The Parisians are extremely fond of dancing, 
theatrical entertainments, public gardens, and pro- 
menades. In many of the families, most agree- 
able parties meet in the evening to join in the 
dance, the concert, or the ecartS table. A late 
English writer, Mr. Scott, in his description of 
manners and society in Paris, says of the women :— 
** The characteristic feature of their beauty is ex- 
pression. Besides the ease of her manners, a French 
woman has commonly a look of cheerfulness and 
vivacity. The women in the middle ranks are ac- 
tive and industrious wives, and tender mothers. 
The manners of those in polished society are play- 
ful and sprightly ; and in gaiety, accomplishments, 
grace, and niodesty, the Parisian fair are inferior 
to none. Rouge is not nearly so much used as in 
England; nor are tawdry ornaments more in vogue. 
The dress of the fair sex in France is at once 
modest, simple, and beautiful; their manners are 
erlchantingly diffident, and certainly would scarcely 
startle the most prim puritan of modern days. 
They do not address a stranger at all, but expect 
first to be spoken to : their attire, we again repeat, 
is infinitely more modest than that of our own 
fashionables. 

** From this pleasing and faithful portrait of fe- 
male manners, we turn with reluctance to con- 
sider the character of the other sex. Much of that 



iT of the men is, williout donbl, consider- 
paired ; their Icvitj and frivolity, aud their 
itiire also, bave io many instances given 
a less amiable demeanour." This is per- 
ring to the mihtary character of the nation, 
a rliest stages of the revolution; and the re- 
a motlo, " peace lo the cottage, and war 
BSlle," opened every country in Europe lo 
s and rapacity of the French soldier. But 
:.ary system received its full perfccliou from 
ius ot Boaaparte ; he interwove it into all 
itutions of the country, into all the elliccs 
nlo all the operatious of government, and 
[a all the inleroourse of society. This a.s- 
■.j of the military system has greatly di- 
d since the resloralion. 
this sketch of character," says the wriler 
juoted, " wc must not omit to notice the 
U3 honeaty of the Frencli, in reslorin); lost 
f to its owner. The postilions, coach- 



CHAPTER III. 

STATE COl^NCILS. — CHAMBERS OF PEERS ANT) DEPU- 
TIES. — KIXG's HODSEHOLD. — PUBLIC OFFICES, CtC. 

King's Qjuncils. — The coimcll of ministers is 
composed oflhe secretaries of state, who assemble 
in the presence of the king, or under the presi- 
dency of one of their members, nomitKited for 
that purpose. They deliberate on administrative 
legislation, on all that concerns the general police, 
the safety of the throne and kingdom, and the 
maintenance of the royal authority. 

Privy Council.— The number of the members of 
this council is not fixed. It is composed of such 
))rinces of the royal family and of the blood, as 
the King thinks proper to summon to it, and of 
the secretaries and ministers of state. The only 
affairs which they discuss are such as are specially 
submitted to them. 

Cabinet Councils. — These are composed of the 
secretaries of state, four ministers of state at the 
most, and two councillors of state appointed by 
the King for each council. His Majesty or the 
president of the council of ministers presides. 

Council of State. — This council is composed of 
all*the persons on whom the King has been pleased 
to confer the title of conseilUrs d'etatj or mattres 
de requetes. They are divided into two classes; 
viz. those on ordinary and those on extraordinary 



Gcrni:iin. It is composed of seven couiicllloi-s of 
state and six masters of requests, anil projioscs 
law-projecis conncclcd with ihe hoineilt'parfment. 

Till; commitlcc of llic finances proposes llie law- 
projects and regulations ajjperlaiiiinj; to llial ilc- 
j)artinent. It meets at llie Hold du Tr.;sor Royal, 
-\o. /,i, rue iNeuvodcs Pctiis Champs. 

TUe cotiiiniltec of war, composcil of four couii- 
rjllors of state and five masters of requests, assem- 
bles at >o. 61, mode riJniveL-sile. Tlicy delilierate 
on all the matters which the minister of war 
chooses to conlide to ihem. 

The coinmiltce oftlie marine and colonies, cum- 



/ 



o'J. VitiAiriDcn ujt r£.r.iia. 



posed of four councillors of state and three ma- 
sters of requests, assembles at the hotel of ihc 
minister of the, marine, No. 2, rue Royale St. 
Honore. It examines all questions relative to the 
navy, submitted to it by the minister. 

Chamber of Peers, Palace of the Luxembourg, 
rue du Vaugirard, — This body forms an essential 
part of the legislative pow^er. Their sanction is 
necessary for the enactment of all nevv laws, upon 
which they deliberate and vote with closed doors. 
The Chamber is composed of Peers created by the 
King, possessing the hereditary titles of Duke, 
Marquis, Count, Viscount, and Baron, who take 
their seat in the chamber at the age of twenty-five 
years, and vote at thirty. It is convoked by the 
King during the session of the deputies of the de- 
partments only, and has the chancellor of France 
for its president. The members of the Royal 
Family and the Princes of the Blood are Peers 
in their own right. No petitions can be presented 
to the chamber except in writing. It takes cog- 
nizance of all crimes committed by its own mem- 
bers, as well as cases of high-treason, and attempts 
against the safety of the state. Of the ecclesiastical 
peers, cardinals have the title of duke, and aixih- 
bishops and bishops that of count. Tlie eldest 
sons of peers bear the following titles: — viz. The 
eldest son of a duke, the title of marquis j of a 
marquis, that of count j of a count, that of vis- 
count 3 of a viscount, that of baron *, and of a 
baron, that of chevalier. The younger sons of 
peers bear the title next in degree to that of their 
elder brother. The title given to a peer of France 
is Sa Seigneurie. 



of wlilcli llie oflicc and treasiirv are al Ko. 3^i, 
nic St. Ilonore ; ad. Grand Master of Fiiincc, llie 
link,: ontoiirlioii, i>ali.is Boiii-I.nn ; >1, (;i:iiicl 
(:i,an,bcrl.iii.. (lie Prince de Talleyrand, No. -i, 
rue St. I'loicnti.i; ,itli, (iraiid EqutiTv, oflico at 
yo. ,\. Place du CaiTOuselj 5ll.. Grand llunls- 
iMNT,, nCCre at No. 16, rue Neuve du Luiciiil.oiiri! ; 
'llh, nr;.nd Master of llie Ceremonies, Ko. iv., ruL' 
de Varen.ifs. 

«<'j/;'j Household Troops.— nm Kind's Hoiisr- 
liold troops consist of ll.e four compaiiici of li^ 
M;,|<;st.v's body guards, ll.e coi.ipanv of til.: Kln^'^ 
orilinary foot guardi, tbe King's Murechaux iiiid 



avanvr u XAyj %j u L^ti\j UM^ m 



Fourriers de logis, and the company of MoNSlEUR^S 
body guards. 

The companies of the body guards are respec- 
tively named after the dukes who command 
them ', and are distinguished by belts of different 
colours, as follow: — Company of Havr^, white; — 
of Noailles, blue; — of Grammont, green ;— of Lux- 
emboui'g, yellow. The two former, companies 
keep garrison at Versailles, and the two latter 
at St. Germain en La ye. Their hotel at Paris is 
on the quay d'Orsay. 

The company of the King^s ordinary foot-guards 
occupy barracks at No. 5, rue Neuve du Luxem- 
bourg. 

The King's Marechaux and Fourriers de /o^/^dwell 
at No. 28, rue St. Thomas du Louvre. 

The company of Monsieur's body guards have 
their barracks at No. i36, rue de Grenelle St. 
Germain. 

A company of guards, called compagnie des gardes 
de la PrevotS de V Hotel, was disbanded in 1817, 
but the office of Lieutenant- general de VEpee is 
still retained. 

The general administration of the King's house- 
hold troops is at No. i5, rue St. Geoi^es; the 
treasury at the galerie Neuve, Palace of theTuile- 
ries ; and the hospital at No. 12, rue Blanche. 

To the above may be added the royal guards, 
which form four divisions, two of infantry and 
two of cavalry. Each division is composed of 
two brigades, and each brigade of two regiments. 

Four marshals of France, appointed by the king, 
perform quarterly near bis pei^on, the functions 



General Adiuiulslrntiin and Re.idence, No. 17, PIsc 

citcWnie. 

Coi.in,is!,iiio of 1I.C S.-»l, Ko. 6, Place Loi»s XV. 

Royal IVinLing-Olligc. No. 89. VioiUe rue <[.i Temple. 

BIiMSTEB FOB FoitEiO" Aff*iks. — Residence anil 
ilice, ^0- 16, rue Keuvc ties Capiiciiies. 

HlMSTKK OF TFir. iNTEiiLOH. — TIlis depavliiienl is 
iviilcJ into several sections, .is follow: — Ucsi- 
ctice, fto. 122, rue <le Grunelle St. Germain. 

* Aiicli™ces of iho ruinlstevs raiiM lie requeued I'v 



Division of Commerce, Arts, and Manufactores, No. 
loi, rue de Grcnclie St. Germain. 

General Direction of the Departmental Administration, 
and that of the Police, No. 1 16, rue de Grenelle St. Ger- 
main. 

Commission of Mineral Waters, "No. 101, rue de Gre- 
nelle St. Germain. 

General Direction of the Haras and Agriculture, No. 
i3, rue des Saints Peres. 

. General Council df Prisons, Minister's residence. 
Council of Agriculture, No. laa, rue.de Grenelle St. 
Germain. 

Commission for verifying goods subject to duties, No. 
1 3, rue des Saints Peres. 

Sworn Jury for examining prohibited goods. No. 7, 
rue JNeuve des Bons Enfans. 

Consulting Commiilee upon the Arts and Manufac- 
tures, Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. * 

General Direction of Bridges and Highways, No. 19, 
Place Vend6nie. 

Adminisiracion of Telegraplis, No. 9, rue de TUni- 
vcrsitc. By'the telegraphs of Paris, a communication is 
received from Calais in three minutes ; from Lille in two ; 
from Strasbourg in six and a half j from Toulon in 
twenty j and from Brest in eight. 

General Direction of the Public Woiks of Paris, No. 
29, rue des Fosses St. Germain i'Auxerrois. 

General Council of Commerce, No. i3, rue des Saints ■ 
PCres. 

General Council of Manufactures, No. i3^ rue des 
Saints Peres. 

General Council of the Civil EdiGces, No. io3, rue de 
Grenelle. 

Conservation of the Public Monuments^ No, 7^ riie 
Poulticr, lie St. Louis. 

Archives of the Kingdom, Hotel de Soubisc, and Pa- 
lais dc Justice. 



Pt^BLlC OFHCES. 3) 

MmiSTEB OF War.— Residence and general ad- 
/niDistration for the first, second, third, and fourth 
divisions, No. 8a, rue St. Dominique. 

Archives and Gendarmerie, No. a6, me de Varennet. 

G)mniittee of the War Depot, No. 6i, rue de TUni- 
versitc. 

Tieasnry of the Invalids, Hotel des Inralidet; 

Artillery Committee, Place St. Thomas cVAqnin. 

£ngineer Committee aad Central Dep6t, No. gf , me d« 
I'Universite. 

Medical Council to the Army, No. 8a, me St. Domi- 
nique. 

General Direction of Gunpowder and Saltpetre, the 
Arsenal. 

General Direction of Military Stores, No. loo, rue dc 
Vaugirard. 

Grand Chancelry of the Legion of Honour, No. 70, roe 
de Bourhon. 

Minister of the marine.— Residence No. 3, rue 
Royale St. Honore. 

Admiralty of France, No. a, rue Royale. 

Administration of Naval Stores, No. 87, rue dc Va- 
rennes. 

Depot of Maps and Plans, No. i3, rue de I'Universite'. 

General Treasury of the Naval Invalid Department, 
No. 383, rue St. Uonorc. 

Depot of the Deeds and Archives of the Naval and Co- 
lonial Departments, including their civil and judicial 
acts, VcrsaiHes. • 

Minister for Ecclesiastigal Affairs and PuBt«ic 
Instruction, No. 2/1, rue des Saints Peres. 

Minister of the Finances. — Residence and admi- 
nistration of the direct taxes, rue de Rivoli. 



iH.7 A01J)Aa9AUUJti»| cunsuLSy CIC. 

AdministratioD of other Dirisions, No. 3, ru9 Neiivc 
des Petite.Chapips. 

General direction for the enregistering of the Domains, 
Ko. a, rue de Cboiseul. 

Administration of the Forests, No. a, me dc Choisenl. 

General Administration of the indirect Taxes, No. 44? 
rue St. Avoie. 

General Direction of the Custom Duties, No. i5, rue du 
Mont Tbabor. 

Admiaistralion of the Royal Lottery, No. a bis, rue 
Neuve du Luxembourg. 

General Administration of the Mint, No. ii, qnaiCoiiti. 

Sinking Fund, etc., maison de POratoire, rue de TOra- 
toire. 

Committee of Receivers General, No. 9, rue Menars. 

Administration of the Sail Pits of the. East, No. a5, rue 
Louis le Grand. 

Minister of the Ring's Household. —Residence 
and offices, No. 121, ruede Grenelle St. Grermain. 

Superintendence of the Treasury of ih« Cifil List, 
Galerie Neuve, Palace of the Tuileries. 

Superintendence of Buildings, Parks, and Gardens, 
No. 3o, ruejCauinartin. 

Superintendence of the Domains and Forests, No. a3, 
quai Malaquaia. 

Superintendence of the Royal Theatres and the mate- 
riel of F^tes and Ceremonies, No. 5, me. Berg^re. ;. 

Office of the Comptroller- General' of the' King^s House- 
hold Expenses, No. 119, rue du Faabourg St. Uonor^. 

Supetiiitehde^ice of the Garde Meuble de Ig Cou- 
ronne, No. 3, rue Bergere. 

RESIDENCE OP FOREIGN A»BASSADORS, . 

(X>l«SCnLS, etc. 

lSgiOLKfHD.--^miKiiiador^ No< 39, rae du fasb. 
St. Hotior^.'^CoFUttly No. 91, ruede jS^rres. 



rue St. Dominique. 
l\liSOVtn,~^mbassador, No. Ij 
Hesse Darmstadt. — /Imbassc 



■pa"* 



Ricli. 
Mkcklendurch Stkti.it?,, Saxe - W'euiab, Sa\k ■ 

GOTIIA, c\.C. —Husidtnt aliniiler, Ko, Z-], I'latt St. 

Germain I'Auxcriois. 
I'abma, — C/mr^'ed'y/^QiV^'j, INo. -i, rue irAiigoii- 

linii;. St. Ilouore. 
UiiME. — A'unci'o, No. i5, rue da l;egnrcl. 
Sabdjnia. — .4n(6ajia(ior,No,G(j,riiuSt.Doiiiii]l'iuc 
Sa\onv. — jimhassador, Ko. a5, rue do Clmiseiil 
TwoSlCILIES. — Ambassador, No, Sy, rue Ho I'Uii' 



Sweden and "NoKWAY.-^^mbassadorf No. 8, ruede 
Poitiers. — Consul, No. 17, rue Taitbout. 

SwinERlK^D,— Charge dfjiffaires. No. 23, rue 
Neuve des Mathurins. 

Tuscany.— CAar^e d* Affaires, No. 27, rue du fau- 
bourg St, Honore. 

Turkey. — Charge d'Jffaires^ No. 11, rue de la 
Planche. 

WuRTEMBERG. — Ambassador, No. io5, rue de 
JBourbon. 

Mecklenburgh - ScH WERlN. — Charge d '^ Affaires, 
No. 14? rue de la Madeleine. 



seaia 
intei 
bodi 
Ci 
gran 
pegl 
Cour 
■entc 

for g 

of llicif toiidiict. It does no! take cognizance of 
afl'ali's ihcmselvcs, JniC only reverses Benlerieos Iti 
cases of iiiformalily, or wiilch are in express con- 
trarllctioii lo tliB law j al'tfr i^hich it refers tliu 
alTair itself to it competent tribunal. Generally 
ini'nkin};, there is no appeal to t|iia court frDni tlie 
sentences of jusliccs of llip peace, nor from tliose 
of llic inilitiii'y ;iiiil naval cou^^s. Every year, ll]<: 
court of cassation sends a deputation to llic kni:^. 
lo indicate such points as it lias learned liy e\ 
peiiciicc to be delectivc iutlie laws. Tiie time i^l 



v^vyuAiAO txi'^Mj X «iirf Wit Aijo* 



lowed for making an appeal, in civil matters, is 
three months ; in criminal matters, misdemeanours, 
and breaches of police regulations, only three days. 

The court of cassation is composed of a presi- 
dent, three vice-presidents, and -forty-five coun- 
sellors, nominated for life by the king. It is divided 
into three sections, called sections of requests, of 
ciuil, and of criminal cassation. Every decision is 
given by a raajority of the suffrages; and in case 
of division in opinion, five other counsellors are 
called in. With the court of cassation is a pro- 
cur eur- general of the king, six avocats-genSraux, a 
chief registrar, and four under- registrars. A col- 
lege ofsixty advocates has the exclusive right of 
pleading in this court, and in the king^s councils. 
The two civil sections have a vacation, from the 
ist of September to the 3ist of October, but the 
criminal section always continues sitting. 

CouR DES CoMPTES, Palais de Justice, Court of 
the Sainte Chapelle. — This court is the next iu 
rank to that of cassation, and enjoys the same 
prerogatives. It examines all the principal ac- 
counts of the kingdom, and consists of a president, 
three vice-presidents, eighteen masters of ac- 
counts, eighty referendaires, a procureur-gSneral 
of the king, and a registrar. It is divided into 
three sections, or chambers. The first decides 
matters relating to the public receipts ; the second, 
such as relate to the public expenditure ; and the 
third, the receipts and expenses of the communes. 
Every year, a committee, composed of the presi- 
dent and four commissioners appointed by the 
king, examines the observations made by the 
court during the preceding year. Their report 



Ins rou] t, (ailed an uc, irt, licentiates in 
(li^ipline anil leguldtiODS 

TLVAL DE THEMItfE l^STANC^ — TlllS llllniMll 

iiiposcd of forti two ]udgcs, mi! is dmtkd 
intn cliimlicrs catti composed ol sir |Lid) i s 
MO dipnty-jnclEies Of these clniiilius li\e 
coRniziuce ol civil mailers, -ud ilic simIi 
,cii.iuli, of inisdemciiiouis \\illi tins hilni- 
1 ^ jiiocureur of llie king Iwtlv dLpiil\ 
iircuit, and a vcRisliai T tic audicims loi 
affairs aicgrmled cveiy d ly, oxccplSiiiiil u 



and Mondays, between nine and twelve in the 
morning. The chamber for misdemeanours is 
open at ten. There are no advocates at the tribu- 
Hal de premiere instance, but only avoues. 

Notaries, — The number of notaries in Paris, 
who make wills, leases, mortgages, title-deeds 
of estates, and other deeds, is one hundred and 
fourteen. They give security to the government^ 
and on retirement, br death, their placed can be 
sold. The avoue^ or attorney, never transacts busi- 
ness of this kind. The latter can act in a court 
of law, which a notary cannot. Their chamber 
of discipline holds a meeting in the Plac6 du 
Chatelet, every Thursday, at seven o^clock in the 
evening. On Tuesdays, they sell estates and other 
real property by auction. • * ' 

Commissaires' Prwtfiiw.— (Appraisers and Auo-t 
tioneers). — The number of these at Paris is fixed 
at eighty. They have the exclusive privilege of 
appraising and selling goods by auction. The 
annual number of sales at Paris is estimated at 
live ihousandf ^^^ their producie at 8,000,000 fr. 
The chamber of discipline of the Commissaires 
priseurs holds a sitting at No. 3, rtie Jean Jacques 
Rousseau on Sundays, at ten o'clbck in the niorn- 
ing, and Thursdays at six in the evening.-^This 
body as well as that of notaries is subject to the 
jurisdidlion of the tribunal de premiere instance. 

Tribunal de Commerce, No. 3, Cloitrie St. Merry.* 
The judges of this tribunal are respectable mer- 
chants, principally heads of the most ancient 
. ' * '". ' ' 

* The Tribunal de Commerce will |>c transferred to 
i)ie new Exchange when that building is finished, 



miiUers, which holds its sitting as follows:— Fiist 

arrondUsement, No. 33, rue Caumartin ; second, 
Xo. 3, rue d'Antin; third, lialimenl des Petlls 
1-eres, Place iles Victoires ; fourth, No. 4. Plat:e A» 
Chevalier du Guel; fifth. No. 4, riie Thiiveiiol ; 
si«lh, IN'o. 8, rue d'Angouleme, qiiarticr du Temple; 
seventh. No. 32, rue du Roi de Slcile ; eighth. No. 
■ i, Place Royalc ; ninth. No. i4, rue Beaulreillisi 
tciilli,. No. 4o, rue de Crenelle, faubourf,' St. Ger- 
inalii; eleventh, No. a'l, rue ServandonI ; Iwelflh. 
No. i-t, rue des Bernardins. 



CHAPTER V. 

MILITARY GOVERNMENT, CIVIL ADMINIS- 
TRATION, ETC. 

General Staff of the first military division. 
No. I, rue de Bourbon. 

Staff of the Garrison of Paris, No. 7, Place 
Vend6me. 

Court Martial, No. 39, rue du Cherche-Midi. 

National Guards of Paris, General Staff, No. i r, 
rue de la Chaussee d'Antin. They form a corps 
of 37,000 men divided into twelve legions, and two 
squadrons of cavalry j each legion has a staff es- 
tablished at the Mairie of the arrondissement to 
which it belongs. 

CIVIL ADMINISTRATION. 

Prefecture of the Depart»ient, H6tel de Ville. 
The office is open daily from three to four o'clock 
in the afternoon, except on holidays. Besides the 
duties common to the other prefects of the king- 
dom, the prefect of the department of the Seine 
exercises for the city of Paris, nearly all the func- 
tfons of the mayors, except such as relate to the 
civil state. He superintends all the public build- 
ings and establishments, the edifices devoted to 
divine worship, the public works, the streets and 
public ways, the military institutions, the excise 



'.■ 



f 



trrSL AMtnnsngLTioiv. ^7 

daXieSf the marisets, the hospitals, the benevol^t 
institutioQSy the direct taxes, and the domains iff 
the state. Under him is a council de prefecture 
composed of five members^ and a general depart- 
mental council consisting of twenty-four mem- 
bers. The importance of the prefect's functions 
will be perceived from the ofEcial account of his 
receipts and disbursements in 1822, and a view 
of the secondary branches under him. 
- Official jiecount of ihe Receipts of the City 
of Paris in 1822 :•*— Surplus of preceding years, 
'2,920,000 fr. I product devoted to the liquidation 
of the extraoniinary debt, 5,43t,ooo fr.^ funds 
devoted to the canal de FOurcq, i,ooo,obo fr. ^ 
interest of arrears, 347»ooo fr. ; receipts for finbh- 
ing the new exchange, 228,000 fr.; sale of ground 
and matenals, 253,ooo fr. ; reimbursement, by the 
department, of advances for the cadastre^ 25,ooo fr. ; 
gross product of the excise duties, 22,100,000 fr. \ 
gross product of the communial centimes, 307,795 
fr. ; divers rents, 193,600 fr.^ gross 'product of the 
entrepot of wine, 35o,ooo fr. 5 gross product of the 
abattoirs^ 900,000 fr. j gross product of the public 
weights and measures^ 396,000 fr. \ gross product 
of the street and road duties, 108,000 fr.; rents 
for places in the markets, and for the stations of 
hackney coaches, etc. 295, 5oo fr. ; product of 
hydraulic establishments, and the sale of water, 
537,152 fr. ; divers receipts, 4^>25o fr. ; gross 
product of the Caiase de Poinsjr^ i,i5o,ooo fr. ; 
gross product of the indemnities and fines of 
the national guards, 5,ooo fr. ; contingent receipts, 
20,000 fr. 5 product of the gaming houses, 7,726,000 
fr. Total receipts, 4^>535,897 fr. 



department, i,997/74o fr. ; ordinary expense 
authorised by the Prefect of the police, 397,727 fr. 
Prefecture, central mai>/>, 217, 55o fr.; mairies c 
the arrondissemens, 324,4oo fr. 5 administration c 
the taxes, i4o,53o fr. 5 public instruction, 25o,58 
i\\'^ military service of the garrison, 201,000 fr. 
grand voirie, ii5,3oo fr. ; direction of the publi 
works, g2,5oo fr. 5 architectural works and keep 
ing up communial establishmentSy 236,aio fr. 
quarries under Paris, 100,000 fr. j worship, 200,00 
fr. ; festivals and municipal ceremonies, 40,000 fr. 
collecting, and divers expenses, i>4^''9^4 f*'- 
hospitals^ 5,5oo,ooo fr 5 Prefecture of llie Police 
gendarmerie, and iire-men, 5,374*643 fr. 5 pre 
visions, 800,000 fr. j waters of Parisj 370,000 (r. 
contingencies, 3o,ooo frj debt of the city of Paris 
5,905,000 fr. j extraordinary repairs of the H6ir 
de Ville, i4,ooo fr. ; purchase oi houses for th 
mairies, 55, 000 fr. ; purchase and enlargement o 
edifices devoied to worship, 200,000 fr. ; service o 
the national guards, 499*772 fr. 5 public way5 
562,750 fr. ; repairs of public establishments (in 
eluding 5oo,ooo fr, towards the new Exchange; 
i,494»8oo fr. i repi^Irs of communial establish 
nients, 556,48o fr. 5 sundry expenses, 211,689 ^r. 
purchases connected with great public works 
6oOj00o fr. ^ embellishment of the public ways 
3ig,ooo fr. ; works for iinbhing the markets 
i55,ooo fr. ; do. for the dbattoirs^ 5oo,ooo fr. j do 
for the entrepot oi WineSy 1,000,000 fr. j colleges 
5^8,200 fr. J barrac^^ of gendarmeiic and lire 
men, 374,000 fr. j canal deTOurcq, 1,000,000 fr. 



CIVIL ADMLMSTRATIOPr. i{g 

expense of extraordinary collections, ]46,5i3 fr. ; 
extraordinary public fetes in 1821, 600,000 fr. ; 
fund of reserve for the prefect of the department, 
24.0,000 fr. 5 do. for the prefect of the police, 
25,000 fr. 5 do. taken out of the product of 
the gaming-houses, 5,703,4^9 fr. Total expenses, 
42,550,737 fr. Excess of expenses over the revenue, 
5,160 fr. 

Grand Voirie, — ^Three inspectors- general and 
eight commissioners form a bureau, which meets 
on Tuesday at tw^o o'clock under the presidency 
of the prefect. The functions of this bureau are 
to determine the direction of new streets, the 
improvement and enlargement of old ones, to 
sec that the buildings of Paris are substantially 
constructed, and to allow or prevent the opening of 
doors and windows and the repair of walls next 
the streets. The width of the principal streets 
is fixed at frqra forty to sixty feet; that of cross 
streets at frpm thirty to forty feet j and none are 
of a less width than thirty feet. For the last 
thirty years a general plan for enlarging and im- 
proving the public streets has been pursued with 
constancy and uniformity 5 no building is allowed 
to be erected except in conformity to this plan, 
which by its steady execution will give a new 
aspect to Paris. 

Commission de Repartition des Contributions 
Directes, JNo. 8, Place de THolel de YiUe.— Five 
commissioners are charged with fixing the- rate 
of the direct taxes of the city of Paris, deliver-, 
ing certificates and schedules, and deciding upon 
appeals for reduction. 

TART I. 5 



30 CIVIL ADMLVISTRATION. 

Direction des Contributions Directes, Nos. 24, 
and 26, Vicille rue du Temple. 

Inspection Generate des Contributions Tndirectes, 
No. 10, rue des Francs Bourgeois. 

Direction des Droits et Entrees de Parisy rue 
Grange Bateliere. 

Direction de la Caisse de Poissy, No. 25, rue 
du Gros Chenet. — This fund pays ready money 
for all the cattle brought by graziers and sales- 
men to the markets of Poissy and Sceaux, and 
the Ilalle aux Yeaux, io consideration of a duty 
of three centimes and a half per franc, upon the 
amount of all sales. This duty passes to the funds 
of the city of Paris, which makes advances to the 
butchers for twenty-five or thirty days, at the 
rate of live percent, per annum, up to an amount 
fixed for each of them. The number of butchers 
at Paris is upwards of three hundred and fifty. 

Caisse Syndicate des Boulangers, No. 19, rue 
du Gros Chenet. — This fund is charged to pro- 
vide for the supply of Paris, and to pay the pur- 
chases made for that purpose. The bakers of 
Paris, 56o in number, are bound to keep con- 
st^mtly a stock of ii,5oo sacks of flour at their 
shops, or in the storehouses of St. Elizabeth. 
They must also have a stock of 26^000 sacks in 
the grenier d'abondance. 

General Council of Management for the Hospi- 
tals. — This council, which meets weekly at the 
Hotel de Ville, consists of eighteen members, who 
•superintend every thing connected with the hospi* 
tals, benevolent institutions, etc. 

Direction du Mont de Piete, No. 18, rue des Blancf 



wliiiHs, am] other places (\illiiii llic jurlsdicl 
of the police. Tlic Ices are jiaid acroriiliig 1 
scale fijfcd by ihe govcrntncnt. The ofiicers ni;n 
called in hj' private penons lor the verilical 
oi'weiglils and measures, or when a dispuleori 
Rcgislers taken from their biDoks are valid 
courts of justice. 

Treawry nf ike Cily of Varh. No. u, 
il'AnjoitSt.lionore. 

General lieceipt-OJfics of Ihe Finanics of 
Department, R'o. If), ruc dii Faubourt; .St. II 

C;lleclor.% of ihe Direct rnjes.— Tucuty-I 
collectors of taxes arc cmitloywl in Paris, al 
rale of one for two adloiTiing quarters. 



V>& 1 ALI ^X<,/i«A&l.1 1.>J A «>/& J IS^.l • 



Entreprises des Pompes Funebres, No. i, rue du 
Pas-de-la-Mule. — There are no private under- 
takers in Paris. Every thing used at funerals is 
furnished by this establishment to families, ac- 
cording to their desire, after a scale of charge re- 
gulated by the government. The annual expense 
of the inhabitants of Paris for funeral processions 
may be estimated at 1,000,000 fr. j •and that df 
monuments, and the purchase of ground in the 
cemeteries, at 5 or 600,000 fr. The grant of 
ground for five years is obtained by application 
at the mairies, and grants for ever at the prefec- 
ture of police, bureau des Cultes. 

JIfaxWe*.— Paris is divided into twelve municipal 
arrondissemens, each headed by a mayor and two 
deputy-mayors, whose principal functions relate to 
the civil state. Certificates of birth must be drawn 
up there within three days after the child is born. 
Marriages are contracted at the mayors' ofBces, and 
are published on Sundays. Certificates of death 
are drawn up there upon the declaration of two 
male witnesses, after a physician, at the desire of 
the mayor, has ascertained the fact of the death 
and its causes, by visiting the body, which cannot 
be removed from the place of decease until after 
this visit. £ach arrondissement- comprehends four 
guartiers. The following list will show the situ- 
ation of each mairie, and the quartiers which come 
within its jurbdiction: — 

1st Mairie, No. i4» rue du faubourg St. Uonore. 
Quarters : Tuilcries, Gb^mps Elysees, Roale, Place Vcn- 
d6ine. 

3d Mairie, No. 3, rue d^Antin. Quarters: Palais 
Royal, Feydeaby Chausat'c d*Antin, faubourg Monimartrc. 



r^ll. M*TiiiE, Ko. -^1. rue Si. Jacques. Quarlcis : 
Si. Jacqiief., Jnr.lln <lii Rni, Si. Murcel, 01»<:ri.-il»lic. 

Tlie oIUccs of llic mairies are open daily from 
iiiiio in tlie inorniug till four in the afternoon j liut 
on Sunday's ami lioliJays from nine lo twelve only- 
Tlic mayors iiild deputy- may ow sit everyday from 
eleven to two. 

Vireclion <!es Doinaines, No. 3/|, rue Tliovcnol. 

Direction d.! V finregisl remciil U itu. Timbre, No. 
j/i, rnc (111 BoiiLoy. 

Hee^Ite ,!u Timbre Exlraorilinain:, llol<'l 'Ui 
Jiiiilire, nic Je la Pai\. Stamps art ilistriljut.'l 



at forly-six offices situated in different quarters of 
Paris. 

Conservation des HypothequeSy No. g, rue du 
Cadran. 

Direction des Douanes, No. i, rue Montniartre. 

Direction des Contributions Indirects, No. i5, rue 
de Tournon. 

Manufacture Royale des Tabacs, No. 29, quai 
des Invalides.— The quantity distributed by the six 
hundred bureaus, in 1820, weighed 83i,54o kilo- 
grammes, and produced 5,999,276 fr. 

Poste aux Chevauxy No. 10, rue St. Germain des 
Pres. 

ADMINISTRATION OF THE POLICE. 

Prefecture de Pouce, No. i, quai des Orf<^vres. — 
The prefect gives audiences at two o'clock on Mon.- 
days. The offices for general affairs are open 
daily, from nine o'clock in the morning till four in 
the afternoon. The bureau de surete is open con- 
stantly by day and night. The prefect delivers 
passports and permissions to sojourn j he represses 
vagrancy, mendicity, tumultuous assemblies, and 
prostitution ; he exercises control over the fur- 
nished hotels, and the distribution of gunpowder 
and saltpetre ; he takes cognisance of the occu- 
pation of workmen, the places where they laboiu*, 
and their change of masters, and delivers medals 
to porters ^ he causes the most prompt succour to 
be afforded in case of fire, inundations, and the 
breaking up of ice. He seizes prohibited goods, 
and unwholesome provisions offered for sale ; ve- 
rifies weights and measures^ and seizes such as 
are under the sUndard ; affords assistance to 
drowned or suffocated persons j fixes the price of 



distingiijslied personages of the stale and tlic cl 
magistrates ol' llic ca|)ilal, wlio occuiiy lln;msfl 
in aiiH'liorating the lot of prl.wnfrs, iiilil jiroli'i'l 
lliern iigainst arbitrary vexation. 

Bureau de I'lnstriptiori ties Oiivriurs, Ilalle i 
Drnps. — At tliis oiTice certificates ara ddJverccI 
worlcmen, 'without whicli they caunot obtain \\ i 
in any shop or of any master. Tlicir enlrant^e i 
employment iscertitiedby ihccoiiimissary ol'po 
of their master's residence^ and their quitting it, 
the toiiimisssry of llie bureau ile rinspriptioii. 

Bureau d^ nirijkalwn des Voids at M.j.iures, 



St. Louis, near the prefecture. — New weights and 
measures are verified and punched at this oflice 
before they can be used in commerce 5 and in- 
spectors verify every year tho^e already in use by 
tradesmen. Short weights^ etc. are subject to a 
heavy fine. 

Commissaires de Police, — In each of the forty- 
eight quartiers of Paris resides a commissary of 
police, who superintends its cleanliness and light- 
ing ; takes cognisance of misdemeanours \ makes 
the first examination of crimes and offences ; de- 
livers passports upon the attestation of two house- 
holders, and the certificates necessary for strangers 
to obtain cartes de surete, or to have them re- 
newed if lost. The commissaries are in continual 
contact with the people, and attend to whatever 
complaints they may have to make. Their resi- 
dence is known at night by a lantern hung at the 
door. 

Police Centrale et Officiers dcPaiar.— These are 
officers whose business it is to discover and pre- 
vent whatever may tend to a breach of the public 
peace. They are authorised to take disorderly 
persons into custody. 

Gendarmerie Royale de Paris, Staff, No. ao, quai 
des Orfevres.— This military corps in Paris is com- 
posed of six companies of foot and horse, who 
are charged to watch by day and night, for the 
maintenance of public order. Their barracks are 
situated in the rue Mouffetard, the Minimes of 
the Place Royale, the rue du Faubourg St. Martin, 
and the rue Tournon. Detachments are stationed 
at the barriera de PEtoile, dc la Villelte, d'Enfcr, 
dnd du Trone. 



/,« Morgue, Harchi Neuf— Tills is a pliice ii> 
wliicti are deposited Tor three days llic bodies of 
uiikiiowu persons wlio drown llteinsclvcs, or who 
meet willi sudden or accidental dcatli in llie pub- 
lic places. Tlicy are laid upon slantin); tablci 
ofblack marble, to wbieh thu public are admitted 
ill order that ibey may be i^ecognised by ihosi 
interested in ibeir fate. Tlicir clothes arc huuj 
up near Uicm, as an additional means of recog- 
iiilion. Jr not claimed, ihey arc btnied al ll« 



public expense, and the undertaker-general ef 
Paris is bound to furnish a coffin and shroud. 

It is disgusting to observe women and children 
of all ages contemplating the sad remains of mor- 
tality here exhibited. Its situation in a market is 
equally revolting. 

Under the direction of the prefect of police is 
a commissary- general for the supply of combus- 
tibles to the capital; an inspector-general of light- 
ing and cleansing the streets ; an inspector-general 
of the river and wharfs ; a comptroller-general 
of the sale of fire-wood and charcoal ; an inspec- 
tor-general of the markets J and a Gomptroller- 
geuei'al of the Halle au Ble. 



aiiotlier, ljcionj5S exclusively to itic agens ile change, 
i\ ho cause l!ic price of stocks to lie pioclaiincil 
accorJing as they el'fcct their neRotlalioiis. Thej, 
in concurrence with liic courlieri tis commerce, 
direct the sale, purchase, unJ brokerage olhiillion. 
Tin; latter aru exclusively aitthoriscil to intervene 
in thu sale of goods, which they cnn even sell by 
auction in case of failure, in virtue of n decree by 
tlic tribunal of coiiimcree. liotii the one ami tl><: 
other can alone enter within the parquet of tlie 
l'^\chnni-e. The agency of an a^ent <U cluinge is 



indispensable in the transfer of stock. They are 
responsible for the identity df the proprielor, the 
authenticity of his signature and that of the pa- 
pers produced. They are^also responsible for the 
delivery and payment of the effects which they 
have bought or sold. The legal price of the pub- 
lic effects and goods is determined daily at the 
clbse of the Exchange, by the syndics and adjoints 
of the agens de change and courtiers. 

Bank of France, rue de la Vrilli^re.— The Bank 
of France was formed in 1800. It has the exclu- 
sive privilege (for forty years from September 23, 
i6o3) of issuing notes payable to the bearer at 
sight. This society is composed of 90,000 share- 
holders headed by a governor, and two deputy- 
governors, nominated by the king. Its aiTairs are 
managed by a general-council i'ormed of fifteen 
regents, three censors, and a discount-council con- 
sisting of twelve respectable merchants, chosen by 
the share-holders from the different Branches of 
commerce in the capital. Ninety principal clerks, 
and one hundred and three under-clerks are em- 
ployed in this establishment. The French bank 
notes arc of 1,000 and 600 francs, and not ibr any 
less sum. 

The operations of the Bank consist, firstly, In 
discounting bills of exchange or to oixler, at dates 
which cannot exceed three months, stampied and 
guaranteed by at least three signatures, of mer- 
chants or others pf undoubted credit. Secondly, In 
advancing money on government bilb, of fixed 
dates. Thirdly, In advancing money on bullion or 
foreign gold and silver coin. Fourthly, lu keeping 
an account for voluntary deposits of every kind, 



tiKiy be ceded, l)uL llie lee simple iiiav slill be dis- 
posed of. The shares may be immobilises, tlial i,, 
converted iiilo real property by a declaration of 
ibe propriotofi they arc then like any kinrl of 
real properly, arc subject to the same laws, aud 
have the siiiiie prerogatives. .Shares immobiUsis 
may be employed for the endowment ofa majvrai. 
I'll iSaa the exjienses oflhc Bank for n 






mtcd U 



783 fr. Udisi 



LUtcd 



commercial effects to the amount of 395,235,471 fr. 
It paid 2,554 dividends amounting to 37,352,4r5 fr. 
During the same year, the Bank received in bills 
3,975,186,000 fr. } and issued in bills 3,928,666,000 
fr. It received in specie 296,29 1 ,000 fr. 5 and issued 
247,883,400 fr. It discounted in bons toyaux for 
the Treasui'y 56',45o,ooo fr. Its profit during 1822 
having been 7,t55,4ii fr-5 and each of its actions 
on the 3oth of January 1823, being worth t,44o fr. 
bore a dividend of 79 fr. 5o cents, of which 6 fr. 
5o c. are kept in reserve. 

CoMPAGNiE d' Assurance, No. io4, rue de Riche- 
lieu. — Capital 5o millions of francs. 

COMPAGNIE d'AsSURANCE MuTUELLE CONTRE l'In- 
CENDIE POUR LA ViLLE DE PaRIS, JNo. 89, rUC dc 

Richelieu.— The value of the houses and build- 
ings insured by this company was in October 1822, 
970,000,000 fr. 

COMPAGNIE d'AsSURANCE GenERALE MARITIME CONTRE 

l'Incendie, No. 97, rue de Richelieu. 

COMPAGNIE d'AsSURANCE MuTUELLE CONTRE l'In- 

CENDIE, for the four departments which surround 
Paris, No. 29, rue de TEchiquier. 

COBIPAGNIE d'AsSURANCE MuTUELLE CONTRE l'In- 

CENDIE, for the department of the Seine without 
Paris, and the department of the Seine and Oise, 
No. 12, rue Meslay. 

CoMPAGNiE Francaise du Phenix, ruc Neuve 
dcs Capucines. — Capital 4» 000,000 fr. Property 
insured on the ist of October 1822, amounted to 
1,100,000,000 fr. 

COIVIPAGNIE d'AsSURANCE MuTUELLE SUR LA VIE DES 

HoMMES, No. 3, quai Voltaire. 



Caisse HvpoTiifiCArHE, Ko, 89, rue dc Riclielicii. 
The Stock ofllie Company consists of 5o,ooi>,ooo 
francs, divided into 5o,ooo actions of 1,000 francs 
eacli, bearing a fixed interest of six per cent., paid 
liolf-ycarlj; independent of llie ciisiial dividi:iids 
Di-ising from llie profits of t!ic Company. Wlicn 
it is considered that its only object is to lend 
money on mortgage upon real estates, doiil)le in 
value of the amount borrowed, the Islablislimuiit 
must be allowed to answer the two valualilc 
purposes which the act of incorporation hail in 
view, viz. the alleviating the landed and agrliid- 
tural interests from the hardships of usury, nnii 



affording capitalists a safe and profitable means 
of investing their money. The shares or actions 
are negociated at the Stock Exchange^ like other 
public stock. 

Entreprise Generale de l'Illumination de Paris, 
]No. ig, rue de Petites Ecuries. 

SociETE Anonyme POUR l'Amelioration des pro- 
cedes DE ViNiFiCATiON, No. 10, Fue Ncuvc St. Au- 
gust in. ^-f-Count Ghaptal is president of this so- 
ciety. By the process which it adopts, an aug- 
mentation of ten or twelve per cent, is obtained 
in wine, and an amelioratioi^ of quality in the 
same proportion. 

Administration des trois Ponts sur Seine, No. 26, 
rue du Bouloy. 

Ferme-riegie des Jeux, No. 108, rue de Richelieu. 

Administration Generale des Canaox du Midi, 
d'Orleans, et du Loing, No. 12, rue du Doyenn^. 

Administration des Canaux de Paris, No, 1, rue 
du Faubourg Poissonni^re. 

ECOLE SPEGIALE DE COMMERCE, No. 1 45, rue St. 

Antoine. 



iprics and archbishctpi'l 



f naJeby Uie king, 

111 of ihe grand Almoner. Tlie 
r conlirnis at pkasuic the nomination made 
rclibixhops uiid bisliops to llm vacant oiliccs 
icars-genfral, canons, and curates in ibcir 
clivc dioceses. He appoints the members of 
oyal chapter of St. Uciiis, tlie illgnilaiics and 
lains of tlie religions bouses, ol' tlie king's 
ebold, and tlic royal hospital des Qiiinze- 



Is; the Aim 



He also 



le royal pi 



Is to ibe 



aaiions m me seminaries, ana nas at nis disposal 
very considerable funds, including the king's alms. 



CHURCHES. 



No public edifices attest with such certainty the 
state of the -line arts at the period of their construc- 
tion, and the taste and civilization of the people 
who erect th^m, as those which are dedicated to 
the worship oftiie Deity. In the churches of Paris 
it is easy to distinguish four or five different styles 
of architecture, which bear the impression of the 
ages to which they respectively belong. Of the 
ancient Gothic we have examples in the churches 
of St. Germain des Pres, which presents the semi- 
circular arches of the tenth and eleventh centuries; 
Notre Dame, which bears the character of the 
middle ages; the Saiiite Chapelle, which h a mas- 
ter-piece for the richness and delicacy ^f its orna- 
ments ; St. Gervais, in which the beauties and de- 
feqts of the fourteenth century are associated ^ anc 
St. Etienne du Mont, which is a model of purity 
lightness, and good taste. Several of these edifice 
are disfigured by modem fronts. . 

The church of St. Eustache may be considerec 
as the transition from the Gothic to the Greek an( 
Roman styles of architecture, ds it presents som 
fine and delicate ornaments unknown in the an 
cient Gothic. 

The churches begun in the reign of Louis XIV 
by the celebrated architects of that age, such a 
Mansart, Levau, etc., are in the Roman style, de 
graded by modifications created by the architect 
i'ancy. The churches de TAssomption, de la Visi 



Vymiybceitcd 

:VI m&ibiU, in 

tbe Haddehie, 
blpice and'Sl. 
D, md in lbs 



giDAvnmt'itt' 



treDofmi' 



MniiiB I,upon 

iii'Wn;Ui«i>iil5 , 

largadaadoiibelliibed byCfailditilnt^ sonofOovif, 
mita- idtlad to it A new chaptl, irhii^ he placed 
BXHleT Uie invocation of the Bleaacd Virgia. Tbe 
jpiemtGothic«difioe, one of the largest and most 
n*gnific«at in France, Was begun about the year 
iim<V' by Robert the [fe*oat, ton of Hagh Capet, 
•nd ceniad «n withoat interruption for tba ipace 
«f oeariy three cmtaries before it was finisbetl. 

'* 9oif^flj|c^ lorjibp' mtelings of die InilitDte. 

■f In l|flt nine Targe cubic stones, with my tholngical . 
bu-reIicbtiidiDlcriFlians,wcrcdiKOTgiedupoailiggin(; 
inxlcr ibc cboif. 



proporiions are well preserved, and the combina- 
lioti of loftiness and ornament seems to indicate 
that the aim of the architect was to bring into con- 
tempt the plain simplicity of Pagan temples. It 
presents two towers, forty feet square and two 
hundred and four feet high j and three doors, or 
porches, of unequal and irregular forms, but richly 
ornamented. The central porch, and that under 
the south tower, are adorned with sculpture repre- 
senting subjects taken from the New Testament ^ 
but it is greatly damaged. The porch under the 
north tower is remarkable for a zodiac, of which 
eleven signs, each accompanied by its respective 
attributes, arc sculptured round the archj the 
twelfth sign, Firgo^ instesid of being placed among 
the others, is fixed, in much larger dimensions, 
against the pillar which separates the two doors, 
and is represented under the figure of the Virgin 
Mary. The two lateral doors are much admired 
for the singular workmanship, in hammered iron, 
with which they are decorated. The scrolls and 
ornaments of foliage and animals are very remark- 
able. 

Above the porches extends a gallery supported 
by small columns. In this gallery were twenty* 
eight colossal statues of the kings of France, which 
were destroyed at the revolution. Above it is a 
circular window between the towers, and this is 
surmounted by a second gallery supported by Go- 
lliic columns remarkable for their lightness and 
elegance. 

The portal on the southern side was not begun 



Ilic roof which U over tlie choir, a cross of iron 
[■III lias recently been placed, which, with llie ball 
that auppovis it, is thirty feet in height. 

The lowers command a line view of Paris anil 
tiie surrounding country. They are open to tlii^ 
public, npon giving a fewsous to the keeper of the 
keys, and ai-e ascended by aspii'al staircase of 38<) 
steps. They were formerly thronged by niimeroiis 
visitors au.xious to enjoy tlic enlcusivc prospect ; 
hut since an individualcoinmilled suicide by ihrow- 
iii); hiiiiselffrom the summit, not more than tlire« 
>'r four persons are allowed to ascend at the s^i'ne 
time. In the north tower there were formerly 'cviii 



']2 NOTRE DAME. 

Denis; and on that to the left, the miraculons cui 
of Cliildebert at the intercession of St; Germaii 
bishop of Paris. In the carved work of thestal 
are depicted the life of the Virgin, the Passion < 
Christ, various scriptural facts, and allegorical pei 
sonages. The subjects are in the following orde: 
beginning at the entrance of the choir on the righ 
ist, the Circumcision. ^2 ud, the Adoration of tfa 
Wise Men. —3d, the Nativity. —4th, the Visit c 
Elizabeth to the Holy Virgin. — 5tb, the Annuncia 
lion. — 6th, the Marriage of the Virgin. — 7th, th 
Virgin instructed by Anna. — 8lh, the Presentatio 
of the Virgin in the Temple.— plh, the Birth of th 
Virgin. — loth, Christ giving the Keys to St. Petei 
On the left are : ist, the Marriage of Cana in Ga 
lilee. — ad, the Contemplation of the Virgin at th 
Foot of the Cross.— 3d, the Descent from the Cross 
— 4^'^ ^^^ Descent of the Holy Spirit upon th 
Apostles. — 5lh, the Assumption of the Virgin. - 
6th, Religion, in the person of a woman offerin 
incense. — 7th, Prudence. — 8lh, Humility. —9th 
Meekness. — 10th, the Disciples of Emmaiis. Th 
carving of the stalls is by Du Goulon, Belleau 
Taupiu, and Le Goupel. The whole is surmounte( 
by an elegant cornice, crowned with eight larg 
paintings by eminent masters of theF'rench school 
The following is their order, beginning on the righ 
at the entrance of the choir : the Adoration of th< 
Wise Men, by Lafosse. — The Birth of the Virgin 
by Philippe de Champagne. — The Visitation of lh< 
Virgin, called the Magnificat^ the masler-piece o 
Jouvenet, who painted it with his left hand, aftei 
his right had become paralytic. — The Annuncia- 
tion, by Halle. — On the lefl are, the Presentalior 



of eight pilasters of the Ionic order, between the 
two laal of which are pannels of white marhle 
adorned with the monogram of [he Virgin. In tlie 
centre is a bas-relief by Van Cleve, representing the 
Saviour laid in the tomb. Above the altar rises a 
marble pedestal with a door of gilt brass, on wliich 
is sculptnred the Paschal Lamb. Above this is a 
gilt cross more than seven feel high. The sleps 
support six gilt candleslics, four feet eight inches 
hlj^h. Near the altar are two pedestals of wiiile 
marble ornamented with the armsof France. Tliat 
on the left supports the statue of Louis XUI, on his 
knees, offering to God his vow and his crown, by 
Coustou, jun. The stalne on the right reprcsmli 



74 NOTItE DAME. 

Louis XIV performing the same act of devotion, 
by Coysevox. They are of beautiful execution. 
The sanctuary is also adorned by six angels, cast 
in bronze, in 1716, by Roger Chabcrt. The extre- 
mity is occupied by a group in white Carrara 
marble, representing the Descent from the Gross. 
In the middle is the Virgin seated, her arms ex- 
tended, and her eyes raised towards heaven ; her 
knees support the head and part of the body of 
Christ, and an angel kneeling supports one hand, 
whilst another holds the crown of thorns. Be- 
nind the Virgin rises the cross, over which is hung 
a shroud. This group, a master-piece of the elder 
Coustou, was finished in 1733. The arcades of the 
sanctuary are closed by a railing of polished iron, 
surmounted by an Etruscan frieze. 

On the exterior wall of the choir, over small 
Gothic arches, there are some curious grotesque 
sculptures, executed in i357, representing subjects 
from the New Testament. 

Near the lateral door on the right is the cenotaph 
of a priest named Jean Yver, ornamented with rude 
sculpture representing the Last Judgment. He isi 
rising out of a tomb, on which is the figure of a 
dead body. St. Stephen and St. John are presents 
ing him to the Almighty. In the upper partes J Ci 
sus Christ, attended by Angels, holding in his hand 
a globe, and having two swords issuing from his 
mouth. 

Behind the sanctuary is a newly-built chapel de- 
dicated to the Virgin. It is adorned by a beautiful 
statue, executed at Rome, by Antonio Raggi, after 
a model by Bernini. This fine production was for- 
erly in the church of the Carmes, rue de Vaugi- 



i'6<t. h was erected in 1776 by liis widow, allti 
the designs of Pigalle, and consists of four inarblp 
ligttrts, larger Uiaii lile. The lid of a loinb appear, 
opened by a[i angel, aud ihe deceased, half issuiiiii 
from il, sIrctcLcs liis arms lowards bis consort 
»lio appears to be rusliing towai'ds liim. Deatb, 
inexorable, under the I'urni of a skeleton, an- 
iioiincFs, by showing his hour-glass, that the time 
hds elapscil. The angel extinguishes his torch, and 
tile tomb is about to close fur ever. 

A thapel to the left of thai of the Virgin containij 



A^^i^<a.A«^ 9^ A 



a splendid monument by Deselne, in honour of 
Cardinal Du Belloi, archbishop of Paris, who died 
in 1 806, in the hundredth year of his age. It repre- 
sents the prelate seated on a sarcophagus, bestowing 
alms upon an old woman supported by a girl j his left 
hand is placed on the Gospel, opened at the epistle 
of St. John, where are the following words : aimez- 
pous, supportez-vous les uns les autres^ soyez chari* 
tables. JVear him appears St. Denis on a cloud, 
pointing to the cardinal as his worthy successor; 
in his left hand h« holds a scroll containing the 
names of the cardinal's predecessors, the last four 
of which only are visible. The draperies are highly 
finished, the attitudes easy and noble, and the 
cardinals head is remarkable for expression and 
resemblance. In this chapel is a beautiful picture 
of the martyrdom of St. Hyppolyte, presented by 
the city of Paris. 

The sacristy, built in 1756, after designs by 
SoufQot, at the expense of Louis XV, is of splendid 
construction. It contains several relics, among 
which are said to be part of the Saviour's crown 
of thorns, and a piece of the true cross, which 
were formerly deposited at the Sainte Chapelle. 
Here are also many sacred vessels and ornaments 
of gold and silver, richly wrought, most of which 
were given to the church by Bonaparte. Among 
the ornaments is a splendid sun of gold, presented 
by his Majesty LouisXVIlI, in commemoration of 
the successful issue of the campaign in Spain, 
in i6a3. The sacristy formerly contained the in- 
signia and dresses used at Bonaparte's coronation ; 
which were presented by him to the church. His 
Imperial robes were also to be seen here. The 



The irSsor of the chvrcli ma j be seen 1^ ^PP^y* 
ig to the Sacristao, to whom it is usual to gire 

small fee. The hig^ religious i'estivab such »s 
^ster-Day, Whit-Sunday, the F^e Oieu, etc. are 
elebrated at Notrie Dame with great pomp. Upou 
aese occasions the Archbishop officiates. On the 
I St of January a solemn service is performed here 
nd in all the other churches of Paris, for the repose 
)f the soul of his late Majesty Louis XVI. At Notre 
)ame, the choir is augmented by the choristers of 
be King's chapel, and the singers of the Frraeh 
)pera House, and the Opera Comique. Midnight 
lass is also performed here on Christmas Eve, 
3 common with all the churches of Paris. The 
istivals special to the metropolitan church are, a 
olemn mass on the day preceding the opening of 
be legislative session, which is attended by the 
oyal family, and the members of both chambers^ 
nd a procession on the iSth of August, in exe- 
iition of a vow of Louis XIII, in thanksgiving for 
he pregnancy of his Queen, who had been married 
wen ly- two years, and had no children. The royal 
amily form part of the procession. 



£.glise de Vjissomptioriy 

Parish Church of the first arrondissenient. 

Rue St, Ilonore. 

This church formerly belonged to a communily 

f nuns, called les Dames de Vu4ssomption, to whoso 

onvent (now converted into barracks) it was cou- 

Iguous. It was begun in 1670, after tlie designs 



7- 



of Errard^ aud finished in 1676. In i8oa it be- 
came the parish church of the first arrondissement , 
to supply the place of the Eglise de la Madeleine 
de la Ville-TEv^que, which was demolished at the 
revolution. Hence it is sometimes called la Made- 
leine, The building is of a circular form, and is 
surmounted by a dome, sixty-two feet in diameter, 
enriched with gilding, and adorned with paintings 
by Lafosse, but which are much damage<l. The 
exterualdecoration of the dome is simple and grand. 
The portico, elevated upon eight steps, and deco- 
rated by eight Corinthian columns, crowned by a 
pediment, bears some resemblance to that of the 
Pantheon at Rome ^ an area in front of the chuixh 
is enclosed with palisades. 

This church contains a picture of the Assumption, 
by Blondel 5 one, representing the Return of the 
Prodigal Son 3 and another, Christ giving the Keys 
to St. Peter. 

A neat plain chapel, dedicated to Si. Hyacinthus, 
contiguous to this chvuxh, has recently been con- 
structed for the troops which occbpy the adjoining 
barracks. 

St, Louis y 

First chapel of ease to I'Assoraption, 

Rue St, CiniXf Chaussee d\4ntin. 

This small building, constructed in 1780 for a 
convent of Capucins, has only one aisle. The in- 
terior is ornamented with a cornice of the Doric 
order, and some sculptured arcades which support 
itj but its great simplicity and fine proportions 
^)roduce a noble effect. A truncated column of 



lifiil altar of while marble is elevated upon steps. 
At ihc exlrcniities of the aisles are two chapeU i 
one; dedicated to the Virgin, the olher lo the Holy 



St. Pierre de ChaiUot, 

Tliiid cliapel of ease to rAssompliou, 
Kuc dc ChiUUot. 
lliis old tliurcli is supposed to h»ve been or 
:.Uy itie cliapclol'a chateau- It is of Golhi< 
diitettiiri', but contains notliiiig lemaikabli:. 



St. Roch/ 

Parish church of the second arrohdiisement, 
hue St. Honore, 

This church Was erected upon the site of a chapel 
dedicated to St. Roch, built in 1687, upon ground 
where previously stood a chapel dedicated to the 
Five Wounds of Jesus Christ. 

This chapel, which became parochial in i655, 
being found too small for the increasing population, 
it was resolved to build a more spacious edifice. 
Louis XIV and Anne of Austria laid the first stone 
in i655, after which the works were suspended till 
1 720, when the celebrated banker, Law, who had 
recently abjured Protestantism to become Comp- 
troller-general of the finances, gave 100,000 thrres 
for its completion, which; however, was not fully 
executed till 1740* 

The fiwt designs of this church were furnished 
by Lemercier. It was subsequently continued 
atler those of Robert d6 Cotte, who also designed 
the portico. A peculiarity in this church is that 
it extends from north to south, instead of from 
east to west, the ground not allowing it to be 
placed in the latter direction. 

The portal is approached by a magnificent flight 
of steps extending the whole breadth of the church. 
The front is adorned with two ranges of columns 
of the Doric and Corinthian orders ; but is desti- 
tute of that grandeur and dignity which is always 
produced by a portico. 

*- Bonaparte strnck tbe name of Su Roch oat of the 
Calendar, to make room for St. Napolifon. 



formed orpalriarchs, piopliets, an'l Iioly women of 
the Old TesEamcDt, and bv apostlus an<l maityis of 
Chrlslianlu-. It is to be rcgrctled dial llils mng- 
wificent production should be sun<?rc(l to go to de- 
cay. Oh the allar is a group in white marbiu, by 
V. Anguier, which formerly adorned ibe sllar of the 
Val-dc-Griicc. It represents, in full-sized llgures, 
the infant Jesus in the maiificr, accompanied by 
the Virgiu and Joseph. At the sides of the altar 
are figures of Prudence and one of the Evangelists, 
by the same artist. At the entrance are placed, on 
the right, the Besurrcction of the daughter of 
Jairus, by Delorme, and Jesus blessing little clid- 
drcn i and on the left, La/artis raised from the dead, 



by Yien, and Jesus driving out the dealers from the 
Temple, by Thomas. Behind the altar is a circular 
medallion, in which Jesus Christ's appearance to 
Mary Magdalen is elegantly painted by Le Thiers. 
In the right aisle are pictures of the Triumph of 
Mardochoeus, by Jouvenet, and St. Sebastian, by 
Remy. The cupola of the next chapel represents 
the Triumph of Religion. The third chapel, which 
is dedicated to Christ Crucified, was constructed in 
1753, afler the designs of Falconet and Wailly. Its 
low vault, supported by massive pillars, and the 
sombre tint of its walls, inspire melancholy and 
devotion. • The figure of Christ, placed iu a re- 
cess, and receiving from above a dim religious light, 
is from the chisel of Michel Anguier. To the left 
is a Descent from the Cross, in plaster, by Dtoeine^ 
who also executed, in the chapels which surround 
the choir, eight bas-reliefs representing circum- 
stances of the Passion. 

In the third chapel to the left of the principal 
entrance, is an idegant monument to the memory 
of the Count d'Arcourt. It presents a cenotaph, 
>surmounted by a Genius triumphing over Time, 
and bearing a medallii n representing the portrait 
of the count. It also cqntains the mairble tomb of 
the learned Maupertuis, and a bust of the cele- 
brated Lenotre, who laid out the garden of th^ 
Tuileries. 

In the chapel opposite, is the magnificent monu- 
ment of the Duke de Crequi, who died in 1687. It 
consists of a tomb surmounted by a group of figures 
which represent that coromnnder dying, and France 
near him in tears. ' In the same chapel is the monu- 
ment of Cardinal Duboisj, archlMshop of Cambray, 



IS n vrliite marble group, by Letnoine, rcprcscnlirif; 
tiie Baptism of Christ. The pulpit is an olijcct o'l 
umversal admiration. It is of brown wainscot, en. 
lidied Willi gilding. The Four Evangelists, ofcolos- 
sai size, with their attributes, form its base, \ba\r. 
them rises a Genius, wlio, with outstretched arms, 
supports the body of the pulpit, the pannels ol 
which arc decorated witb bas-reliefs. The .sound- 
ing-board represents a rich white drapery, with a 
gold embroidered border which is thrown back liv 
an archangel. Therailingofthestairsisof polii^hcil 
iron and brass, of exquisite workmanship. 'I'h'. 
church formerly possessed the i 



ral celebrated persons, which were removed dur- 
ing the revolutionary troubles, Intt have been re- 
stored, and may be seen by application to tlie 
sexton. 

The principal festivals celebrated in this church 
are, the parochial £ite on the Sunday after August 
i6th (St. Roch'sday)5 Easier Day j Whit Sundays 
St. Louis's Day (August i5th) ; the mass in music, 
founded by the knights of St. Louis, performed on 
January aSth ; Holy Thursday; and Good Friday. 
On the latter day, strangers are advised to take 
their places under the organ, from whence a fine 
view is obtained of the figure of Christ at the ex- 
tremity of the church. 



Notre Dame de Lorette, 

Chapel of ease to St. Roch, 
Jiue du Faubourg Aiontmartre* 

This small chapel, erected in i646, has nothing 
remarkable to recommend it to notice. 



5^. Eustachey 

Parish church of the third arrondissement, 
Rh€ Trainee et du Jour, 
This church, which is considered the largest in 
Paris, except Notre Dame, was begun in iSSa, upon 
the site of a chapel dedicated to St. Agnes, but was 
not finished till 1642. Its architecture is a mixture 
of the Gothic and Roman styles. TTie western 
front is ornamented with a portico begun after 
the designs of Mansart de Jouy, and continued 
after those. of Moiiean, but which still remains 



boric and Ionic orders, mmMaated bj a pedi- 
ment, above which rise two square towers ad»nwd 
with Conntfaian colnnms. 

The project for bnildiiig this poTtico'was Tormed 
as early as the re^ ofLouij XIV, and »>,ooo francs 
for its coDstmction were given bj Colbert, wlio 
told the clergy t« let ibe interest aecumnlaie ^ifl 
■ttch a sum was realized as would defray the ei- 
pcBse. In i^Si the principal and interest amounted 
(o iii,i47 francs, and the portico was begun in 
i754> but the ram was upended before it was 
comoleted. 



tenth, the last Supper. In ihc chapel of our Lady, 
bcliiDd tlie choir, is a m.iiLie statue of the Virgin 
ivith tlie inTant Jesus, by Pigalle; and two Angels 
in bronze- A bas-rcHuf ta the right oilers tlic 
I'resenlalion in the Tuniple ; to ihc kn, Jesus 
Preaching in the Temple. This cliapcl whs con- 
secrated by Pope Pins VII, in 180^, as is attested by 
an inscription on llic wall. Tbu next chapel con- 
tains a picture of llie Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; 
ihe third, a Portrait of St. Aoiie; the lifth, a 
line picture by Descainps, representing the Con- 
vei-sion of St. Auguslin, guided by his molhcr. w ho 



renders thanks to Heaven and falls at the feet of 
St. Ambrose. In the nave fronting the chapel of 
our Lady, are three large pictv.res, representing, 
I St, the Baptism of Christ ; !2nd, St. John Preaching 
in the Wilderness; 5rd, jSt. Eustatius condemned 
to death. They were painted and presented to the 
church by an anonymous female artist. 

The interior of the choir is adorned by some 
fine pictures : the central one is St* Loub receiving 
the last Sacrament, by Doyen. To the left, the 
Adoration of the Wise Men, by Carle Van Loo ; 
and Moses in the Wilderness, by Lagren^. To the 
right, the Adoration of the Shepherds, by Carle Yan 
Loo j and the Martyrdom of St. Agnes, a copy from 
the Italian school. 

A spacious chapel on the right contains the 
Baptism of Christ, by Stella; and one on the left, 
the Healing of the Leper, by Van Loo. 



£glue des Petiis Peres ^ or Notre 
Dame des J^ictoireSj 

First chapel of ease to St. Eustache, 

Passage des Petiis Peres. 

In 1629, Loub Xin, in thanksgiving for the vic^ 

tones' which be- had obtained, and particularly for 

the capture of the town of la Rochelle, after a long 

siege, founded a convent of Barefooted Augustios,"" 

* This community were called PetiU Phres, because 
two <)f the most zealous for the establishment of their 
order in Paris, who were men of small stature, being 
introduced into the anti-chamber of Henry iV, the kinf; 
said, '* Qui sont ce$ pedis jpim^a T' from which time 
lliey retained the name. 



At die entrance of ifae choir on the lert, is the 
Coavemon of St. Augustine, bjGaillotj aod on 
the right, St. Monica, mother of St. Augiiatine, 
beholding in a dream the conversion of her son, 
bj the same artist. 

In a chapel to the right of the choir, is a statue 
or the Virgin; and in one to the left, a slaluc? 
ofSt. Augustine, in slonc. 

The chapel dedicated to Nufre Dame tie Suioiine 
is Ijiillt enlliely of maihle, and decorated willi 
lojilc arelilipcturi-, after the designs of Perrauh. 

In a chapel lo the right of the entrance is a 
iiiomiment to the memory of M. Vassal, a iiier- 
' hanl. I[ |>icsonls a cenotaph sumiouiilcd jii ;i" 



obelis]{, oh each side of which is a weeping figure. 
Bene^h a medallion containing a portrait of the 
deceased, is the following inscription: 

D. O. M. 

D. D. Johanni Vassal 

Re{(i, a secretis 

Parent! dilectissmo. Viro, 

Pieiate in Deum, obsequio in 

Regem Meriiis in Patriam^ 

ComracDdalissimo, . 

Filii Mxrentes posuerc. 

(iVb date.) 

Opposite this ehapel is one dedicated to St 
Genevieve, which contains the monument of th 
celebrated composer LuUi, by Cotton. It consist 
of a cenotaph of black marble, at the base of whicl 
are weeping females in white marble. A bus 
of the deceased is placed above the cenotap] 
between two genii. In front is the following in 
scription in gold letters : 

Jean Baptiste Lulli, 
MoRT Eir 168.7. 

In (he chapelU des Fonts is a remarkably beauti 
ful marble vase for the holy water. 

On the tower of this church is the lelegrap 
corresponding with Lille. 



Notre Dame de Bonne Nouvelle^ 

Second chapel of ease to St. Eustache, 

Hue Notre Dame de Bonne NouveUe. 

This church, which is not yet finished, promis« 
to be a magnificent structure. Upon its site stoc 
a chapel, which was destroyed in iSgS, during tl 



St. Germain VAuxerroiSj 

Parish church of the fourth arrondissenunt^ 

Place Sl Gemtain V AujcerroU. 

This church, which was parochial as early as^ 
e sixth century, was pillaged and destroyed bj 
e Normans, but rebuilt by king Robert in the 
iginniog of the eleventh century. During the 
cendaney of the English at Paris, in i433> it was 
most entirely rebuilt. At a remote period it 
Dssessed a school «nd many privileges. Having 
3Come the parish church of the court, much was 
)ne to embellbih it in different reigns; but most 
* its ornaments and monuments were removed 
' destroyed at the revolution. 
The portico, begun in i435, was never emrried 
> its full elevation. It is ornamented with statues^ 
id it is remarkable that at the revolution these 
ere spared, when those of other churches were 
3Stroyed. The portico has lately been thoroughly 
jpaired. 

Tlie railing of the choir is of beautiful execution 
he windows of the transept, and the church- 
ardcns' benches are also worthy of attention, 
bove the high altar is a picture by Pajou, pre- 
nted by Louis XVIII, which represents St. Ger- 
ain, bishop of Auxerre, receiving at Nanterrc 
le vow of St. Genevieve. In a chapel to the 
ght is a picture by Rouget, representing the Ado- 
Ulon of the Virgin. JNear the side door is a 
iiall picture of St. Louis receiving from the 

8. 



Archbishop of Sens, at his return from Pales 
the holy Crown of Thorns. The chapels in gei 
are of a mean appearance. In one of them 
monumenl to the memory of M. Elienne d'Al 
chancellor of France in 1624. It consists 
tomb of black marble, surmounted by a recum 
statue, holding in the right hand a book, ai 
the left, the great seal of France. Opposite 
is the monument of Etienne d'Aligre his 
chancellor of France in 1674- It resembles 
former, except that the statue is in a knei 
posture. The drapery of both is beautifully 
in cuted. At the revolution,^ these monuments ' 

III' removed to the Musee des Monumens Fran 

The chapel of St. Louis is remarkable for the \ 
of its architecture. ' 

A rich canopy, valued at2o,ooofr., hasrecc 

been presented to this church by Louis XVIII. 

It was by the bell of St. Germain I'Auxe: 

that the signal was given for the massacre 

a St. Bartholomew's day. The principal fest 

celebrated in this church are, the parochial 
on the last Sunday of July ; the Eve of St. Lo 
day (Aug. 24th), when all the members ol 
French Academy attend a mass in music, and 
1 1 President delivers an address ; the Fete Vieu^ v 

the royal family walk in the procession ; Tue, 
1 or Wednesday of Holy Week, when the r 

family receive the sacrament j Easter day, 
\\ Whitsunday. 



f 



lS'*. plitcent (le Paul, 

Chapei of CL15C lo St. Laureni, 
Itue Mnnthohii. 
'I'liis smull but iicat chapel \i rciiiai'ka1>le liir 
iving bccu tile burial place of the distlaguislicd 
liilanthropist to whom it is deiJicnted; and who 
as canonized in i^S;. To the left of ihc liish 
tar, is a (lictiii-e, by Pauline Colson, lepicseut- 
i; St. Gencviive engaged in devo'ltoiii tlie c\- 

n the right li u very inferior pictuve by iIip siini'i 
list. The cclcsliuj regions, a lignif of lU'' Al 



mighty and olher ornaments, in brilliant gilding, 
form a striking contrast to the general simplicity 
of the chapel. 

In the choir is a picture of Christ healing the 
sick, by De Juinne; it contains a fine figure of 
a girl, extending her arms towards the Saviour. 
The person of an old man is also worthy of 
attention ; but the principal figure, that of Jesus 
Christ, is cold and unmeaning. 



St. Nicolas des Champs , 

Parish church of the sixth arrondissement^ 
Rue St. Martin, 

A church which existed upon this spot at a 
very early period, became parochial in 1176. It 
was rebuilt in i4^o, and enlarged in 1675, at 
w^hich time the south portal, whose sculpture is 
highly esteemed, was constructed. Its architec- 
ture is in the Gothic style, but the embellishment 
of the interior is hiodern. 

The high altar is elegant, with regard both to 
form and ornaments. It stands in a kind ol 
portico, and consists of four black marble columns 
of the Composite order. The altar-piece, which 
represents the Assumption of the Virgin, is by 
Vouet, and the Angels by Sarrazin. The Chapel 
of the Communion, behind the high altar, is by 
Boullant. The new chapel of the Virgin is deco- 
rated with two pictures, representing the Repose 
in Egypt, by Caminade (presented by the City 
of Paris), and the Nativity. It has also a group, 
by Delaitre, of the Virgin Mary, with the Infant 
Jesus, treading the serpent under his feet. 



la tbe chapel of St. Vincent de Panl, ■> a picture 
of that saint clothisg a poor men. 

The churchwardens' pew is rema^aUe fe» its 
bold and noble stjle. 



St. Leu, 

Chapel ef ease to St- Nicolas des Champ*, 
itue A't. Denis. 



St. Elisabeth, 

Stcond chapel of case to St. Kicolas des Chomps, 
Hue du Temple. 
This church was built In i6i6, for a communiiy 
of nuns called Dames de SI. ElUabilh. The 
porlal is decorated with Doiic and Ionic pilasters i 
ihe interior architecture is Doric. The choir is 
painted in fresco, lo resemble a portico of Co- 
rinthian architeclure, which serves for the hi^f' 



St. Merriy 

Parish church of the seventh arrondissement. 

4 

Hue St. Marlin. 

This church was, in its origin, a chapel de 
cated to St. Peter, near which was a small mon 
tery, where St. Mederic or Merry died in the yi 
700. Hie name of St. Merry was first given 
it in 820, in consequence of its containing his ash 
Some years after it became parochial ; and fall: 
into ruins was rebuilt in the reign of Francis 
Its Gothic architecture is elegant, and it is ricJ 
adorned. 

The choir, thougii small, is as elegantly bi 
and ornamented jas any in Paris. The walls i 
covered with beautiful stucco in imitation of i 
marble, executed by the two celebrated statuar 
tkamed Slodtz. 

At the bottom of the sanctuary is a represc 
tation of the celestial regions richly gilt, having 
the midst the sacred vessel in which the host 
kept. Beneath is the tomb of St. Merry. 

Four chapels at the entrance of the choir C( 
lain the following pictures: viz. to the right, t 
Virgin and Child, by Van Loo, and St. Peter, 
Uestout. To the left, St. Merry, by Vouet, a 
St. Charles Borromeo, by Carle Van Loo. 

The chapel to the left, on entering the churc 
possesses a most curious window pane, the paii 
in|; of which is justly admired. There are ma 
other specimens of painted glass, by Pinegri< 
some of which, especially those in the nave, s 
linely executed. 

The chapel of the Communion deserves not! 





St. Merri, 




Manleaai. 


] 


1687 for 3 commuDily 


Bf 


Blanct Maateaux, on 


ICC 


g white. The CDSnent 


[Mil 


he church received ilis 


pre 


ornnmcntcd with pic- 




iiesentlns Haiv Mngtlalcii al the f^t i.t 


Ilhrisl. .-1 


nd the Miracleof llic Loaves »nd I'j.slifs. 


i.v Audr 


.Mii and a hocm! copv of St. Michael, .iftci 


Ki.phad 





5/. Francois d'jissisc. 

Second ciiapcl of case to St. Mcni, 

This clmrch, which belonged to a couvent of Ca- 
piiciiiesestnbli.shcd In i6ci3, is destitute of ai-cliilcr.- 
luralornamentsjjutlsextreinclyneal. TolliungliL 
of the entrance lo the choir is a statue of St. Denis 
on Ilis knees, and a picture rcprcsonilng the Coiu- 



munion of St. Theresa. To the left, is n ptctare 
of Jesu^ Christ impressing his wounds on St. The- 
resa, and a magnificent kneeling statue of St. 
Francis, in Egyptian marble. This statue, which 
was mutilated at the revolution, has been re- 
paired j and the head alone is valued at 6,000 fr. 
At the bottom of the choir are two pictures, by 
Schaffer, recently presented by the government. 
The one represents Jesus scourged, and the other, 
St. Louis visiting the multitude aHlicted with the 
plague. In a chapel to the right" of the choir 
is a fine portrait of St. Francis. Behind the high 
altar is a picture of the Baptism of Jesus, by 
Gabriel Guerin. It is not one of the best spe- 
cimens of the French school, but the colouring 
is tolerable : the figure of the Saviour is bad, and 
that of St. John has a warlike appearance. 

In a chapel to the right of the choir is a fine 
portrait of St. Francis. In the chapelle des Fonts 
is a small bas-relief under a glass, representing 
the decollation of John the Baptist. 



St. Marguerite^ 

Parish church of the eighth arrondissementy 

Jiue St. Bernard. 

This was originally a chapel, erected in i6a5y 
which became parochial in 1673, and at that 
period was almost entirely rebuilt. The popu- 
lation of the neighbourhood augmenting, a chapel 
contiguous to the choir was erected in 1 766, after 
the designs of Louis, and painted in fresco, by 
Brunetti. This chapel is forty-seven feet in length, 
thirty in breadth, and thirty-five in height. Its 



on which are painied the Death and Funeral of Ja- 
cob, and above the entrance, Adam and Eve driven 
from -ParadiM. A p!<Aure at the ertremltj, by 
Briard, Kpresenti souls delivered from Purgatory, 
and introduced into Heaven by Acgels. 



of Uuis Xyi, who after the dealli of his parents 
was placed under the care of a cobbler named 
Simon, whose i!l-lrcatriicnt caused his premature 
tiealh, was buried in tlie cemetery attacbed to tins 
ehiircii, 

St. jiinbroisc. 
Chapel of ease to St. Marguerite, 
line I'opincnurt. 
This church, erected in iGSg, is plain, and pos- 
sesses nolhinfi remarkable eccept two pictures if- 



ccnlly presented by the government. The one, 
by M. Laine, represents our Saviour. In th^ 
other, which is placed over the high altar, St. 
Ambrose is seen rescuing an Arian priest from 
tlic fury of the populace. The design and colour- 
ing of this picture are extremely beautiful. 



Notre Dame J 

Parish church of the ninth arrondissement. 

See p. 67. 



St. Louisy 

First chapel of ease to Notre Dame, 
lie St, Louis, 

Upon the site of this church, a small, chapel 
was erected in 1606, which was enlarged in.ifoa, 
.and dedicated to St. Louis and St. Cecilia. In the 
following year it became parochial, under the in- 
vocation of St. Louis. In 1664, it was improved 
and embellished imder the direction of Levau, 
and subsequently altered after the designs of 
Leduc and Doucet. The interior sculpture was 
executed after designs furnished by the painter 
J. B. Champagne. This edifice is elegant, and its 
pyramidal belfry, in open stone work, has a sin- 
gular appearance. Here lie the remains of the 
celebrated lyric poet Quinault. 

The government has recently presented to this 
church two fine statues by Bra, the one of St. 
Peter, and the other of St. Paul. They are placed 
on each side of the high altar, above which is a 
picture (also presented by the government), by 



_, ^1 oi, Louis causing tnose who had die 
r the plague to be interred. 
Au inscription to the right of the choir states 
lat this church was visited by Pope Pius Til ii. 

?o5. 

St. GervaiSj 

Second chapel of ease to Notre Dame, 
JYear the Place de Grkve, 

This church is of high antiquity, but its origin 

. unknown. In the reign of Charles YI it was 

Imost entirely rebuilt, and the dedication took 

lace in 14^0. The portico was constructed after 

he designs of Jacques Dcsbrosses. The iirst stone 

ras laid by Louis XIII in 1616, and it was com- 

letedin i6ai. toeing obliged to adapt his desigu 

) the great elevation of the old church, the archi- 

xl decorated it vvith three orders rising one above 

le other. The first consists of eiglit fluted Doric 

lunms, of which four project in iJic centre, aiul 

t snrmounlcd by a triangular pediment. A 

ige of the Ionic order arc on the same plan as 

1 1 below ^ but in the third range only four 

inlhian columns appear in tlic centre, and 

port a circular pediment. 

'le vaulted roof of the interior is lofty and 

• and the groinings support ornaments en- 

d Willi sculpture. 'Jhe ceiling of a chapel 

ated to the Virgin is worthy of attention. Jt 

•)0ssesses some windows, which, as well as 

of the church \i\ general, are very beautiful. 

» chapel to the right of the preceding, is a 

of line execution, from the chisel of" M 



Gois, representing the descent from the cross. Th« 
splendid mausoleum of the Marquis de Louvois, 
minister of war to Louis XIV, which was removed 
from this chapel at the revolution, is ahout to be 
restored to its former situation. 

In a chapel of the transept dedicated to the Holy 
Ghost, is an Ecce Homo, by Rouget. In the chapel 
of St. Denis, at the opposite extremity, is the 
Martyrdom of St. Juliette and her son St. Cyr, by 
Heim : they were presented by the govenunent, 
and are entitled to notice. 

This edifice being situated in a narrow dirty 
street, its fine architecture cannot be seen to ad- 
vantage. 

St. Paul and St. Louis, 

Third chapel of ease to Notre Dame, 
Rue St, j4ntoine. 

This church was begun in 1627 upon the site 
of a chapel belonging to an adjoining convent of 
the Jesuits which was founded by the Cardinal de 
Bourbon in 1682. It was finished in i64l, and 
Cardinal Richelieu performed the first mass in it 
in the presence of Louis XlII, the queen, Monsieur, 
and the high personages of the court. The form 
of it is a Roman cross, surmounted by a dome. 
The magnificent front, i44 ^^^^ i^ elevation, is 
decorated with two ranges of Oorinthian and one 
of Composite columns. 

Different opinions are entertained upon the 
effect of this structure. Some think there is too 
great a profusion of ornaments, ethers maintain 
that, from the grandeur of its scale, and the skill 



Paraguay), and on licr left, ihc Angel Mldiiid 
(reading Idolatry beneath his feet. These groups, 
as well as the angels above the pediment, are bj 

This church was deprived of almost »ll lis orna- 
munts durinij the revolution. It possesses a good 
picture, liy Smith, representing the liftiug up ol' 
the hra^eii serpent in the wilderness. 

Ill front of tills church is a spacious hut irregiil;<i- 
.-irea, with a fountain, cailed Fonlainu lie liireigiir, 
in the ctnti'e. 



St, Thoinas d'Aquiii^ 

Parish church of the tenth arrondissementy 
Rue St. Domi/iiquc. 
This church formerly belonged to a conveut o 
Dominicans, founded by Cardinal Richelieu. I 
was begun in i683j after the designs of Peter Bui 
let. The front, rebuilt in 1787 by one of ih 
monks, is decorated with two ranges pf cplumn 
of the Doric and Ionic orders 5 but presents a meai 
appearance. The interior is ornamented witl 
Corinthian columns. The ceiling of the cHoi 
represents the Transfiguration, by Lemoiuel T 
the left, on entering, is a fine picture by Guillemol 
of the Descent from the Cross, presented by Loui 
XVIH. On the sides of the choir are two clia 
pels : one dedicated to the Virgin, and the othe 
to St. Vincent de Paul. They are ornaimente^ 
with statues. Near the chapel of the Yirgk 
above a side door, is a picture of St. Catherine 
and over the door of the vestry, is one of St. Louii 
The high altar, adorned with eight marble co 
lumns, was executed by Martin, after designs b 
Lebrun. The conventual buildings now form tt 
jMusee d*ylrtillerie. 



Sir Pierre du Gros Caillou^ 

First chapel of ease to St. Thomas d'Aquin, 

Rue St. Dominique. 

This church, recently ercctcfd after the desigi 

of M. God, is remarkable for its beauty and sin 

pliciiy. The portico consists of four Tuscan c< 

iumus crowned by a triangular pediment. Ti 



aud surmounted by s 

St. Francois Xavier^ 
Or £glise des Missions tltrtutgir 



Jjy Boiiloyne; aiid otic represent iuy the AJora- 
lli,!. or tlie Kings, bj- Curie Van Loo. AdjoiuliiL; 
tlic i:lii)rcli is a seininciry lor iustriicling itiissioii' 
aiies ill tlic sciences Hiid laogiiagcs necessary I'or 
roiivcrtinj; idolaters iu Cliina and llie East. TI.e 
Vl.bc lidgewoilli, confessor la Louis XVI, was .^ 
iiiuiDberolthi; 



)4 ST. SULPICE. 

St. SulpicCy. 

Parbh church of the eleventh arrondissefnenf. 

Place St. Sulpice. 

This church "Vfas begun in i655 upon the site 
of an ancient chapel, originally dependent upoa 
the abbey of St. Germain des Pres, but which 
became parochial about the year 121 1. The first 
stone was laid by Anne of Austna, mother of 
LoudS XIV, and the works were not finished till 
1753. The architects successively employed were 
Levau, Daniel Guillard, and Appenord. The mag- 
nificent portico was executed by Servandoni, and . 
the erection of the towers was entrusted to an 
architect named Maclaurin. In 1777 M. Chalgrin 
was charged to rebuild these towers, wbicb he 
executed as it regards one of them, but the other 
is that built by Maclaurin, of which the sculpture 
was never finished. The front is three hundred 
and eighty-four feet in breadth, and is ornamented 
with two rows of Outed Doric and Ionic coluluus, 
surmounted by. entablatures which extend along 
the whole line of front. At the extremities rise 
the two towers, which differ in their styles o 
architecture. A large pediment placed by Servan 
doni between the towers, was destroyed by light 
ning in 1770, and is replaced by a balustrade. C 
the north tower is the telegraph which corr 
sponds with Strasbourg, and on the south, tl 
which corresponds with Italy. At the foot 
the towers are two chapels adorned with n 
Corinthian columns j one destined for a bap 
tery , the other as a sanctuary for the viaticum. 
i ent to the church is by a flight of sixteen st 



•ads with ibe precedii^, aux^^ , 

lof the Doric order, surmoDnled by Ionic. 
Xhe organ gallery is lupparted by a periMyle 
the Camposite order, by Serratiiloiil. 
The tdUl leogih of the building ii thrte luiD- 
red and thirtj-six feet. The arcades of the 
ave and the sanctuary are omamealed witb 
lilasten of the Coriuthiaa order, aud are covered 
«ith marble to the h^isl'^ <>f ^^^ '^^'' 

The cboir, built by Gittard, is ninety feet long, 
and fortj-two broad; aad its height, froa the 
pavement lo the roof, is oiuety-nine feet- It is 
ws of beautiful paiDtecl 
ural subjects. The high 
the uave and the choir, 
object. It ii of marble, 
itique tomb. The taber- 
of the coveaaut, and it 
candlesticks. It is sepa- 
rated from the nave by a railing of hranxe'gilt. 

At the extremity ol ibu clinir, is a chapel dedi- 
cated lo the Virgin, of wliOMi there is a while 
innrhle statue, hy Piyidlc; the effect pioiliicnJ 
l>y tills statue, from belns l>laccd in a recess 
lighted from above, is strikinj^ly beautiful. On 
the altar, of pure white marble, are coliiiiius of 
Rrov marble, of the Composite older, witli ^ill 
capitals sujipoiting a frit'ze, erowtied with severii! 
hron/c lifiures. This chupel is also ornamented 
with gilt festoons over Coriiilhiau |iil»iteri .ur- 



mounted by entablatures. Above the whole, rises 
a cupola painted in fresco, representing the As- 
sumption. 

A chapel to the right on entering, dedicated 
to St. Roch, is particularly worthy of attention. 
It was beautifully painted in fresco, by Abel 
Pujol in 182 1 , On the left is represented St. Roch 
in an hospital at Rome, praying for the healing 
of those infected with the plague ; on Utie right, 
that saint is seen dying in the prison of Montpelier, 
his native town ; above the altar is the funeral of 
St. Roch ; and on the ceiling, his apotheosis. In 
the arches are painted the four cities delivered 
i'rom the plague, according to the legend, by ^he 
prayers of St. Roch. 

The next chapel, painted in fresco by M. Vin- 
chon, in 1822, is dedicated to St. Maurice. On 
the right and left are represented two scenes in 
^the life of that saint. On the ceiling are seen two 
angels bringing him the palm of Martyrdom. In 
the arches are the four theological virtues. Above 
the r.ltar is a fine statue of St. Maurice. 

The first two chapels to the left on entering 
are also painted in fresco. In the first is a good 
portrait of St. Perpetuus. 

In a chapel to the right of the pulpit is a mag- 
nificent monument by Slodtz, to the memory of 
Languet de Gergy, a zealous pastor of this cburch» 
^ who contributed much to its embellishment. 

Two pictures presented by Louis XVIII are placed 
in chapels near the choir; to the right is St. Fiacre, 
son of Eugenius IV, King of Scotland, refusing 
the crown which his subjects presented to him 
utter the death of his father, by De Juinne. To 



lyirii 



side door to llic oliior. It ivss cxcculed liy llrtin 
Sully. On Ihe soulli side of llils meridian, i- 
lineed iht; obliquily oftlictcliptic, beingyj" aS' .'[o' . 
it t<:nnli^»tcs on tlic iioiih side by an ol>ciisk. 
Iicariiig this inscripllon : Gnomon aslroaomiciis ail 
ceriam Pa.'.diaUs JEquinOLiii ciploral ionem ; nno- 
tlier itiscription HKcril>C3 llic iiieasui-cmcnt ol' ibis 
meridian lo P. C. CI. Lc Moimior, of llie acudciiiies 
orP.-iris and Lontlon, in f/^J- 

The subterranean vaulls of St. Sulpico aiP re- 
markable for ihcir extent, and give an idea oT llic 
undent catacoml>s. 



St, Germain des Pres, 



First chapel of ease to St. Suipice, 
Place Su Germain des Pi'es, 

Before the revolution, this churfch belonged to 
one of the most ancient and celebrated Benedictine 
abbeys in France. Its founder, Childebert» son 
of Glovis, erected it on the site of an ancient 
Roman temple, it was first dedicated to the holy 
cross and St. Vincent, but St. Germain, bishop 
of Paris, being interred in one of its chapels, be- 
came its patron saint. It was rebuilt by the 
abbot Morard in ioo4, l*ut the works were not 
completed till ii63. The only part that remains 
of the edifice erected by Childebert, is the great 
tower or steeple at the end of the church. In the 
interior, the sculpture of the capitals bear^ marks 
of high antiquity. They all are different, some 
appearing to be in the Egyptian and others in the 
Greek style; but the greater part are Gothic. 
These have lately undergone repair, but the forms 
of the ancient sculpture have been strictly ad- 
hered to. 

In this church Were butied several kings of the 
lirst race, and many princes and illustrious men. 
The principal altars, which were destroyed at the 
revolution, have been restored, and the church has 
reccHtly been thoroughly repaired. In the chapel 
of the Virgin, behind the choir, was an altar of 
which the first stone was laid by Pope Pius VII. 
It has been removed to an adjoining chapel, and 
the high altar now occupies its place. 

On the right of the central door is a magnificent 
chapel dedicated to St. Margaret, of whom there 



produces a remarkably fine efTect. 

In the chapel of St. Francois de Sales, the re- 
mains of Mabillou, Descartes, and J. Bernardin de 
St. Pierre have been replaced. In a chapel oppo- 
site lies the celebrated Boileau. Two pictures pre-" 
sented by the government adorn this church ; one 
represents St. Germain, after having given to the 
poor all his goods, receiving gifts from King 
Cbildebert, by Steuben j and the other, Jesus 
preaching on the mountain, by Mademoiselle du 
Dercbaux. There are also some good pictures by 
Gazes Bertin, Leclerc and Verdier. 

The organ of this church is very fine. 

St. Severing 

Second chapel of ease to St. Sulpice, 
Jtue St. Seueriii, 

Fro^i the earliest period of the French mo- 

narcliv there existed on this spot an oratory and 
cells, where St. Scverln, a hermit, conrorred the 
monastic habit upon St. Cloud. In the ninth cen- 
tury, the Normans destroyed the juonastery. The 
cliurch J^ecame parochial about the middle of the 
(eleventh century. The present edifice was begini 
in I'iio, finished in 1493, and repaired in i68j j 
wlien the high altar was adorned with eii^ht 
marble pillars of the Composite oidcr, after the 
designs of Lebrun, who cliarged Tnby with the 
execution of the subordinate sculpture. Etiennc 
/'asquier, a cele])ratcd lawyer, poet and historian, 
\\\h) died in iGi5, the brotliers St. Marllie, and llu. 



i»Ai;T I 



10 



learned Morery, were interred in this church. In 
St. Peter's chapel are two pictures presented hy 
the government, representing the Death of Sap- 
phira, by Picot, and St. Peter healing the Lame 
Man, by Palliere. Although this church was con- 
verted into a magazine during the reign of terror, 
the architecture and windows are in good preser- 
vation. 

St. Etienne dii Mont^ 

Parish church of the twelfth arrondissement. 

Rue de la Montagne St, Genepiei^e. 

This church was originally a chapel for the 
hse of the vassals of the royal abbey of St. Gene- 
vieve, to which it was contiguous. To preserve 
it from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Paris, 
which did not extend over this abbey, the church 
of St. £tienne had no outer door, but a passage 
led to it from the church of St. Genevieve.* The 
church of St. Etienne, built in 1222, was suc- 
cessively repaired and enlarged in i^Qi, i558, and 
1616. The porch was erected in 1610, at the ex- 
pense of Queen Margaret, consort of Henry IV, 
who laid the first stone. The lofty vaults of this 
fabric are supported by such slender pillars that 
it has been sought to conceal their excessive small- 
ness by a narrow gallery, placed at one-third of 
their elevation, and bordered by a heavy balus - 
trade. The stone skreen^ of an extraordinaty 
form; and the stairs leading to it seem to be 
borne in the air by a kind of basket-work. Above 

* The old dburch. 



[ics ot ot. ijrenevieve. j.ne puipit is par* 
worthy of altentioo. Il was carved by 
d, after 1 3 designs of la Hire, and pre- 
colossal statue of Samson supporting the 
IS mass of which it is composed. In one 
hapels is the ancient tomb of St. Gene- 
'hich stood formerly in- the old church, 
eft of this chapel is a picture by Largil- 
isented by the city of Paris to the ancient 
of St. Genevieve, upon the cessation of 
; which desolated the capital for two 
The saint is represented in glory ^ below 
revot des marchands^ and the city officers in 
umc, followed by a great number of spec- 
rmong whom are portraits of Largilfiere 
and the poet Santeuil. In this chapel i^ 
autiful painted glass, executed by Pinai- 
presenting the stoning of Stephen. Tk^ 
bject is given in a picture over the en- 
TIils cluirch also possesses some curious 
represenling the cures wrought by the 
ion of St. Genevieve. In one, Louis XIII 
ost conspicuous ligure, and near him is a 
of Louvois, minister of war. A door lo 
3f ihc choir leads to a low gallery round 
the windows of which are adorned with 
and liigldy finisiied paintings. 
1 tlie choir, is a chapel dedicated to the 
V irgln, in which are the huml)le monu- 
f Racine and Pascal, with inscriptions 
lem on the wall. In this church were 
erred the learned Tournefort, Lesueur, 
bra ted painter P. Perrault, brother to the 



architect, the eloquent Lemaitre, and the abb^ de 
sacy. 

An old tower, towards the rue de Clevis, and 
the buildings occupied by the college d'Henri IV, 
arc all that remain of the once splendid and re- 
nowned abbey of St. Genevieve. 



St. Nicolas du Chardonnet^ . 

First chnpel of case to St. Etieniie du Mont, 

Rue St, P^ictor. 

Upon the site of this church stood a chapel, 
which became parochial in 124^: its reconstruc- 
tion was commenced in i656, and finished in 1709, 
except the portico, which is not yet begun. Its 
architecture is in good style, and it is rich in marble 
and paintings, many of which are by Lebrun. 
INear the entrance of the sacristy are two pictures 
representing the Martyrdom of the Maccabees, and 
St< Francis de Sales receiving the last Sacrament. 
In a chapel of the choir is a portrait of St. Charles 
Borromeo, by Lebrun. In the chapelle du Saint 
Sacrement is the Supper of Emmaus, the. Mauna 
falling in the Wilderness, and another Miracle of 
Moses, by Lebrun. In another chapel are St. 
Victof suffering his foot to be cut off, and a 
portrait of St. Theresa. In the chapel of the 
Virgin are the Descent from the Cross, and the 
Annunciation. In an adjoining chapel is the 
portrait of St. Clair. In the choir are two small 
pictures, one representing St. Medard, and the other 
the apprehension of Christ. In the chapel of St. 
Francois de Sales, is a good portrait of that Saint 



ST. JACQUES DU HAUT PAS. Il3 

in a medallion. In the chapel of St. Charles is 
the monumevt of Lebrun, in the form of a pyra* 
mid surmounted by his bust. At the base are 
two figures in a sitting posture, and between them 
an inscription. This beautiful gronp was exe- 
cuted by Coyzevox. On the left is the monument 
erected by Lebrun to the memory of his mother. 
She is represented in a recumbent posture lifting 
up her tombstone, and looking towards heaven. 
A picture, representing the Daughter of Jairus 
raised to Life, has been presented by the govern- 
ment, and another, of Christ upon the Mount of 
Olives (by Detouches), by the city of Pans. The 
remains of Santeuil, the celebrated Latin poet, 
have been placed in this church, with the tomb 
that covered them at the abbey of St. Yictor. His 
epitaph was composed by Rollin. 



St. Jacques du Haul Pas^ 

Second chapel of ease to St. Etienne du Mont, 

Rue St. Jacques. 

This church was begun in i63o, upon the site 
of one erected in i584. The first stone was laid 
by Gaston of Orleans, only brother of Louis Xllf. 
When the choir was built, the works were suspend- 
ed for several years, but were afterwards resumed 
by the munificence of Anne de Bourbon, Duchess 
of Longueville, whose entrails were deposited in 
the church. It possesses a good picture of the en- 
tombing of Christ, by Degeorge. CassinI, the cele- 
brated astronomer, was buried here, as also I he 
Abbe de St. Cyran, whose epitaph is preserved in 
the sanctuary J the learned Lahirc, and the virtu- 



1 n. 



ous Cocliiu, rector of the parish, who sold his 
furniture and even his library to found an hospi* 

lal for his indigent parishioners. 



iS"^. Medardy 

Third chapel of ease to St. Eticnuc du Mout, 

Rue Moiiffetard. 

As early as the twelfth century, this was the 
parish church of the village of St. Medard« in 
which it was situated. It was repaired and enlarged 
in i56t, i586, and i655, and is remarkable for its 
Gothic architecture. In 1784 the interior was 
embellished and the high altar erected after the 
designs of Petit-Badel, who also rebuilt the chapei 
of the Virorin. The celebrated advocate Patru, 
called the French Quintilian, Nicole, the moralist^ 
and the once famous deacon Paris, were interred 
here. The miracles said to be performed at the 
tomb of the latter, in the reign of Louis XV, gave 
rise to the sect of the Com^ulsionlsts, whose ex- 
ix'sses were carried to such a pilch, that the 
government was under the necessity of interfering. 



iSV. Genevie{>e^ or Pantheon ^ 

Rue St. Jacques. 
Ciovis, tlic iirst christian king, at the solicitation 
ol' Clotilda the Queen, and St. Genevieve, founded 
near his palace, upon the Mons Leucotitius, a 
diurch, which was consecrated by St. Hemigius, 
and dedicated to the apostles Pclcr and Paul. To 
the churcli, a conimunilv of scculafr canons "was 
afterwards attached, and in process of time their 



ihe vaults of the building where donner 
vs were contrived, which give them the 
anee of the Gothic style, and shed ii fa- 
: light upon the delicate sculpture which 
Is in the edifice. The height of the princi- 
ult from the beautirui stone and marhle 
!Dl, is one hundred and seventy feet. The 
r is adorned with one hundred and thirty 
lolumns of the Corinthian order, support- 
entablature of which the friexe 'a oma- 
i Ld foliage. Above, are galleries skirted 
laluHrades. The spherical vaults of llic 
are adorned with bas-reliefs. The pertico 
pmed of twenty-two lluted Corinthiim c«- 



diameter, wliicti support a triangular pedim( 
one hundred and twenty feet in breadth, 
twenty-four in height. In the tympanum i 
bas-relief in bad taste, representing a cross in 
midst of clouds. Upon the plinth is the follow 
inscription . 

D. O. M. SUB INVOC. S. GENOVEP^. LUD. XV DTCAVI' 
LUD. XVIII RESTITUIT. 

The dome which crowns this building i 
noble object. It is surrounded by lhirty-1 
Corinthian columns, and presents the appeara 
of a circular temple, above which rises a cup* 
surmounted by a lantern, and terminated b 
ball and cross of bronze gilt, exquisitely wrouj 
The ball is five feet in circumference, and 
cross fourteen feet and a half in height. Roi 
them is an ornamental railing of the same me 
The total height of the dome is two hundred 
eighty-two feet. When the church was nei 
finished, several fractures appeared in the pil 
which supported the dome, and this edifice, wl 
had cost fifteen millions of francs, was thr 
ened with destruction. It tlien became neces? 
to replace the light and graceful columns 
solid masses ornamented with pilasters. The \ 
dows were also walled up, in order to incr 
the solidity of the building. 

Under the pavement is a vast sepulchral va 
Two doors, situated at the entrance of the char 
and a double flight of steps lead to a chapel, wJ 
occupies the entire space under the eastern n 



it i» said, by M. Pastoret: — A iix grands hommtsia pa- 
trie reconnaasanie. Uj the same decree, Mirabcau, tlon 
laltjly dead, mil declared norlEiy orilii! honour, anil 
Ihc National Aeseinbl; atteodcd lug obieqiiies. Tlie 
same year the remains of Voltaire and itousseau wire 
liansporled vvilltgreatponiptathcPanlhcon. In i%iG, 
Bunaparle ordained Ihat tbe Panlbeon should be coni> 
[ileled, and restored to Divine wor^bip, under the in- 
vueatioQ of St. Genciiuve ; bat il was uot intended tu 
nee the destination given to it by tbe National Ai- 
bly. Amoo^ the persona deposited in this cbiireh, 

E» thoie before mentioned, arc llui 

nng(^, (hcDulehaniiriil DcU'int'r-. 

[Duke de MoutebclTo), and Vice-A'tmiMl Tbcvtu^.rd. 



rbange 
sembiy. 
Ihe principi 



110 ST. GENEVIEVE, 

The tombs of Voltaire and Rousseau have been remor- 
ed from their original situation since the restoration, 
and placed in an obscure vault. The church of St. Ge- 
nevieve was consecrated on the 3d of January 182a, 
by the Archbishop of Paris, and divine service is now i 
performed in it. It is neither a parish church nor a * 
chapel of ease, but is supplied by missionaries. The 
bas-reliefs and ornaments representing modern philo- 
sophy, with which the church was embellished when it 
was converted into a Pantheon, are partly destroyed and 
replaced by emblems of religion and royalty. The paint- 
ing of the dome is by Gros, who received 100,000 fr. 
for his labour, and was created a baron upon a visit 
made to the church by Charles X. It is a magnificent 
composition, extending over a superficies of 5a56 square 
feet. Upon the lower part are four groups, -united to- 
gether by figures of Angels and other emblems, each of 
which represents a Monarch of France, who by the 
lustre of bis reign or the influence of his age formed an 
epoch in the history of the country. The first is Clevis, . 
who, at the voice of his Queen Clotilda, embraces 
Christianity. The next is Charlemagne with his Qneen : 
both are in an attitude of devotion, and the King holds 
in his hand a globe^ the symbol of empire. The third 
group is St. Louis, who shows to his consort the fruit 
of his labours in the cause of religion ; Angels bear be- 
fore him the standards of his two crusades, and on his 
left is a crown of thorns upon a cushion. The fourth re- 
presents Louis XYIII, accompanied by the Duchess of 
Angouleme, protecting with his sceptre the infant Duke 
of Bordeaux; two Aneels hold open near him the tables 
of the Charter, and throw afar the funereal crape with 
which the cradle of the youo^Duke was surrounded. Ail 
these august personages appear to render homage to 
St. Genevieve, who i^ descending towards them upon a 
cloud. In the heavenly regions are seen Louis XVI, Mi^ 
rie Antoinette his Queen, Louis XVII, and Madame Eli* 
zaheth. A gleam of light at the loftiest point indicates the 
abode of the Deity. The chief festivals celebrated in this 
church arc Jan. 3 (St» Genevifeve*s Day^ ; Nov. a6lh (Paio- 



i the archtHshop of 
Paris generally officiates. 

To visit the vaults and ascend tlie dome, appli- 
cation must be made to the Concierge in the small 
wooden lodge at the corner of the steps.' They 
■re open to the public from ten o'clock in llie 
niorning till six in the evening. 



Chapelle Expiatoire^ 

Rue d'Anjou, St. Honors. 

The spot upon which this chapel is erected was 
□riginally a burial groi 
parochial churt^ de la F 
cution of the uofortonati 
in 1793, tbey were here 
tion in 1814, it was decn 

h uld be dit'n rr d 

h rch o S Den m 



latles, closed by iron gates. Under lliu 
: tombs, surmounlcd by white m.irblo 
encircled bv cypi'csa iind poppli's. ■.\u<' 



- CJ' *J M. M. 



ornaments, and the inscription — 

Has ullra melas qnicscant. 

The roof of the galleries is ornamented with 
garlands of cypress and other emblems. The 
principal entrance is in the form of a tomb, and 
leads, by sixteen steps, to a vestibule situated at 
half the height of the galleries j a second flight 
of steps conducts to a platform, from which rises 
the portico, consisting of four Doric columns, 
supporting a pediment. Twelve steps lead into 
the chapel. The interior of the dome and cupolas 
is ornamented with roses 5 through the centre of 
the former light is admitted by a window of 
coloured glass. The pavement is formed of vari- 
ous coloured marble, wrought in mosaic work 
to correspond with the roof. Around the chapel 
are fifteen niches, destined to receive statues of 
the most distinguished victims of the revoluliou. 
From this spot a double staircase leads to a sub- 
terranean chapel, in which will be placed a monu- 
ment to the memory of Louis XVI and Marie 
Antoinette. The ^fect of the building, although 
of small dimensions, is highly imposing, and 
cannot fail to produce interesting associatious in 
the mind of the beholder. A hedge of cypress 
conceals it from the view on entering from the 
street, and forms a square which accords with 
the destination of the building. 



Bouleuard de la delein^. 

middle of the e ;eenth century, « 
uated in the vili oi the Ville-rEveque*' 
nd greatly inadequate to the eitent of 
lation of the neighbourhood, it was 
d to demolish it and erect a new one 
f the rue Royale, in order that it might 
lificent object from the Place Louis XV. 

stone was laid in 1764, and between 
d and the revolution, the plan was seve- 
;hanged, and the works suspended, 
rte having formed the project of con- 
lis building into a Temple ofGlory, where 
} of military heroes would have been in- 
n tablets of massive gold, the whole 
IS taken down, and the present one, in 
of a Roman Temple, was begun in 1806. 
ution of this project was interrupted a 
i after by political events. A royal or- 
if tlie year 18 iG, decreed lliat lliis edilicc 
; completed, in order to place in it c\- 
lonuinents to Louis X\ 1 ajid his fjiieen, 
[I and tlie Princess Elizabeth, 
iiding is now going on ^ its elfect, \\ hen 
will equally excite the admiration oi" the 

the Juan of taste, and tiic uneilucated 

•" Now nnnexcd lo'l\iiis. 



i I 



atider lb < ion of the British v^on^ 

Jl'to the :oniroi of the Ambassador. 



The Oratoirey 

4^ Rue St. Honore. 

meh was built for the Pretres de VOra- 

fibr, by Lemercier, on the site of the 

itonchage, which had previously be^ 

Duchess de Montpensier, and the 

^rieite d'Estrees. The regularity of 

rtr^, and the exact proportions of the 

"'dler which reign throughout the 

been much admired. The congre- 

^retres de VOratoire was suppressed 

several years the church served 

meetings of the quart ier where it 

jbiBo^ it was ceded to the protestants 

llpission of Geneva, who now celebrate 

flip in it, conjointly with tlie members 

rch of England. Service is perrorincd 

2\Q\\ Siindav al noon ^ and in English 

iplain ol" the embassv, al three in the 

^ The sacrament is adinlnislcrod on 

W m the first Sunday of the nionUi, al 

rning. Inhere is no salary altacli- 

•s, and ihe expenses ol ihe eliurcli 

by volunlary snl)Scriplion. The 

s lor the use ol this cluirch 1,000 

ir, to be distributed lo poor French 





Tower of St. Jacques de la Bouchcric, 

Rue St. Jacques de la Bouciierie. 

The church, of which tliis lower is the only part 
that remains, is first mentioned in a bull of Gaiix- 
tus II, dated 1 119, as a chapel dedicated toSt.Ankie. 
In the reign of Philip Augustus it became paro- 
chial, and continued to exist till 1801, when, be- 
ing in a state of complete decay, it was taken down, 
and a mart for old clothes, called Cour de Com* 
mercey formed upon its site. 

The tower is a monument of the true and most 
fantastic style of Gothic architecture, and its height 
exceeds that of the towers of Notre Dame. It was 
built by order of Francis I, and cost only i,5oo fr. 
The statues of the Four Evangelists, with which it 
is decorated, were executed for 25 fr. It is Sub- 
stantially built and is in a perfect state of preser- 
vation i but it is to be regretted that some houses 
have been built at its base. This tower is used as 
a shot manufactory by M. Moulin, who, for a 
small fee, allows visitors to ascend its summit^ 
from whence an extensive view is obtained. M. 
Moulin requires that application should be made 
immediately to himself^ and no person is permitted 
to inspect the manufactory. 



PROTEST ANT CHURCHES. 

Paris contains three churches dedicated to tlie 
protestant worship. Divine service is also per-* 
iormed every Sunday at a quarter past eleven 
o'clock, in a chapel at the British Ambassadors 
residence. By an arrangement effected by Sir 



m r ranee wlicre divine worsnip is periormed 
ling lo the riles of the Church of EogUnd 
aced under the direction of the British Con-r 
ubject to the control of the Ambassador. 



The OratoirCy 

Rue St. Uonore. 
i church was built for the Fret res de VOra" 
in if)2i, by I^mercier, on the site of the 

du Bouchage, which had previously he-r 
1 to the Duchess dc Montpensier, and the 
iful Gabrielle d'Estrees. Tlic regularity of 
xhitecture, and the exact proportions of the 
thian order which reign throughout the 
ng, have been much admired. The congre- 
I of the Freires de VOratoire was suppressed 
yi \ and for several years the church served 
le public meetings of the quartier where it 
;. \n 1802 it was ceded to tlic prolcstaiits 
I confession oi (icncva, wlio now cclchratc 
t\ orsliip in it, conjoinllv with llic nicnihtrs 

Clmi'cli of Enj;Ian(l. Service is perlornu'*! 
•ncli cv( IV Sntiday a I noon ; and in En^lisli 
e chaplain ol llic cnil)ass\, at tlnec in the 
oon. Tlie sacrament is adininislcrod on 
tls, and on llic iirst Sunday olllic nionlb, al 
I llic inf»rni)i2. There is no salar\ attach- 

the duties, and the expenses ol the church 
IclVaved by voluntary subscription. The 
liu ^Ives lor the use ol" this church 1,000 
; a yeai% to be distributed lo poor French 
>lants. 



Hue ot, ^ntoine. 
This small church was built by F. Mansart, in 
1 632, for the Dames f?e la Visitation. Its appear- 
ance is pleasing, and it gave to the nephew of 
Mansart the idea of the niagnilicent dome of the 
Invalides. The dome is supported by four arches, 
between which are Corinthian pilasters crowned 
with a cornice. It now belongs to the Calvinists. 
Service is performed here in French on Sundays 
and festivals, at eleven o'clock in the morning. 



The Lutheran Churchy 

Rue des Billettes, 
This church formerly belonged to a convent of 
Carmelite Friars, and was built in 1754, after the 
designs of Frere Claude, a Dominican. In 1790 
the convent was suppressed, and in 1808 the 
church was bought by the city of Pans, and 
given about four years after to the Protestants of 
the Augsburgh Confession. The building is on 
a small scale, and altogether without taste. Ser- 
vice is performed every Sunday, at twelve, in 
French and German alternately. A school on 
the Lancasterian plan for children of both sexes 
has been established at No. 18, in the same street, 
to which visitors are admitted from ten o'clock 
in the morning till three in the afternoon. 




JEWISH i>YINAGOGUES. 

Jews have in Paris a central consistory, 
o synagogues, which are situated at No. 17, 
»tre Dame de Nazareth 5 and No. 3, rue St. 
des Arts. The former may he seen daily 

ilf-past seven o'clock in the morning, or five 

le evening. 



SEMINARIES. 

See Public Schoofs. 



CONVENTS. 

onastic vows were abolished by the Consti^ 
t Assembly, and have not since been re-esta- 
led by any positive law. Permission, however, 
^ren to make vows for a few years. Upon 
principle, several female communities have 
fornicd in Pcuis since the revolution, wlileh 
isl principally upon their own lesources. The 
wing is a lisl : 

10 Dames BenedLctines de V Adoration per- 
■'lie diL St. Sacrernent liavc a convent at INo. 12, 
St. Genevieve, which lias an extensive board- 
ciiool, receives poor Inlirni nuns, and aflords 
litous instruction to children, 
second convent ol" the same order was esLa- 
cd at the Temple, No. 89, rue du Temple, 
Jie late Princess Louisa de Conde, lor the 
liUon of" profanation and the instruction ol 
h. Ilic name ol tins convent reminds us ol tiie 
lous and militarv order ol ^llic Knlglils Teiu- 



I I • 



pai establisliTTient in rrancc. 

Before the revolution, the Temple consisted of 
two distinct parts, viz. tbe enclosure of the Temple, 
properly called, and the palace of the grand Prior. 
The former w^as private property, and consisted 
of several hotels with gardens, and many inferior 
dwellings for tradesmen and artisans ; and also 
for insolvent debtors, who took refuge at the 
Temple to avoid arrest, it being a privileged place. 
As a considerable trade was carried on here, the 
rotunda or bazaar, surrounded by porticoes, was 
constructed in 1781, to increase the revenues of 
the grand Prior. 

The church of the Temple was demolished at 
the revolution, when tlie order of St. John of 
Jerusalem was suppressed, and upon its site and 
some ground contiguous was formed the Marche 
au vieux Linge. 

The palace of the grand Prior is all that now 
remains of the ancient Temple, It was built 
about the year i566, by Jacques de Souvr^, grand 
Prior, after the designs of Dclisle. The Chevalier 
d'Orleans, who was afterwards invested with that 
dignity, caused considerable repairs to be made to 
his palace, in 1721. In 1812, it was repaired and 
embellished with the design of converting it into 
a residence for Uic ministre des cultes. The front 
is decorated with a portico formed of Ionic co- 
lumns. On each side is a fountain in the form of 
a pedestal, surmounted by a colossal statue by 
Pujol. The statue on the right represents the 




/ards the court is decorated with eight 

looic columns, above which are stone 

of Justice, by Dumont ; Hope, by Lesueur ^ 

incc, by Foucou; and Prudence, by Boi- 

2 the restoration, when the Temple was 
by Louis XYIII to the Princess de Conde, 
converted into a convent, it underwent con- 
able alterations, and a new chapel was erected 

.ween the palace and the Marche du Temple. 

e front is ornamented with a portico formed of 

aic columns, surmounted by a triangular pedi- 
icnt, in the tympanum of which are sacred and 
royal emblems. On each side of the door is a 
niche for a statue, The interior of the chapel is 
decorated with architecture of the Ionic order. 
The high altar is remarkably splendid^ and is 
ornamented with two pictures by Lafond, one 
representing St. Louis, and the other St. Clotilda. 
On tlie left is a copy of tlie Holy Family, prc- 
scnlcd by llic govcriinicnt. On the rlglil is a 
r;illing wiilcli separates llie nuns from the pul)li<'. 
wlio are adiniUcd on Sundays during divine ser- 
vice. The organ is al)Ove the high altar, and is 
played by one ol the nuns. The chapel contains 
lour otin r altars. 

The garden (d'lhe Teniple presents nolbing le- 
iiiarkabh?. formerly there stood in il a sfpiare 
lower, (lankefl by lour round towers, \vill» a 
building on tlie norti) side, surmounted by two 
• Uriels much lower than the rest "^I his Itnvfi 
which was built in t?)o(), bv a commander oi ih- 
jrder, named Jaui Ic Turcj served on sevcial oc 



was here tliat, after a confinement of five months, 
that unfortunate monarch made his will, and 
look his last adieu of his family. The tower of 
the Temple was demolished in i8i i ; but the plan 
of it is figured on the ground which it occupied. 
A short time ago, a young girl having climbed 
over the garden wall by mounting upon a hack- 
ney coach, a guard-house has been constructed 
at the end of the garden, and sentinels are regu- 
larly upon duty under the walls. 

The chapel may be seen daily by applying to 
the porter of the convent, to whom it is usual to 
give a small fee. Permission to visit the convent 
cannot be obtained under any pretext whatever. 

The Dames Jlnglaises, No. 23, rue df s Foss^ 
St. Victor. This is the only English convent in 
Paris. The nuns, who must be'English by birth, 
are of the order of St. Augustine, and keep an 
extensive boarding school. 

The Dames Carmelites have three convents in 
Paris, one at No. 67, rue d'Enferj a second at 
]Vo. 2, rue de Gassini; and a third at No. 70, 
rue de Vaugirard. The church of the latter has 
been much admired. The front is composed of 
pilasters of the Tuscan order, supporting an en- 
tablature, above which, in the centre, is a large 
window, and on each side of it a niche containing 
a^ statue. Above the window is an open pedi- 
ment, having in the centre a niche with a statue 
of the Virgin and Child. The pediment is sur- 
mounted by a plinth supporting a cross. Above 




^old lellers. 



The extremities of the front are sultaounted by 
stone balls bearing crosses. The Tuscan order 
reigns throughout the interior architecture. The 
church is in the form of a Latin cross, supporting 
a dome, in the vaults of which is a painting in 
fresco, by Flamel, representing the Ascension of 
Elijah into Heaven. On each side of the nave 
are vaulted chapels, two of which are decorated 
with a profusion of painting and gilding. Each 
extremity of the transept also forms a chapel. 
That to the left is dedicated to the Virgin. It is 
adorned with red marble pillars, the bases and 
capitals of which are gilt, and possesses some bas- 
reliefs that are worthy of attentibn. The group 
of the Virgin and Child in plaster, is a cast from 
one in alabaster, which was removed from this 
chapel at the revolution, and is now in the chapel 
of the Virgin at Notre Dame. The chapel to 
the right is dedicated to St. Theresa. In front 
of the altar is a painting representing that Saint 
and her brother, when cliildrcn, overtaken l)y 
tlieir fatiier on their road from home on foot, to 
suffer martyrdom among tlie Heathens. Aljove 
the altar is another picture of the Ecstasies of 
St. Theresa. The marble pillars of this chapel 
liavc also gilt hases and capitals. The chancel is 
ornamenled with four pillars of black marble, 
with gilt bases and capitals, supporting an en- 
tablature decorated with sculpture, and crovvncd 
by a circular pediment. On each side is a niche 
in which arc statues of St. Peter and Mary Mag- 



ture of the Death of St. Joseph. There are pic- 
tures in other parts of the church, but none of 
particular merit. On each side of the choir are 
railings, within which the Dames Carmelites sil 
during divine service. 

This church excites melancholy reflections from 
having been the spot where the massacres began 
in Paris, on the dd and 5d of September.. Han- 
dreds of priests, who bad been imprisoned in the 
convent, were then murdered here. An aanual 
funeral service is performed for them in this 
church, on the anniversary of the massacre. 

The Dames de la Fisitation have three con- 
vents in Paris, one at No*n20» rue des Postes, 
wbere a boarding school is kept ^ a second in the 
rue de 'Vaugirard, where there is a gratuitous 
boarding and day school for the children of the 
poor ^ and a third at No. 6, rue JNeuve St. Etienne. 

The Dames de la Congregation de V Adoration 
perpetuelle du Sacre Coeur de Jtfsus^ Abba ye aax 
Bois, rue de Sevres, keep a boarding school for 
young ladies, receive widows and aged maiden 
ladies, and have a gratuitous class of day scholars. 

Two Congregations de Notre Dame keep board- 
ing schools, and instruct poor children gratui- 
tously. One is in the rue de Sevres, near the 
Boulevard^ the other at JNo. ii, rue des Beroar- 
dins. 

The Dames du Calvaire, rue du Petit Vaugirard. 
Boarding school. 

The Dames Dominieaines de la Croix, JMo. 37, 



education. 

The Congregation de la Mete de Dttu, ^05. •). 
and 4? rue Barbette. This house is a dependence oi 
the Maison Royale of St. Denis, for educating the 
(laughters of members of the Legion of Honour. 

The Dames de la Misericords, ^o. a5, rue Neuve 
St. Genevieve. Boarding school, and gratuitous 
instruction. 

The Chanoinessea de St. August in or Congre- 
gation du Sacre Cceur, rue Picpus. This com- 
munity is large. It is designated an expiatory 
association who offer perpetual adoration. They 
afford gratuitous instruction ; and, although their 
revenue is but small, the establishment maintains 
nearly four hundred persons of both sexes. 

The Dames da SacrS Cceur, rue de Varennes, 
form a considerable community, andalford in- 
struction to a large class^ 

The Dames de VlmmacuUt Concept ion-^ called 
Recollettes, me d'AnjoUj St. Hononfi. This con- 
vent was founded in 1669., by Qiiccn]MarIaTliorcsn. 
The nuns devote lliemselves to olTeriiii; up praveis 
lor the prosperity ol" France and the royal iaiiiilv. 

The Darncs V rsiiliiies Jiave two convents, our 
ui the rue ^N'cnve Aolre Dame des (Champs, ami 
the other at IN'o. vx, rue du Petit \ augirard. Thev 
keep l)oarding schools ; and the latter has a i^i a - 
luitous class. 

The Dames Bernard ines {of the ancient convent 
•)tPort lloyal^, l\o. '?.;"), rue de r.\rV)alelre. lioard 
'u^ scViool. 



126, Vieille rue du Temple. This convent affords 
an asylum to ladies of small fortune, and is dedi- 
cated to education. 

The Filles de la Croix, No. 24, Place Royale. 
These nuns have an extensive boarding and day 
school, and a gratuitous class. The convent re- 
ceives i,5oo francs per annum from the adminis- 
tration of the hospitals. 

The Benedictines, No. 5, rue du Regard. A 
small boarding school for orphan girls. The 
government grants this institution 3, 000 francs a 
year, for five pupils nominated by the king. 

The Congregation des Sceurs de St. Vincent de 
Paul, No. i32, rue d^i Bac. The community of 
the Filles de la Charite, founded by St. Vincent 
de Paul in i635, now consists of about 2,5oo 
nuns, who devote themselves to nursing the sick 
at the hospitals and at home, the instruction of 
poor children, and the care of foundlings and 
orphans. This establishment receives annually 
25,000 francs from the government, in order that 
a greater number of novices may be received to 
furnish nurses to the hospitals. 

The Dames de St, Maur, rue St. Maur. This 
convent was established in 1666. The nuns keep 
a boarding school, and afford gratuitous instruc- 
tion to the poor. The government grants this 
institution 5,ooo francs a year to facilitate the 
means of finding novices to go to the colonies. 

The Dames de St. Thomas de Villeneuve have 
three convents in Paris. The first is in the cul- 
de-sac des Vignes, rue des Postes, where a gra- 
tuitous boarding school is kept. The second is 



€ EN 

o. 27, rue de V In?] 

lions of nurses toe 
ya receives from me goi 6,000 i 

ear. The third, in the de res. 

Boulevard, serves as hi tax 

Idren. 

The Dames du Refuge, or de St, Michel^ rue 

Jacques. The principal object of this insti- 

tion is to open asylums in large towns for 

mitent prostitutes, and for females whose virtue 

exposed to danger. It receives from the gb- 

emment i5,ooo francs a year. The Filles de la 

Vladeleine^ or Repenties, recently established by 

Jonations of the royal family, are under the 

direction of a superior and an assistant chosen 

from the Dames du Refuge, 

The Dames de la Croix St. u^ndre. No. 2, rue 
tic Sevres. The object of this establishment is to 
afrord instruction to poor girls, to prepare school- 
mistresses for the country, and to nurse tlic sick 
;it tlieir own houses. 



I'Al'.T 1. 



ClfAPTER YllT. 

hOYAL AND OTHER PALACES AND 
GARDENS. 

Nexl lo sacred edifices, palaces are the works 
ill which architecture displays its loftiest con- 
ceptions, and in which the power and taste of 
nations are exhibited to greatest advantage. It is 
here that the most sublime productions of genhis 
and the fine Arts are collected ^ and the magnifi- 
cence of kings inspires admiration and resptiipt. 
Paris abounds with palaces more worthy of beibg 
the residence of royalty than some of the mean 
nnd uncouth buildings wl)ich almost disgrace the 
metropolis of England. 



Palace of the Tuileries. 

Upon a spacious spot of ground without the 
walls of Paris, occupied by tile kilns {tuileries), and 
gardens interspersed with coppices and scattered 
dwellings, Catherine de Medicis determined to 
erect a palace for her own residence. It was be- 
gun in 1 564, after the designs of Philibert Delormc 
and John BuUant, and the building was rapidly 
proceeding, when an astrologer having foretold to 
CathiTiiio. that the name of St. Germain would 



lorm tne wtiole ol the structure. 

Levau and d'Orbay being employed by lx)uls 
XIV to harmonise the discordant masses of this 
extensive range of building, changed the form of 
the central pavilion^ established along the whole 
line an entablature nearly uniform, and con- 
structed an attic over that part of the edfiice erected 
by Delorme and BuUant. Since that period the 
exterior appearance of the palace has remained 
unaltered. 

Louis XHI, upon abandoning the Louvre, where 
the image of his murdered father would have con- 
tinually presented itself to his imagination, fixed 
his residence at the Tuileries. Louis XIV dwelt 
there till he built the palace at Versailles. In 
1 791, the Tuileries became a ** house of mourn- 
ing"^ to the unfortunate Louis XVI and bis family ^ 
and within its walls some of the most horrible 
scenes of the revolution were acted. It after- 
wards became in succession the seat of the Con- 
Mntional and Direclorlal cjovcniinenls, and sub- 




Louis XVni being restored to the throne of his 
ancestors, took up his abode in the palace of the 
Tuileries. 

Place du Carrousel. A wide street leading 
from the Louvre to the Tuileries opens upon this 
place, which obtained its name from a magnificent 
tournament held there by Louis XIV, on tiie 5th 
and 6th of June, 1662. This area was formerly 
small, narrow, encumbered with old houses, and 
skirted by a lofty wall which hid the front of the 
palace. It is now thrown open to a considerable 
extent, and affords a noble view of the royal resi- 
dence. On each side is a gallery, one of which 
communicates with the Louvre 5 the other is un- 
finished. Fifteen thousand infantiy and cavalry 
troops can go through their exercise with ease 
upon the Place du Carrousel. 

Court. -Its form is a parallelogram. An iron 
railing, terminated by spear-heads gilt, resting 
upon a wall fqur feet high, separates the court 
from the Place du Carrousel. Columns placed 
from distance to distance on the wall are ter- 
minated by gilt balls, surmounted by a point 
similar to those of the military columns of the 
Romans. In this railing are three gates; that in 
the centre is opposite a triumphal arch ; the other 
two have on each side stone piers crowned with 
statues. The first to the right, looking towards 
the palace, is Victory, holding in one hand a 
standard, and in the other a crown ; the second 
is Victory, holding in one hand a symbol of 
valour, and in the other a palm for victorious 



toe roiirtn, 'ry, in a taDIet and pencil. The 

two former tues are by Petitot, ihe two latter 

by Gerard. 

Triumphal Arch. This monument was erected 
in 1806, after the designs of Percier and Fon- 
taine, to the glory of the French army. Its 
height is forty-five feet, its length sixty, and its 
breadth twenty feet and a half. Like the arch of 
Septimus Severus, it is composed, in its length, 
of three arches^ but there is besides a transversal 
arch, which intersects the three others, on a line 
with the passages in each of the opposite galleries. 
The breadth of the principal arch is fourteen feet, 
that of the lateral arches is only eight and a half. 
Its mass is of fine free stone j eight Corinthian 
columns of red Languedoc marble, with bases and 
capitals of bronze, adorn the principal facades, 
and support a saliant entablature, the frieze of 
which is of Italian Griotta. Above is an attic, 
bearing a double socle, formerly crowned by ati 
antif{ne lrium[)li;«l car of lead gilt, to wlilcli w ck; 
vokcd llic lanioLis hronzc horses IVoin tlie l^lare oi 
St. iMark, at Venice. Tlic groined vaults ol llic 
lateral arcades arc deeorateil with tliundci holts, 
and J>i'anclies of laurel and palm. 'J'lie ^l^ures 
of Fame, that adorn the principal arcli towards 
the ])alace, were sculptured hy Taunayj ihost* to- 
\\ aid", the Place du Carrousel, l)v Uupaly. Above 
I lie lateral and transversal openings were bas- 
ri.'licfs, representing tbe most memoraljle actions 
ol tbe campaign ol' i8o5. -I bey were reino\iMi 
by tbe allied armies in i8if), at tbe same liint: 
tbat I be bronze horses were restored to ^ ejm c. 

\ J.- 



rouscl, in front of the attic, in a pcrpendicula 

line willi the columns, are four statues, represent 

ing a cuirassier^ by Taunay, and a dragoon, b 

Corbet, a chaaseur a chevaly by Foucou, and a cara 

^i/2/^r,byChinard. The statues fronting the palace 

are a grenadier de Hgne, by Dardel ; a carabinier ( 

ligne, by IVfontony j a canonier, by Bridan j and 

sapper, by Dumont. In the frieze are allegoric 

figures, and children bearing garlands. The orns 

ments are by Gerard, Dumont, Callamard and Foi 

tin. This monument cost 1,^00,000 fr. Althouc 

very beautiful, it is certainly much too small fi 

the vast area in which it stands. 

GAixeuES. Along the quay which skirts tl 

bank of the Seine, Henry IV began the constru 

lion of a gallery to extend from the Louvre 

the Tuileries, which was continued under Lot 

XIII, and finished in the reign of Lquis XIV. ] 

length is two hundred and twenty-two toises, ai 

its breadth seven. Like the palace of theTuileri* 

It exhibits several styles of architecture, whic 

however, may be reduced to two principal ones 

From the Tuileries, to the pavilion de CHorlo^ 

it is ornamented with coupled Composite pil; 

tors on piers, which support sculptured pe« 

men Is alternately circular and triangular. Fn 

the Pavilion de VHorloge to the Louvre, are V 

ranges of coupled pilasters placed one upon ai 

iher. Those below are of the Doric orTusc 

order J those above are of the Corinthian ord 

and support pediments aUcrnately triangular ? 

circular. The great length of this building, ad( 

to the similitude of the windows and pedimei 



less striking, particularly oa the opposite bank 
of the river, where alone it can be seen to ad- 
vantage. The lower part of the gallery forms an 
orangery, a guard house, and some oHices attached 
to the palace j and the upper part contains the 
pictures of the Royal Museum.^ To facilitate the 
circulation of carriages and pedestrians, arches in 
several places are left open between the pilasters. 
A new gallery of similar architecture, and in 
a parallel line, was begun in 1808, next the rue 
Si. Honore. It is much wider, and is to be con- 
tinued to the Louvre. A length of ninety-live 
toises is already finished, and eleven of the pedi- 
ments are sculptured. That part of the new 
gallery within the railing of the court is occupied 
by the Duchess of Berry and her royal children. 
That upon the Place du Carrousel is appropriated 
to the governor of the Tuileries. 

Palace. The front of the palace, next the court, 
Is T787 toises in length, niid 18 lolses In breadth. 
It presents five pavilions witl) lour ranges oi 
huildln!^ hetween llieni. At liie t^i'ound floor, 
ihc louIc order prevails as far as the two second 
ranges of building, where Coiinthlan ])ilasl(M> 
rise /VoMi the ground to the roof". The ccnlrnl 
pavilion, the two piles of l^ulldlng afljoining, and 
I he pavilions on each side, arc distinguished h\ 
I he (Jurinthian order, and arc crowned hv an 
attic. Tlic central pavilion is the richest part 
of the whole facade. At the ground floor il 
IS decoiated with Ionic columns, which hnv 

^ Sec Miiscc Rov.d. 



jL-auii. xiie cuiuiiiijs auuve, oi iiie ^onniiiiar: 
and Composite ordei'S, are of brown and rec 
marble, and support a pediment, in the middle 
of which is a clock, by Lepaute j above are twc 
recumbent statues, representing Justice and Pru- 
dence j the attic is supported by six colossal ca- 
riatides. The facades of the two adjoining pilcj 
of building are ornamented with twenty marble 
busts. 

The front towards the garden presents three 
pavilions decorated with the Ionic and Corinthian 
orders. The architecture of the rest of the edi- 
fice is- of the Composite order. The ornamenlj 
of the central pavilion are similar to those of the 
front towards the court. In niches in the vesti- 
bule, are antique marble statues of Mars and Mi- 
nerva. On each side of the door is a lion, ir 
white marble, with his paw upon a globe. Next 
is an open gallery pierced with porticoes, in whici 
are placed, eighteen antique marble statues repre 
senting Roman senators arrayed in the toga. These 
porticoes are surmounted by terraces. Uj)on pe- 
destals placed between the windows, are twenty 
two marble busts of emperors and generals. Upoi 
the terrace next the rue de Rivoli, a coverec 
gallery has been formed which leads to the chapel 
It resembles a tent, and receive* light by twenty 
three windows. The busts on this side can onli 
be seen at some distance from the palace. 

Interior. The decoration of the state apart 
ments of the Tuileries belongs chiefly to the reigi 
of Louis XIV. . 



columns, and communicates towards the west 
with two covered galleries, one of* which leads to 
the lower part of the chapel, and the other to 
the back staircase qF the king's apartments. 

On the right is the grand staircase, built by 
Levau and d'Orbay, skirted with a stone balus- 
trade ornamented with snakes interlaced iu lyres 
beneath suns, the emblems of Louis XIV and of 
Colbert. At the top of the staircase is a plaster 
statue of Jupiter^ between two antique columns 
crowned with busts of Roman emperors. At the 
first landing-place is the Salle des Cent Suisses, 
decorated at the extremity with four Doric co- 
lumns and two sitting statues of Silence. From 
this room is a staircase, at the top of which are 
two statues representing the chancellors d'Agu- 
esseau and lliopital. It leads to the saloon of 
the chapel and a small room which served for 
a long time for the council of state. This room 
Ibrms a gallery for the chapel. It is decorated 
with pilasters and coluniiis in stucco, and (liflcrent 
allegorical ornaments and iigurcs in grisaille. 

The chapel is adorned with two ranges of Doric 
columns, in stone and stucco, forming galleries 
on lliiTc sides. The royal pew is ojiposiie llic 
altar, above wliich is the orchestra. It is deco- 
rated with a pavement of marble and mosaic in 
romparlmenls. TJie chapel is very plain. Tbe 
ceiling is painted in compartments of gilt orna- 
nients on grounds in grisaille. 

Tli(i theatre is approached by a vestibule wbiti) 
comnuinicatcs with the chapel. On a level \vill» 
ibe first tier of J)Oxcs is a saloon decorated wilii 



inenled with columns of the same order, sup- 
porting four arches, on which rests an elliptical 
dome. The king's box is opposite the stage, with 
two amphitheatres for ladies, to the right and 
left. ^ The pit, the gallery, and the first tier of 
boxes being reserved for the court, there is a range 
of latticed boxe^ on the ground-floor, and two 
above the gallery for other persons who are in- 
vited. All the architecture is painted to represent 
violet breccia, with mouldings richly gilt. The 
draperies are light green, The dome, the friezes, 
and the arches are sumptuously decorated with 
ilgures and other ornaments. The curtain is a 
drapery in ample folds, and richly ornamented. 
This theatre may be converted into a ball-room. 
A floor is then laid down over the pit upon s 
level with that of the stage, and a moveable deco- 
ration of columns, cupola, etc. is erected to cor- 
respond with the other part of the room. Nothinc 
can exceed the splendour of this saloon wher 
lighted up by two elegant lustres suspended fron 
the domes, and fifty of smaller dimensions hunj 
in the intercolumniationSt 

The pavilion Marsan^ at the northern extremit;; 
of the palace, is occupied by Monsieur, and hi 
attendants. It has two complete suites of apart 
ments, one on the ground, and the other on th 
lirst floor. In front of the Payilloa Marsan, nes 
the garden, a square space has been railed off, i 
which, during the summer, are placed orang< 
trees, laurels, pomegranate -trees, etc. 

The Salle des Marechaux occupies the who 
t>f the central pavilion, A balcony, supported 1 



by Jean Goujon, at the Loavre. It a 

series of full-length portraits of the liv als 

of France.* The celling is decorated ; < ns 

and ornaments, painted in grisaille. 

Next comes the Salon des Nobles, originally 
called Salle des Gardes. It has six windows: ihc 
ceiling is decorated in grisaille set off with gold, 
representing marches, battles and triumphs ^ the 
whole is surrounded by military ornaments and 
allegorical figures. 

The Salon de la Paix is so called on account 
of the rich colossal silver statue opposite the fire- 
place, the model of which was by Chaudet. On 
each side of it is a magnificent candelabra eight 
feet in height. This room also contains many 
costly articles in bronze, busts, vases, etc. The 
ceiling, painted in 1668, by Nicholas Loir, repre- 
sents the rising Sun shedding his eaHiest beams 
upon the Earth j Time shows him the space he 
has to run; Spring brings Abundance in her traln-^ 
uid Fame prochiims the blessings oTiXalurc. The 
ioiir qucirlers of" the World, characterized by their 
respective emblems, rejoice at tlie gilts they re- 
eive. Ill ihc subordinate ornaments, we discover 
• 'lablems which relate to the principal sid)ject id 
the composition. 

Tlie Sailc du Troiie is lighlcd by tJirce windovv 
next the court. Tlie throne is elevated upon tiuti^ 
steps covered wllii blue velvet. It is ornamented 

^ ^Viu•n a niarshal dies his poilrail is ^l'mo^'<*J i<; l'"" 
1 \>>\A .!i--5 lnv;ilid'js. 



with rich carved-work gilt and sprinkled with 
fleurs de lis. Above it is a canopy with hangings 
of crimson velvet, sprinkled with fleurs de Us, 
and bordered with gold fringe. On the sides, 
the hangings are festooned by clusters of arms of 
the finest execution. The canopy is surmounted 
by a large crown of laurel and oak in gold, termi- 
nated by a helm with plumes of white feathers. 
The room is hung with rich crimson velvet bro- 
cade of Lyons manufacture, upon which the 
royal monogram, emblems, etc. are embroidered 
in gold. The curtains are of the same material. 
In the centre is a lustre of extraordinary beauty, 
and in each comer of the room is a rich candela- 
bra, twelve feet in height. The principal sub- 
ject of the ceiling, painted by Flamel, is Religion 
protecting France. 

The next room is the Salle de ConseiL The 
ceiling is formed of beautiful painting, sculpture, 
and gilding. It contains two magnificent pictures 
in tapestry of the Gobelins, one representing 
Zeuxis choosing a model, and the other, Helen 
pursued by Paris. Facing the windows are two 
of the finest and largest vases ever manufactured 
at Sevres. The painting of one represents the 
Parisians dragging the statue of Henry IV to the 
Pont Neuf ; the other, the dedication of the same 
statue. On the chimney-piece is a beautiful time- 
piece by Lepaute, the frame of which is formed 
of a bas-relief, by Taunay, with two figures^ 
representing History and Fame 5 different orna- 
ments and military trophies in bronze gilt, serve 
as accessories to the principal subject. In this 
room, which communicates with the king's bed- 



several ODjecis oi an. 

the extremity of the state apartments is the 
rie de Diane, the walls of which are of stucco, 
paintings of the ceiling are chiefly copies of 
e in the Farnese gallery at Rome, and were 
uted by the pupils of the French Academy. 

gallery served formerly for the reception of 
assadors, and was thoroughly r^aired in 
.. Mirrors, opposite the windows and at the 

extremities, seem to increase its extent and 
aess by the repetition of the objects which 
Ti it. Four large pictures between the win- 
s represent, in tapestry, events in the life of 
is XIV. Eight smaller pictures, over the doors, 
in other parts of the room, present historical 
ects taken from the life of Louis XVI and his 
[ecessors. At the extremities of this room 
two Egyptian vases of the greatest beauty, 
led of different kinds of marble with gilt 
iments. They are eight feet in height, in- 
Ing the pedestals. 

he yippcirlemctit de Servio; Is bcliiiid llic /jalcric 
)iane and llic oilier state rooms. It looks to 

garden, and the entrance is 1)V the grand 
:case ol" the Pavilion de Flore. It consists of 
anli-clianibcr, serving as a gnard rooiji ; a 
ng^rooni hung wilh plain crimson velvety 

Salon bleu; the King's cajjinet, v.hich no 

is allowed to enter j iiis Majesty's bed-chani- 
; and a drcssinir room. These rooms form 

king's private apartments, and are much 

splendid than the state rooms. The paint 
; of the ccihngs represent scenes in alhision to 

1',m;t I. >"» 



J.L icuics»cuia iTiMia iiavcxiiug lu a villi' luuiiu lilC 

globe, and signalizing each month of the year by 
a victory. Nothing can be more rich and elegant 
than the king's bed-chamber. It is hung with 
purple velvet embroidered with gold. The ceil- 
ing is painted in grisaille v\rilh gilt caissons. Two 
windows look towards the garden. The bed, 
which is opposite to the windows, is surroanded 
by a superb balustrade of gilt columns, and sur- 
mounted by a tester of purple drapery ornamented 
with white {)lumes. At the bed's foot on each 
side is a ball of transparent ivory. 

On the ground floor are the queen's apart- 
ments, now occupied by the duchess of As^u- 
leme. They are in a style less rich, but more 
delicate and modern than those already described. 
The dining room, although it has only one win- 
dow, is rendered perfectly light by an ingenious 
disposition of mirrors. A moveable stage can be 
placed in the concert room for private dramatic 
representations. In the Salon des Trols Graces is 
a beautiful picture of the Graces, by Blondel. 

For tickets to view the interior of the palace, 
application must be made by letter to Monsieur 
le premier gentilhomme de la chambre du Roi, de 
service^ aux Tuileries, The hours for admission 
are when the king is taking an airing, Which in 
winter is at noon ; and in summer generally from 
three to five. Three Or four A*ancs are Usually 
given to the Cicerone. 

Admission to the chapel on ^indays is granted 
by applying to Monsieur le Baron VEveque^ aust 



carry his design into execution. This man, en- 
dowed with an elevated genius and an exquisite 
taste, conceived the present plan, whose nnity and 
variety are universally admired. Every tliiii)^ is 
grand, simple, and majestic. Tlie most exact 
symmetry prevails without heing monotonous, 
and the terraces, statvics, flower- j^ardciis, groves, 
iind fountains are all superb. In front of tlic 
palace, n terrace cutends, wliicli is sepiiratcd from 
the garden l>y three steps. Slatues.in white inarl>l'> 
foi'm its principal ornament. Kioni its crtilK' 
,sprill^s Ihc (,'iand walk, which traverses the firnf, 

of the Chatnps Elysecs, planted upon ihu siiuiu 



and meet in the form of a horse-shoe at the west- 
ern gate. The flower-garden extends in front of 
the palace a lenglh of one hundred and twenty 
toises, and is terminated by a sumptuous planta- 
tion of lofty trees. The flower-garden is em- 
bellished wilh three fountains which fall into 
basins. The largest, of a circular form, is situated 
in the grand walk. Around it, and in front of 
the plantation are groups, vases, and statues in 
marble. The walks of the flower-garden ai^c 
so distributed as to produce the greatest dtility 
and effect. Before each wing of the palace, are 
four triangular grass-plats, skirted with beds of 
flowers and shrubs surrounded by a light iron 
railing ; the summit of their upper angle is inter- 
sected, so as to form a circular area, in the centre 
of which is a basin. Beyond is a wide transversal 
walk, parallel to the large circular basin; and 
next are four square grass-plats bordered with 
beds. The plantation is in the form of a quincunx, 
and affords in summer a most delightful retreat 
from the scorching sun. Beyond the plantation, 
in the centre, is a vast octagonal basin. Termini 
of colossal dimensions, are placed in front of the 
plantation at this extremity, and groups repre-, 
senting rivers, appear at the bottom of the gentle 
circular declivities which lead from the terraces. 



s oi me lerraces ai ii pc i 
mth statues. Two groups ox the 

terminate them, and crown the v 
Next the Place Louis XV the terraces i 
vith stone benches, disposed so as to aC' 
e a vast multitude of spectators, during 

in the Champs Elysees. Each of them 

with a shady and delightful grove. 

the river is ornamented with statues 
s a fine view of the magniGcent edifices 
t the quays on the opposite side of the 
.e terrace des Feuillans, now bordered 
tiful palisades, is one of the most fre- 
ralks of the capital. It extends along 
.reet, called rue de Rivoli, and discovers 
Vendomc with its triumphal column^ 
mlevards. 

:arden as a whole is worthy of admi- 
ic masterpieces of sculpture which it 
are no less entitled to attention. On 
e in front ol the jialace arc eliilit statue^, 
ieli vases, placed in the Ibhowing order, 
ironi tli(.' rue de Kivoli : 
Fawn, by Coysevox. — 2nd, a Wood- 
y llie same. — ?tv{\, a Vase. — /jtb, Flora, 
ox. — 5l)), the Gri'eian knile-^rinder, in 
V Keller. — ()th, \ eniis eoinini^ from th(! 
1, a ^vinph, by (iouslou. — 8th, a Vase. 
iNvniph, hv Coiiston. — lolh, a Ibmtei', 
, bv Couiitou. lioinid the eirenlar basin, 
t, is the i\letan)()r[)lu)sis ol" aAtlas, a C(i- 
le, by Goustou the ehh.-r; thei], lioreas 
'llCJrilhyia, b\ Mar.sv and L'lanien ; ne\t 
arini; bib lallier Aiu hiscs on bis shoul- 



ders, and leading Ascanius, the masterpiece of 
Lepaulre. On the right are the metamorphosis 
pf Daphne; Saturn carrying off Cybele, by Reg- 
nauldin; and the Death of Lncretia, begun at 
Rome, by Theodon, and finished at Paris, by 
Lepautre. In the transversal walk which sepa- 
rates the flower-garden frpm the plantation are, 
to the right, a Muse, two Vases, and Diana ; to the 
left, Julius Gsesar, by Theodon, two Vases, and 
Hercules. 

On entering the grove a green recess is seen on 
each side, surrounded by an iron railing, and 
bordered with flower-beds. At the extremities 
are marble pavements, surrounded by semi-circu- 
lar screens, terminated by sphinxes. In that to 
the left is a Fawn carrying a kid, and looking at 
Apollo and Daphne who are running before him. 
In that to the right Apollo appears as the um- 
pire of the race between Hippomenes and Atalanta, 
by Coustou. On the same side are verdant areas 
in which are a group representing Castor and 
Pollux, by Coustou and Lepautre j a Centaur ; and 
a Cupid. In corresponding areas to the left are 
a group representing Bacchus and the infant 
Hercules 5 two Wrestlers, by Mangin 5 and a copy 
of the celebrated Florence Wild Boar. Round 
the octagonal basin are ten statues and termini^ 
viz. to the left, Scipio Afncanus, by Coustou the 
elder ; Spring ; Summer ; Agrippina j and Silenus. 
To the right, Hannibal counting the rings of the 
Pioman Knights slain at the battle of Cannae, by 
Sebastian Slodtz 5 Winter j Autumn j a Vestal, 
copied from the antique, by Legrosj and a 
Bacchus. Near the basin arc four groups: tlj^ 



narble lions oi tine execution. 

Upon the Fet a Cheval (horse-shoe) of the 
terrace are ten statues representing tlie Nine 
Muses, and Euterpe in a second attitude. 

On the terrace next the river are four beautiful 
maible vases, and six bronze statues representing 
(beginning at the palace), Antinous ; Venus coming 
from the bath j the Pythian Apolio j Laocoon and 
his sons; Hercules holding his infant son Telephus ; 
and Diana the Huntress. The vases are in the 
intervals between the statues. Four richly- 
wrought vases, brought from Marly, are placed 
at the top of the steps, leading from the middle 
of the terrace to the garden. In a niche, under 
the stepis, is a copy in bronze of Ariadne asleep 
in the island of Naxos, commonly called the 
Cleopatrai. 

At the beginning (towards the palace) of the 
orange tree walk, is a group betv^cen four beau* 
tiful marble vases. It is commonly suppo^ied to 
be Papirlus and Ills Mother , but Winckletnan 
tbltiks It represents the (irst interview between 
l'>!eelra and her brotlicr Orestes. At the otbei 
o\treinllv is Melcagei-j an aduiliable statue. On 



r 



> .mjnv>.Lj \yx- j imm^ a iv i, mj ij> t\l JCjt7 • 



Ills right, towards the wall, is a statue whieh 
from it,s costume and attributes would appear to 
"be Hygeia ; but the haughtiness of the countenance 
more resembles that of Juno. During the summer, 
orange trees, pomegranate trees, laurels and other 
shrubs in tubs are placed along the graad walk, 
and in different parts of the garden. 

The grove on the left terrace was planted in 
1808, and a pavilion built in it in 1811, by 
Bonaparte, for the Empress Maria Louisa, who, 
being then pregnant, used to walk on the terrace 
and breakfast in the pavilion. During that period 
the pubh'c were not allowed to enter the terrace, 
which the Empress approached by a subterranean 
passage from the palace. The terrace and pavilion 
are still occasionally used by the royal family. 

The garden was formerly separated from the 

place Louis XV by a ditch and swivel-bridge, 

called le Pont Tournant, where the iron gates were 

erected in 1790. The ditch on each side of the 

gates still remains. We notice this change be- 

i cause the Pont Tournant was famous during the 

revolution, and strangers would in vain search 

I for it. The garden of the Tuileries is open to the 

I public till dusk. It is tlie most fashionable 

promenade in Paris, and during the fine season is 

thronged by the gay world. It contains a Cafe, 

Chairs are hired for two sous, and visitors maj 

be accommodated with newspapers, for readinc 

lyhlcli only ooe sou is demanded. 



lofty towci-s covered ivitli sl^itc inid IcrmiriMtcil 
J)y vaiiw oriiamctilcd iviih llie arms of Fraii.'c. 
In the ccnlrc of llie [irincipiil coiiiL slocid la Tour 
rlit Louvre, where the vassals of llic ciowii eame 
to swear allegiance, and do honiaj;c to liicir sove- 
i-eign; it was likewise a prison lor lliein, il' llicy 
violated Uicir oaths. 

This Gothic structure falllns into ruin, ii) llic 
beginning of the si^lccnth century, Francis I 
determined to creel upon its site a palace worthy 
of tlic royal majesty, Tl.c tlfsigns of Pierre Usi.it 
were ii|)proved, and the pidiiee was hciijim 'ii ifif!^- 
Lcscot hnill lliat part of the western pile, called 



le Vieux Louvre, which extends from the pavilion 
on the quay to the central pavilion. Under Louis 
XIII, Lemercier constructed the central pavilion, 
and the wing contiguous. Louis XIV resolving 
to finish the Louvre and connect it with the 
Tuileries, invited from Rome the celebrated Ber- 
nini, who had already erected some sumptuous 
edifices. Defects were found in his plans ; and, 
afler some hesitation, Colbert adopted the designs 
of Claude Perrault, who though bred as a physi- 
cian excelled as an architect. To him Paris is 
indebted for the magnificent colonnade, which is 
one of the finest productions of modern architec- 
ture. Under Louis XIV and Louis XV, the Louvre 
being abandoned for Versailles, the piles on the 
north and south, to complete the quadrangular 
structure, advanced but slowly, and at the time of 
the revolution, neither the roofs, the exterior 
ornaments, nor the interior distribution were be- 
gun. The building in every part presented signs 
of decay and ruin. Immense sums were required 
to complete it, but Bonaparte resolved to under- 
take it. During fifteen years the works were 
carried on with activity, at an expense of 
22,400,000 fr. The total sum expended upon this 
palace is estimated at 5o,ooo,ooo fr. The Louvre, 
having been entirely scraped, presents the appear- 
ance of a new struclure. Most of the exterior 
sculpture is finished, and the interior distribution 
completed. It still, however, remains unfinished, 
in many places wantiug windows, and being for 
the most part destitute of interior ornaments. 

The project formed by Henry IV, and partly 
executed by Louis XIV, of uniting the Louvre 



themselves. At fiist it was conceived 
e lateral gallery were limshed, all irregu- 
ould disappear in the vast extent ofone 
:e. But it was aftenvards determined to 
ermediaie constructions on the groimd 
parates liie two palaces. As a part of 
structions, the TrJumplial Arcb. in the 

Carrousel, was erected. Conceived on 
1 of antique arches, it was to have been 
1 on each side by an open gallery of 
which, turning at right angles towards 
:iies, would have embraced the central 
at palace, and have afTorded an approach 
ige under cover. In front of the Louvre, 
triumphal arch was to have been built 
tntre of a transversal gallery, to have 
e projeclioDS which terminate the front, 
bese constructions, an iutermediale galle- 
1 have extended across the pJaceduCar- 
■ a line with the rue de Richelieu, and. 



the Tuileries nor that of the Louvre would hav 
been perceived above it. 

The great court, thus formed, would have bee: 
occupied with those buildings and dependencie 
necessary to a palace. This plan has been re 
linquished. 

Eastern Front, or Colonnade. This front wa 
commenced in 1666, and finished in 1670, afte- 
the designs of Claude Perrault. It is five bundreti 
and twenty-five feet in length ; and its elevatioi 
from the ground to t?ie lop of the balustrade i 
eighty-five feet. It is divided into two principal 
parts, the basement and the peristyle. The base 
ment is pierced with windows. In the centre i 
a projecting body, which is united by the peristyl 
to corresponding projections at the extremities 
The peristyle is composed of twenty- four couplec) 
columns, of the Corinthian order, which form i- 
gallery. The lateral projections are ornamentec. 
by six Corinthian pilasters, and two columas- 
The central projection, in which there is a passag* 
from one part of the peristyle to the other, i 
decorated by eight Corinthian columns and t 
pediment. Upon these projections, as well as th< 
other three fronts of the building, are medallions 
with the initials J L. The entire front is crownec 
by a balustrade. The interior of the peristyle, 
and their ceilings are richly decorated with foli- 
age and other ornaments. The tympanum of the 
pediment is ornamented with a fine bas-relief 
seventy-four feet in length, executed by Lemot 
in 181 1. The bust of Louis XIY* occupies thi: 

* i'hc liiist was originally that of Napoleon. 



Yico Magno. At the foot ot the pedestal is a sitting 
figure of Victory. On the right, besides Clio, are 
3^aiia, Melpomene, Polyhymnia, and Urania. On 
the left are the rest of the Muses, besides Minerva, 
Copid, and France. In the angles are two small 
Genii. 

The bas-relief above the grand door is by 
Cartellier, and represents Fame distributing 
crowns. She is in a car drawn by four horses, 
conducted by winged Genii. The gates of this 
entrance, made by order of Bonaparte, are pro- 
bably the most splendid in Europe. They are 
ornamented with, bronze in the richest and most 
magnificent style. In front of the colonnade is 
an area enclosed with palisades. 

Southern Front. This front, built after the de- 
signs of Claude Perrault, consists of a basement, 
iimilar to that of the colonnade, on which rises 
'I range of Corinthian pilasters. The bas-relief 
vhicli decorates the pediment is l)y Fronlln, and 
cprcsenls two Muses jjcaring tlic altrlbules oithe 
V.rls and Sciences, and resting on the arms of 
"ranee. Above it arc two figures oCFanie, ci'own- 
ng a helmet. 

JNuuTHEii\ FaONT. This was begun by Lcmcicier. 

t consists of a Ijascment, a lirst story decora led 

,ith handsome windows, and an attic. Although 

omposed oi' irregular projections, it fornjs a hand- 

:)me entrance to the courl, from the rue (Ui C]o([. 

he pediment is decorated with a bas-relief, by 

lontpellier, representing a trophy of arms. 

FAI\T r. > '« 



^ ^V/ ^ £%.±Jt%^mi*-' ^-^ A A AJ. Arf JL^%.r ^ V «« f-* I 



Western Front. This front, which is the oldest, 
is less handsome and rich than the others. It is 
decorated with the Composite order, surmounted 
by an attic. The pediment, by Montpellier, re- 
presents military trophies, with a shield bearing 
the arms of France. 

CouR'r. The court of the Louvre is a perfect 
square, one thousand six hundred feet in circum- 
ference, enclosed with four piles of building. In 
the centre of that to the West, is a Ipfty pavilion 
decorated with eight colossal cariatides by Sarra- 
sin. The rest of the building forms six projecting 
bodies Ornamented with sculpture. The figures 
above the doors are by Jean Goujon. Those of 
the pediments of the small projections on the 
left, represent Piety, Victory, Justice, Fame, and 
Strength, by P. Ponce. The pedinients on the right 
were executed in 1810. In the first, next the pa- 
vilion, is Legislation, under the figure of a woman 
holding the tables of the law, by Moitte. Below^ 
in the attic, are figures of Moses, IVuma, Isis, and 
Manco-Gapac, the legislator of the Peruvians. In 
the pediment, which forms the centre of this wing, 
are Victory and Abundance crowning a shield^ 
on which is a serpent with its tail in its mouthy 
an emblem of eternity, by Holland. In the haiS* 
reliefs of the attic are Strength and Wisdom, and 
two allegorical figures of the Nile and the Danubet 
The third pediment, towards the angle of th^ 
court, represents Heroic Poetry, under the figure 
of a winged female holding a trumpet and a lyrei 
by Ghaudet. In the attic, are Homer, Virgil, and 
two Genii. 

The buildings of the three other piles which 



flank the court were cdnsthicted after the designs 
of Perrault, but as he left no account of the orna- 
ments he meant to employ, they were executed 
under the direction of Gabriel. 

The bas-relief of the pediment of the northern 
pile represents Minerva encouraging the Arts and 
Sciences, and receiviug their homage, by Le$ueur. 
That of the southern pile is by Ramey, and repre- 
sents the Genius of France substituting for the 
arts of War those of Legislation, Navigation, and 
Commerce. Upon the pediment at the back of 
the colonnade are the arms of France,^ supported 
by two allegorical figures, by Goustou. 

Int^ior. TJie four vestibules which serve for 
entrances to the Louvre are nearly completed j 
the only one remaining unfinished is that towards 
the South. Two bas-reliefs by Jean Goujon, 
which formerly decorated pediments on the nor- 
thern side, now adorn the veslibiile of the colon- 
nade. To the left is a grand gallery whlcb ex- 
tends to the pavilion at the angle. It is called 
the Salle des Francais^ on account of the niai'l»lc 
statues of the illustrious warriors that adorn it. 
These statues are Conde, by RoUand; Turennc, 
Ijy Pajou • Tourville, by Houdon j Duquesne, by 
IVlonnot- Luxembourg, J)y Moucby^ Yauban, by 
liridan^ Duguay-Trouin, by Foucou j Hayard, by 
IJridan^ Dugoniniier, by Chaudctj Custine, by 
iMoilte^ Calinat, by Dejoux 5 and Carfarclli, by 
■Masson. Over the doors are trophies in bas- 
reliels, by Petitot, with a statue of Victory. To 

* Diuiiii^ llic icvohaioii a cock was foinic(] in dio 
middle oi' the shield, 



and a footman's hall. 

At the extremities of these wings are two grand 
staircases perfectly similar, built of the choicest 
stone. One leads to the state apartments, and the 
other to the private rooms. They are decorated 
with eight Corinthian columns, and the ascent is 
so disposed that on reaching the first story we 
are at the centre of the peristyle, and at the axis 
of the gallery formed by the colonnade. Thus 
this colonnade, which seemed only a superfluous 
ornament, now presents a covered portico, which 
appears to form a decoration to the state apart- 
ments. 

The staircase to the left is decorated with eighl 
bas-reliefs, which occupy the luoetta above the 
vaults. Opposite the window are Justice and 
Strength, by Gerard ; to the left, two warriors, 
by Callamard^ to the right, Agriculture and 
Commerce, by Taunay 5 and, on the side of the 
window, the Genii of the Arts and Sciences, bj 
Fortin. At the top of the staircase is Ajax, bj 
Dupaty, and Aristaeus, by Bosio. 

The eight bas-reliefs which decorate the Stair- 
case to the right are distributed in the same 
manner as in that to the left. They r6preseni 
Vulcan and Fame, by Dumont; Neptune anc 
Ceres, by firidan ; Jupiter and Juno, by Chardin 
Fortuna, or Bonus Eventus, and a woman sur- 
rounded by the gifts of the blind goddess, bj 
Montoni. 

The apartments of the first fioor of the Louvre 
next the Seine, form, as far as the king's apart- 
ments in the Tuileries, an uninterrupted suite o 



gallery of the Museum.^ Their ensemble being 
more than a quarter of a league in extent, is unique 
in its appearance, both as to length and dispo- 
sition. With the exception of the pile of build- 
ing towards the rue St. Honors, which is reserved 
for the residence of the sovereign, this floor is 
destined for rooms of state and festivity. 

On the ground floor of the V ieux Louvre^ in the 
part adjoining the chapel, which is now building, 
will be a museum of French sculpture, in which, 
besides the finest productions of modem artists, 
will be collected all the monuments of the Musee 
des Monumens Francais, that are not restored to 
the churches from whence they were taken. The 
other part of the Vieux Louvre, and the wing next 
the Seine, as far as- the central pavilion, are occu- 
pied as the museum of antiques, the principal 
entrance to which is on the place du Museum, In 
the salle des Marechaux is the plaster statue of 
Henry IV, wliicli once ornamented llie Pont ]Neuf . 
It is on the firsl-floor of llie palace of the Louvr« 
that an exhibition of" the products of French in 
dustry is made every two or three years. 

Here also tlie recent productions of Frcncli ar 
lists ?»re exliihited every two years, upon tlie same 
j>lau as the annual exhibition at Soinerset-honsc, 
hut upon a much more extensive and splendid 
scale. 

■*^ Soe Mmslh; Rovai. 



Palais Rojal. 

This name is given to the residence of the Duk< 
of Orleans, and the garden with its surrounding 
galleries. TJie ancient hotel of the constabK 
d'Armagnac and the Hotel de Rambouiilet 
formerly stood upon tlie ground now occupiec 
})y the Palais Royal. This palace, built b] 
Cardinal Richelieu, was originally a nierd hotel 
called Hotel de Richelieu, As the minister's powei 
increased, his residence was enlarged, and in i 
few years arose a magnificent palace. It wai 
begun in 1629, after the designs of Lemercier, anc 
finished in i636. The spare ground formed thra 
streets, surrounding this edifice, which then tool 
the name of Palais Cardinal. The ranges o 
building were separated by several courts. In lh< 
right wing, on entering, was a theatre which wouU 
contain three thousand spectators. The left win] 
formed a magnificent gallery. The court leadinj 
to the garden was separated from it by piazza; 
which connected the two wings. Tlie architec- 
ture of this part of the edifice was more rich thai 
that of the first court. The second court, how 
ever, being irregular, and its axis not correspondin{ 
with that of the first court, will ever be an ob 
staclc to the architect in completing the palace 
After having decorated his palace with all th< 
magnificence which the arts could supply, tb 
Cardinal gave it, in iGSg, to Louis XIU, rcservinj 
only the enjoyment of it to himself for his life 
Iti 1645, Louis XJll and tlic Cardinal being bptl 
dead, Anne of Austria, regent of the kingdom 
<|iiitlcd the Louvre with her son Louis XIV, am 



n 



e, he ceded the Palais Royal for life to his 
ler Philip of France, and at his death, in 1692, 
it to Philip of Orleans, his nephew, upon 
marriage with Mile, de Blois. The Palab 
I was afterwards several times enlarged and 
Uished, and, in 1765, upon the destruction 
e theatre by fire, the front was rebuilt. The 
'ies which surround the garden were erected 
86. . 

e Palais Royal and its dependencies have 
the theatre of many remarkable political 
!s. During the war of the Fronde, it being 
^sidence of the court, the intrigues of Mazarin 
carried on within its walls. Under the re- 
jr of the Duke of Orleans, during the minority 
)uis XY, it was the scene of the most scanda- 
fetes. At the same period it became the 
g place of Law, whose financial system had 
erated the populace against Him. At the 
nencement of the revolution, the late Duke 



■^J*. T J.JL^ III l\JlLLj Va. . 

session of the palace of liis anceatx,.., 
ed it for his own residence. 

At the revolution a great part of the building* 
which form the galleries was sold as national 
property, and now belongs to private individuals 
At the restoration, the unsold properly revertec 
to the Duke of Orleans, who is generally the pur- 
chaser when any other part is announced for sale 

During the interregnum of Louis XVIII, by th< 
return of Bonaparte from the Isle of Elba, hh 
brother Lucien fionaparte arrived at Paris, esta- 
blished himself at the Palais Royal, and there re- 
ceived the ministers and grand dignitaries, som< 
of whom had recently taken the oath of allegi- 
ance to the king. Upon the second return of th< 
king, the Duke of Orleans regained posscbsion o: 
his property in the Palais Royal. 

It was in the garden and galleries of the Palai! 
Royal that the first revolutionary meetings wen 
held, and the tricoloured cockade adopted, ir 
1789. On the 3d of May, 1791, the Pope wa 
burnt in effigy here. On the 27th of July, 1795 
the Marquis de la Fayette was burnt in efhgy j ar 
at the same period M. d'Espremenil, councillor 
the Parlementy was stripped and plunged into t 
basin. A figure representing a member of ' 
Jacobin club was burned here on the i6ih 
January, 1796, and its ashes thrown into the c 
mon sewer of Montmartre, over which was pi 
the insciipiloii'—F ant heon de la Socieie des J 
bins. 

Place du Palais Royal. In i64o, Cardinal F 



theatre erected hy Cardiaal Richelieu, the duke 
of Orleans charged IVIoreau to rebuild it, as well as 
the entire muss or building which surrounds the 
first court. The entrance is formed by three 
wooden gates covered with rich hroDie orna- 
ments, united by a wall pierced with porticoes to 
two pavilions, which form the wings. The pa- 
vilions are decorated at the groiind-iioor with 
Doric columas. and at the first floor with Ionic 
columns, crowned with triangular pediments, in 
which are Figures supporting the arms of tlie house 



, the garden, and with tne p«^ — 

oiirt. A new line of building carried out 

e left side of the court to correspond with 

on the right would complete the palace, and 

it a grand and uniform appearance. The 

tre rebuilt in 1765, having been again de- 

yedby fire in 1781, was never rebuilt. 

fTERiOR. — On the right of the vestibule, in en- 

ng from the place du Palais Royal, is the grand 

ircase, under a lofty dome ornamented with 

intings. The original designs of the staircase were 

f Desorgues, and upon its reconstruction they 

ere but slightly departed from. The first twelve 

eps lead to a landing-place, from which springs 

tYO opposite flights of stairs communicating with 

. spacious landing-place in front of the state apart- 

nents. This staircase is universally admired, and 

its railing of polished iron by Corbin is considered 

a chef'ifcBuvre of workmanship. It is also dc- 

coralfd with two bronze genii bearing palm- 

l)ranches. Tlic apartiiieiUs of the Palais Royttl are 

remarkable lor their extent and mai^nllicencc. 

\ isitors enter by the veslil)ule, but do not ascend 

the qrand staircase. They are conducted by a 

small one on the lelt. 

Tlic llrst room is the footman's anli-chand)er. 
This leads to the picture i^allcry, Avhich is (lllv leet 
in length by hi teen in breadth, and receives lit^ht 
l)y three windows looking into the second court. 
The fnrniture of this room is yellow. The nund)er 
nf pictures is very considerable. Among those 



very striking. 

TJie chapel is formed in a magnificent amplil- 
iheatrical hall, constructed in 1802, by Beau- 
mont, lor the meetings of the Tribunat, This 
room is aljout to be demolished, in order to form 
apartments for the Duke de Chartres, eldest son of 
the Duke of Orleans. The Duke's bed-chamber is 
very plain ; tlie bed-curtains and furniture are of 
yellow silk. On the sides of the bed are several 
portraits of celebrated women. The library con- 
tains about 18,000 volumes, many of which are 
beautifully bound. The council chamber is small 
but ornamented with taste. The hangings of this 
room are blue and yellow> and the furniture 
yellow. Nearly all the pictures are ancient por- 
traits. It contains a beautiful bureau of French 
wood. The Duke's dressing- room is small and 
ornamented with pictures^ The audience cham- 
ber is decorated in the style of the age of Louis 
XIV. The curtains and furniture are yellow. 

* The pictares being distributed in the different rooms, 
and the catalogue not following the same order, some 
care is necessary to avoid confusion. 



dow, utolu ds t CI 

.lODg I Jl BIJC T-t 

oe most ri k;. — i I mam 

Cell, by Sleuben. TJ ilea iies jfidei-de- Camp is 

Klomed in ihe same ! as the audicDCe chamber, 
Jut is lighted by two windows. Besides several 
pictures by Vcmet, ancieDt portraits, landscapes, 
aod ruins, it possesses four which are particularly 
entitled to notice, viz. i. Lorenzo de Mec!tcis sur- 
rounded by his fami 
hy Mauzaisse. fi. C 
Sweden in i56o, by 
before the batlle o 
Death of Hasaccio, ! 
poisoned in t443, b' 
furniture of this rooi 
The neiLt room 5.ho 
state apartments, w} 
lli['ougli two ushers' 

Kallcry. It looks lowarils tlic sotoml court and is 
ornamcnlcd willl scuijiturcd i>aiin(;ls, bvoiiiefl anil 
silt. Tills lends to llie Sails de SocUt/; an elrjiant 
room which rccL-lves liglit by Ibui" windows, ami is 
odorncd willi yellow lianglngs ami furniture. Tlic 
GalerU dotia is not excelled by any room in Pans 
for its excellent disposition, clL-g;ince, and splen- 
dour. It is sixty-three I'cel inleii};lli ))V tlilrty-llner 
inhrcadlli.and has ci^l.twindo^vs towards Itie se- 
cond conrt. Opposite the windows are frames to 
correspond, fitted up with looking-glass. A riiii|;r 
ol Corinthian columns, enriched with dead ^olit 
fromthecapilals to the middle oftlie shafts, c^t.;lui< 
the whole length of ilie gallery and produ>\- ■• 



magical effect. The four doors are fitted up with 
looking-glass, and surmounted by bas-reliefs in 
marble. The furniture and hangings are blue. 
When this room is liglited up with the magnificent 
lustres that adorn it, the dazzling splendour is 
almost insupportable. The Salon bleu de la Prin- 
cesse is siriall. The walls are covered with rich 
blue silk damask of Lyons manufacture. At the 
extremity is a full length portrait of the Duke, by 
Gerard. Upon a beautiful table is a service of 
silver-gilt and porcelain, of exquisite elegance and 
taste. It possesses also a bust of the Queen of 
IXaples, several superb candelabras, and some an- 
cient vases of porcelain of Sevres. The bed-cham- 
ber of the Duke and Duchess, which comes next, is 
not shown. 

Visitors arc reconducted through the stale 
apartments and the picture-gallery to the dining- 
room, which looks towards the rue de Valois. It 
is decorated with twelve Corinthian columns, 
which, as well as the walls, are painted in stucco. 
The curtains are scarlet. From this room a stair* 
case leads into the rue de Valois. 

These apartments may be seen upon making 
application, by letter, to the Chevalier 6rov<al, at 
the Palais Royal ; but only when the Duke is 
absent. 

Garden and Galleries. The garden formed by 
Cardinal Richelieu was much more extensive than 
the present one. It was a parallelogram of one 
thousand and two feet by four hundred and 
thirty-two, extending over the rue de Valois, tlie 
rue de Montpengier, and the rue de fieaujolais^ 
Its principal ornament was a wide shady alley of 



a shop, and the upper stories were transfortneJ 
into places for entertainments. An arcade, from 
top to bottom, lets for 8,000 francs a year, and 
a shop on the ground floor for 3, 000 francs. The 
cellars are also let at an extravagant rate. 

The garden, which forms a parallelogram of 
seven hundred feet by three hundred, was re- 
planted in 1 799 by the proprietors of the build- 
ings. The walks are gravelled and skirted by 
lime-trees. In the centre is a fountain and basin, 
constructed, in 1817, at the expense of the duke 
of Orleans. The basin, of a circular foiin, is sixty- 
one feet in diameter, andtwo in depth. The water, 
which is supplied by the canal de I'Ourcq, rises to 
the height of forty-nine feet, and falls in th^ form 
of a wheat-sheaf, presenting a lively and beautiful 
appearance. On two sides of the basin are grass- 
plats, bordered with flower-beds enclosed within a 
dwarf wire railing : ^n one of them is a bronze statue 
of Apollo, and a miridien a ddtonation,yfhich, when 
the sun shines upon it, discharges a small cadnon ex- 
actly at noon. In the other is a bronze statue of Diana . 

The garden of the Palais Royal is one of the 
most frequented spots in Paris, being a place of 
general resort both for business and pleasure. Near 
the northern gallery newspapers are let out to 
read for a sous. * 

In the brilliant shops of the stone galleries is to 
be found merchandise of every kind, the richest 
stuffs, most precious trinkets, masterpieces of 
clock-work, and the most modem productions of 
the arts. Here fashion has established her empire, 
and reigns over the metropolis and Fiance. Bf 
the side of magnificent Cfffes, are shops which 



the traveller be in want of habiliments, ; 
)t the end of the wooden gallery, bo: 
will furnish him a complete suit of clotiies 
le can peruse the Moniteur, with which he 
nted to pass the time. Have his inferior 
ts suffered by the mud, which is eternally 
; through the streets of Paris, and with 
ivery pedestrian is plentifully bespattered, 
•s the neat little shop of a dealer in jet-like 
5 J he is seated on a form covered with 
the journals of the day are put into his 
id in a few moments not only do his boots 
B lustre of the mirror, but every office of 
;t is performed with expertness and ele- 

Should the wants of nature imperiously 
eir claims, he will find, near the shops, 
little retreats, that will offend neither the 
lor the olfactory nerves of the most fas- 

and into which he may gain admittance 
trifling sum of three sous ; and he will bi* 



tliey will of course be asked a high price for every 
thing they wish to purchase ; and where they will 
generally be able to obtain a considerable reduc- 
tion from the original demand. This caution is 
apph'cable to all the Parisian tradesmen. The cel- 
lars are occupied by restaurateurs, cafes, smok- 
ing-rooms (estaminets)y and obscene recesses. In 
the upper stories are likewise restaurateurs, more 
splendid cafes, petty exhibitions, billiard-tables, 
gambling-houses, and crowds of ladies. These 
unfortunate victims and votaries of the Paphian 
Goddess, are regulated by the police. Before 
they can pursue their commerce they obtain a 
licence at an office for that purpose, on the de- 
livery of which the name, age, and residence are 
written in the police-book, and once a month they 
are visited at their dwellings by a surgeon, whose 
duty it is to furnish or withhold from them, ac- 
cording to circumstances, a carte de santS, or bill 
of health. If they neglect these preliminaries, or 
are unfurnished with the carte in question, they 
become liable to bodily punishment, imprison- 
ment or fine. The galleries being sheltered from 
the weather, and the gardeii almost always af- 
fording a dry or shady walk, have their attractions 
at all seasons of the year, and at all hours of the 
day. 

The wooden galleries have also their peculiar 
attractions, and are much more crowded in the 
evening than those of stone, particularly in winter, 
oil account of their warmth. Here, in mean narrow 
shops, a hundred and twenty in number, are 
iHovvded together petty booksellers and milliners, 
uiarchands de nouveautes, and artistes decrotteufs. 



From the rapacity of t shopkeepers, this part is 
called the camp des Tanares, The glazed gallery 
adjoining, on the side of the rue de Richelieu, bears 
the name of the camp des Barbares, On both sides 
of it are ill-famed cafes, billiard-rooms where 
day-light never enters, and shops of ready-made 
clothes. Below are cellars and smoking-rooms, 
with farces and music, in which prostitutes and 
pick-pockets flock together every evening. 

The restaurants in the Palais Royal are, in ge- 
neral, the most famous and frequented in Paris; 
their larders are the choicest, their bills of fare 
the longest, and their dining-rooms the most ele- 
gant in the capital. The best are Very's, the 
Freres Provencaux, and the Cafe de Chartres in the 
north gallery J and Prevol's in that towards the 
west. There are in the Palais Royal several res- 
taurateurs who give a dinner, including wine, for 
two francs per head. 

The Palais Royal, which may be called ihc 
central point of Parisian amusements, contains a 
great number of cafas^ in all of which refrcsh- 
lUcnts are sold at the same price. Coii'ec, tea, 
chocolate, etc. are of the best quality. A demi- 
tasse of coif'ee costs 8 sous, a j^lass of cognlac 
Ijrandy 5, a glass ol' liqueur 8, and upwards j a earaj'e 
of lemonade, orgeat, or bavaroise, i5, an ice 9.0., 
and a tea Ijreakfast 5() sous. 

The cafes of the Palais Ptoyal arc most lively 
in the morninii from nine to twelve, and in ihr 
evening from six till twelve. The follovvini; ;ii<- 
those ]nost entitled to description: 

Cafe de^ Mille Colunnes. Tins cafcy one ol lIk' 
iuost splendid in Paris, takes its name irom iIm; 



columns which by the reflection of its numerous 
mirrors are multiplied into thousands. Among 
the ornaments is a beautiful staircase remarkable 
for its lightness. The presiding Divinity, in the 
person of a lovely female, occupies a chair made 
for Joseph Bonaparte, and which originally cost 
10,000 francs. It is lighted by gas, and contains 
two billiard tables. This house is much frequented 
by foreigners and persons from the provinces. 

Cafe de Foi. This was the first cafe established 
in the Palais Royal, and is one of the best in 
Paris. It is less decorated than many others, but 
few have a reputation so substantial. In the 
summer it has the privilege of serving refresh- 
ments in tiie garden. 

Cafe de la Rotonde, It is so called from a ro- 
tunda in front of it, projecting upon the garden. 
Excellent refr^eshments are served here. 

Cafe de la Faix. Strangers should certainly 
visit this cafSy which was once a theatre occupied 
by the company of Mademoiselle Montansier, and 
where petty comedies, rope dancing, and panto- 
mimes are still performed. The pit- has been 
raised to the level of the first tier of boxes, and 
the saloon j and the two other tiers of boxes pre- 
served. It is richly decorated with painting, gild- 
ing and mirrors, and the only payment for the 
spectacle is a small extra charge upon the articles 
of refreshment. It is much frequented, chiefly 
by ladies of easy virtue, petty tradesmen, and 
Parisian Dandies of the second order. 

Cafe des Cinq Sultanes. This cafe changes its 
name according to the charactei^ sustained by 
the ladies who do the honours of the place. A 



ort time ago it was the Cafe ties Chinoises, bC' 
use the fair ones were attired a la^ Chinoise. It 
worthy of observation that one of the Sultanas 
five feet eleven inches in height, and weighs 
^o hundred and fifty pounds. To its other attrac- 
)ns this Cafe adds instrumental, and sometimes 
cal music. It has also a Cosmorama of the 
ies of Spain. 

Cafe des jdveugles. Tliis cafe, situated in the 
rth gallery, under the Cafe Lemblin, is sub- 
Tanean, and is so called because the orchcs- 
I, which is pretty numerous, is entirely com- 
sed of blind men and women, who come every 
^ht from the hospice des Quinze'Vingts. The 
St is led by a woman or child, and the rest follow 
taking hold oi' a pole which extends from Uie 
St to the last. Their vocal and instrumental 
rfo nuances are medley Imitations of those at the 
ench opera. A man here personates a savage 
grinning and raving, and locating a drum like a 
tdnian, to the Infinite dcliglit olllie spectators, 
is Ciife Is crowded in the evening by women ol 
: town. 

There arc likewise on the first floors of several 
nses of the Pahiis Koval, some superior sinok- 
; estahhshments {cstdfunwls), where, l^esidcs 
:ry article sold in cotTee-honses, you are ac- 
nmodated with pijies and segars.^ 
riiere are in the Palais Royal, at the opposite 
remitics, two shops renowned ("or c(>nit'.stif)l>'.s, 
ere every luxurious production ol' nature, evi iv 
uhination ol the gastronomic art, solid oi liquid, 

For ifstniivanls and cafes \n odici parts of f^n i- 
InlKHliiciin!!. 



may be had; the one at the north extremity of the 
eastern gallery, called the Gourmand, is kept by 
Corcellct J the other, near the Theatre Francais, by 
Chevet. 

As the Palais Royal may be considered the cen- 
tral point of the maisons de jeu, or gayibling 
houses, we shall here give a brief sketch of them. 
Their number in this place is four, viz. Nos. 1 13, 
129, and i54> in the eastern gallery, and No. 9, in 
the western. The apartments wbich they occupy 
are on the first floor, and are very spacious;. IJpon 
ascending the staircase is an anti-chamber, in which 
are persons called bouledogues (bull-dogs), whose 
business it is to prevent the entrance of certain 
marked individuals. In the same room are men 
to receive hats, umbrellas, etc. who give a number, 
which is restored upon going out. 

The anti-chamber leads to the several gaming 
rooms, furnished with tables, round which arC 
seated the individuals playing, called pontes (pun- 
ters), each of whom is furnished with a card and 
pin to mark the rouge and noir, or the number, 
in order to regulate his game. At each end of 
the table is a man called hout de tabUy who 
pushes up to the bank the money lost. In the 
middle of the table is the man who draws the 
cards. These persons, under the reign of Louis 
XIV, were called coupeurs de bourses, (purse-cut- 
ters) j they are now denominated fa///«2/rf. After 
having drawn the cards, they make known the 
result as follows : — Rouge gagne et couleur perd-^ 
Rouge perd et couleur gagne. 

At roulette, the tailleurs are those who put the 
)3all in motion and announce the result. 



At passe-dix, every t the dice a 
e tailleurs announce how many the ] 
g has gained. 

Opposite the tailleury and on his right and left, 
e persons called croupiers, whose business it is 
t pay and collect \money. 

Behind the tailleurs and croupiers are inspectors, 
\ see that too much is not given in payment, 
3sides an indefinite number of secret inspectors, 
ho are only known to the proprietors. There 
re also maitres de maison, who are called to 
!ttle disputes j and messieurs de la chambre^ who 
imish cards to the ponies and serve them with 
eer, etc. which is to be had gratis. Moreover, 
lere is a grand maiire, to whom the apartments, 
ables, etc. belong. 

When a stranger enters these apart'hients^ he 
nil soon find near him some obliging men of 
lature age, who, with an air of prudence and 
igaclty, proffer their advice. As these advisers 
erfcctly understand their own game, \i' [\ic\v pro- 
?ges lose, the jMcnlors vanish j but if tlicy win, 
!ic counsellor conies nearer, conL;ralulates tlu; 
appy player, insinuates tliat it was by l"ollo^\illg 
is advice tiial fortune smiled on him, and finally 
Liccceds in Jjorrowing a small sum of money o-.i 
lonour. Many of these loungers have no other 
node of livint:. 

At No. i5 J, which lakes the lead of the gam- 
)ling houses in the Palais lloy«d, is likewise ano- 
her room, furnished with sofas, called chanibrc 
hs blesses^ which is far from being llic most 
hinly peopled. It was in this house that iho 
ate Marshal Hluclier won and lost very heavy 



during ihe occupation of Paris by the allied 
armies. 

The tables are licensed by the police, and are 
under its immediate inspection. The bank pays 
in ready money every successful stake, and sweeps 
oft' the losings with wooden instruments, called 
rateaux (rakes). 

The enormous profit of the praprietors of the 
tables may be easily conceived, when it is con- 
sidered that they pay annually to the city funds 
the sum of 7,626,600 francs. It is calculated that 
the sums staked amount in a year to 5oo, 000,000 
francs. It is true that part of this money is the 
same as was staked before, and which serves the 
possessor to play evening after evening ; but it is 
equally true that the bank gains a profit upon 
that sum evei*y time it is reproduced. The con- 
tinual proQt gained upon the stakes, prevents 
any person realizing a fortune by gambling, and 
leads gamesters sooner or later to inevitable ruin. 

There are two gaming houses in Paris of a more 
splendid description than those of the Palais Roy- 
al, where dinners or suppers are given, and where 
ladies are admitted.* 

We here close our description of this too fasci- 
nating place, which is to Paris what Paris is to 
every other metropolis in the world, — the ne plus 
ultra of pleasure and vice 5 of delight and depra- 
vity. In lh« little world of the Palais Royal, every 
thing to improve or debase the mind, every thing 
to excite admiration of the ingenuity of man on 
the one hand, and his weakness and folly on the 

♦ Sec Hotel Frascati and Hotel d'^Oigny, 



jiala'cc Ae PUli at Florence, llic usual rcsldLiice 
ol'llie grand duke.s ot'Tusoany. Tlie queen, wlio, 
througli ihe economy of Uciiry IV', had amassed 
considerable properly, was nol sparing ol slaliies 
and other decorations for llie cnibclliiliment ol' 
herpalace. These statues, together with her furni- 
ture, were sold at the time when she was driven 
from the kingHom hy Cardinal Richelieu, This 
palace took the name o!' Marie dc Medicis, hut 
then, as at present, the Palais du Luxinibotir^ 
1, .IS Its oriliiiaiT appellation. Ilavltii; l.rnuPiiitini 



it to Gaston de France, Duke of Orleans, her 
second sou, it assumed the name of Palais (TOr- 
leanSj which it retained till the time of the revo- 
lution. It was afterwards ceded, for the sum of 
5oo,ooo livres, to Anne Marie Louise d'Orleans, 
duchess de Montpensierj and in 1672 became the 
property of Elizabeth d'Orleans, duchess de Guise 
and d'Alencon, who, in 1694, gave it to Louis 
XIV. It was afterwards inhabited by the Duchess 
of Brunswick, and by Madame d'Orleans, Queen- 
dowager of Spain, after whose death Louis XVI 
gave it to his brother, afterwards Louis XVUi. 
Having been long deserted, at the beginning of 
the last century this edifice stood in need of 
considerable repairs, which were effected from 
1733 to 1736. Abandoned again during the first 
y^ars of the revolution, it was afterwards con- 
verted into a prison, and suffered every sort of 
degradation. In 1795, it became the place of 
the sittings of the Directory, and was then called 
Palais da Direct o ire. In 179B, the building was 
thoroughly repaired, and the entire froat cleaned 
or scraped. When Bonaparte assumed the power, 
this palace was at first devoted to the sittings of 
the consuls, and received the name of Palais du 
Consulate and shortly after, that of Palais du 
Senat Conservateur. This senate held its sittings 
there till 18 14, the period when it was replaced 
by the Chamber of Peers. Since that time va 
marble tablet, placed over the principal entrance, 
has announced that the Palace of the Luxembourg 
has taken the appellation of Palais de la C/tambre 
des Pairs. 
Palace. This edifice 19 remarkable for the beauty 



of its proportions, and its charac of \i 

and solidity. The court forms a pa anj, 

of 36o feet by 3oo. 

The front towards the rue de Vaugirard consists 
of two large pavih'ons, connected together by ter- 
races supported by open galleries, iu the centre 
of which rises an elegant cupola. This front is 
connected with the principal pile of building by 
two wingii one story high. Four large square pa- 
vilions, the roofs of which rise to a point, stand at 
the coniers of the main building, which is two 
stories high. The court is surrounded by arcades, 
some of which are open, and others blank. At 
the second story, the building forms a recess upon 
a terrace which extends from the pavilions at 
the angles to that of the centre. This edifice is 
decorated with three orders of architecture, and 
all its walls and ornaments are covered with 
rustics. At the ground-floor the order is Tuscan y 
at tlie first floor the columns have Doric capitals ; 
at the second they are of the Ionic order. The 
pediment towards the court Is adorned with a 
bas-relief, by Uiirel, representing Commerce; the 
sculptor of the four ligures placed below Is un- 
known. Towards the garden is a sun-<lial, sup- 
poited by ligures in hlgh-rcllef, representing Vic- 
tory and Peace, by Espercieux^ Slrenglli and 
Secrecy, by Bcauvallet ; the two ligures In the 
back ground are Vigilance and War, l)y Caitelller. 
Tbis curious sun-dial Is calculated lo exbibil ibc 
republican calendar daily. 

This palace has the advantage of bwlug com 
plel(!ly detached. A handsome iron railing S( p i 
rales it from the street. 



Interior. Upon the appropriation of this palace 
to the sittings of the senate, Chalgrin was charged 
to execute the works required for its new desti- 
nation. He suppressed a heavy staircase that 
occupied the vestibule, and erected the magnifi' 
cenit due in the right wing. On each side of the 
stairs is a range of eleven fine Ionic columns, sur- 
mounted by an entablature which supports the 
vault. The latter is decorated in caissons, and at 
the extremities are two bas-reliefs, by Duret^ 
one representing Minerva, and the other two Genii 
offering crowns. Each intercolumniation, not oc- 
cupied by a window, is ornamented with a statue, 
or a military trophy. The statues are, Desaix, 
by Gois, jun. 5 Caffarelli, by Corbet} Marceau, 
by Dumontj Joubert, by Stouff; and Kleber and 
Dugommier, by Rameau. The trophies are by 
Hersent. The beauty of the staircase is furthei 
augmented by eight recumbent lions. 

After passing through the guard chamber, the 
first room shown to visitors is the Salle cTHercule, 
or des garcons de Salle, in which is a fine statue oi 
Hercules by Pujet ; one of Epaminondas, by Duret 
and one of Miltiades, by Boizot. In the Salle de, 
Messagers d*Etat is a fine marble statue of Silence 
by Mouchy; and one of Prudence, by Deseine 
T!\iQ Salle de la Reunion is ornamented with a granc 
allegorical painting, by Regnault, representing th< 
return of Louis XVlIIj and a fine portrait o 
that monarch, by Lefebvre. Above is a grisaille 
in which St. Louis is represented fighting the In 
fidels, by Callet. The ceiling is by Lesueur. Ad 
joining this room is' the Salle des Ministres, yfh\c\ 
is not shown. 



The Salle des Seances is i r, • 

diameter is seventy-seven feet. -% are 

ornamented vvith stucco, in oi lite 

veined marble. A fine r; oi ^< co- 

lumns in stucco, in the in i ns of 

which are statues of legislators oi am ity, in 
plaster, supports the ceiling, in which are repre- 
sented civil and military virtues, by Lesueur. In 
the middle of the axis of the semi-circle, is a re- 
cess, in which are placed the seats of the presi- 
dent, and secretaries. Above the president's seat 
is a demi cupola ornamented in caissons. The 
Peers' benches, arranged as in an amphitheatre, oc- 
cupy the area in front of the president. The 
Peer who addresses the assembly takes his station 
below the president's desk. 

The sculpture which decorates this hall does 
honour to the French school. The statues placed 
in the intercolumniations are, Solon, by Holland j 
Aristidcs, by Cartellier j Scipio Afrlcnnus, by Ra- 
in ey ^ Demosthenes, by Pajou ^ Cicero, by lion- 
don ^ Lycurgus, by Foucou ; F. Gamillus, \)\ 
Bridan • Cinclnnalus, by Cliaudct^ Cato of Lllca, 
by Clodion- Pericles, by Masson • Pliocion, ])y 
Delaislrc ^ and Lconidas, by Leniot. A marble 
bust of the King, by Dupaty, is placed in front 
of ibe president. This room is ornamented w ill) 
rich hangings of blue velvet, and is very brilliant 
when lighted up by the superb lustre suspended 
from the ceiling. 

The Salle du Trone is richly decorated. Jn the 
middle of the ceiling is represented Henry IV in 
a car, conducted by Victory, from the pencil ot 
Bartbelemy. The other paintings are by Lesueur, 

"16. 



except two, representing Peace and War, by Callel. 
There are four other rooms which are used for the 
bureaux, or committees of the chamber. In one 
of them is deposited the library. Another (in the 
pavilion on the left towards the garden) is erua- 
mented with hangings and furniture of beautiful 
painted cloth, of the manufacture of Vauchelet. 
All the paintings represent views of Rome. On 
the chimney-piece are two small and exquisite 
brass statues of Voltaire and Rousseau. 

On the gronpd-floor is the chapel, which is 
extremely plain and neat. Adjoining it is a most 
splendid room, called chambre a coucher de Marie 
de Medicis. The paintings are by Rubens. At 
the revolution they were all taken down, and 
hidden in a garret of the Louvre. Since the 
restoration they have been re-arranged with the 
greatest care, under the direction of M. Baraguay, 
who had orders to lit up the room to cpntain 
the golden book of the French peerage. It is 
not large, but quite dazzling with gilded orna- 
ments and beautiful arabesques. The closets, 
richly adorned with looking glasses, contain the 
archives of the Peers, and their medallions. In 
the different rooms are marble busts of deceased 
senators. 

The Luxembourg is open to the public on Sun- 
days only, but strangers are admitted everyday (ex- 
cept Monday's), from ten o'clock till four, upon 
producing their passports. Tickets may be had 
for Mondays on application, by letter, to M, le 
Questeiir de la Chambre des Fairs, au Luxembourg, 

Gallery. This gallery was formed by order of 
Mary de M«dicis, and was at first composed of 



large pictures, by Rubens, repre- 
allegorical history of that queen. It 
^^ards augmented by several pictures 
Jongecl to the queen dowager of Spain, 
others from the king*s cabinet. The gallery 
jg neglected, and about the year 1780, the 
Jigs were removed to form the museum of 
^ouvre. The victories of the French under 
japarte furnished an abundant supply of the 
.efs'd'oeuvres of the Arts to enrich the national 
nuseum ; and the pictures of the Luxembourg, 
with a considerable addition, were, in i8o5, re- 
stored to the gallery from which they had been 
removed. In i8i5, whea the foreign powers 
claimed and took the productions of the Arts 
which had been transported to Paris from lh<^ 
various continental states, the pictures of tht! 
Luxembourg* were again removed to the gallery 
of the Louvre, to fill up the vacant spaces of iu 
walls. Their place has been sinc<! supplied h^ ^ 
splendid collection of ihc \\\m .>\. produclions oi 
tlie best modern Fi-encli painters. ISear tin: cw 
liance ol" ihc gallery is a liin; r^roup ol (!!ij)i<l 
and Psyche, by iJclaislrc. The ceilini; ol tin- 
'gallery presents the signs of llie Zodiac in t\s( Iv^? 
pictures, by Jordaens, and llie rising olAuroi.i, 
by Callet. \\\ llie rotunda, to v\liieh tlie gaUcrv 
leads, is the celebrated liatljing rSvinpli, hy .IuIilm. 
Slranirers are admitted to the Ltalkrv daily Iroin 
ten o'clock till lour; and catalogues ol iIjc pa: 
tares are to be had at the door. 



(t( 



' Ainoup; llioin, hcsiilivs die llislniy n) l\lnr\ if 
}j(<licis, W'i'Vi: lilt' flisloiyol iSi. liruno, \t\ Lt .m!« i 
r'lud the Scn-porls ot V< rnct and Jo.scph lla \ 



fjrARDEN. few spots in fatis have undergone 
more frequent changes than this garden, which 
was lirst planted, under the direction of Desbrosses, 
at the period when the palace was erected. In 
1782, the finest trees were cut down, with the 
intention of building cafes, ball-rooms, etc. and 
establishing a fair. The^ ground thus cleared re- 
mained waste for nearly thirty years, and the 
fair was never established. In 1796, the fine 
avenue which leads from the palace to the Obser- 
vatory was commenced, and in i8oi> the ground 
laid waste in 1782 was again planted. Extensive 
improvements have been made at several subse^ 
quent periods, the most important of which was 
the elevation of the grand avenue to a level. This 
vast undertaking was attended with immense la- 
bour, as the earth and gravel necessary to carry it 
into execution were accumulating for the period 
of ten years. It is one of the most agreeable and 
frequented of the public gardens in Paris. In 
front of the palace is a vast flower-gardeYi, adorned 
with an octagonal basin, in which are swans. It 
is formed of grass-plats skirted by borders of 
shrubs and flowei's. The green alleys are formed 
of various trees ; and on their borders as well as 
on the terraces are a number of marble statues 
and vases. Rows of orange ^trees add to the em- 
bellishment of the garden during summer. On 
each side of the grand avenue is a nufsery- ground 
in which are specimens of every kind of fruit tree 
cultivated in France. At the entrance, are two 
white marble lions, copied from the antique. 
The extremity is closed by lodges, and a hand- 
some iron railing finished with spear heads gilt. 



ight of the palace is the ancient plan- 
f lofty trees ; opposite are rows of young 
To ihe left is a fountain or grotto, after 

.esigns of Desbrosses. It consists of a large 
ral niche, with a smaller one on each side be- 
en Tuscan intcrcolumniations, surmounted by 
attic and a semicircular pediment. The co- 
ins, niches, attic and pediment, are covered 
b congelations. On each side of the attic is 
:cumbent colossal statue, the one representing 
ver, by Duret, the other, a JNaiad, by Ramey. 
front of the central niche is a petty artificial 
L, from the cavities of which a small stream 
.'S. The rock serves as a pedestal for a -vrtiite 
ble statue of Venus at the bath. The arms 
'Vance and of Medicis in the tablet of the attic 
e destroyed at the revolution. This was the 
J building, not only in Paris, but even in 
nee, where the arms of the Medicis family 
e sculptured. Most of the statues wliich deco- 

tliis garden arc antiques, and many of them 
mutilated. The following is llieir order: — 
h\ enternig the garden, to the right of the 
ice, in a grove, is a colossal statue of iVIercury 
ronze, l)y Pigalle, and a vase adorned with 
ks' heads, in inar])le. Ascending the terrace 
lie left, I. Two Wrestlers ^ — 2. 'I'he Gladiator j 

Geres- — \. \ onus de .Medicis; — 5. IMeleager^ 

A Gladlatru' with his sword; — y. Ceres; — 
liaeehus; — 9. liaechiis; — 10. Ceres; — 11. Un- 
'.vn; — \'i. Vulcan, *by Hridan, Sen. Descending 
terrace, and advancing towards the avenue on 
right, I. A liue marble vase; — 'i. \enus; — 
V.!Muse;— '|. Yeiuis, by Gliardin ; — 5. Flora 



^6. ^® vPtra<^^ ^a. ^r T^accV^^ ^ 1 1 age ^--y 



^\v\\«^. -je**- ,o\«* .nX^° ; ( 



coti*^ 



;der^» 



Bonaparte resided here six months oeiore 
p his abode at the Tuiieries. It is now 

deuce of the chancellor of France, as 

t of the Chamber of Peers. 



Palais Bourbon. 



mlace, part of which is occupied by the 
le Conde, and the rest destined to the 
>f the deputies of the departments, is situ- 
in the southern bank of the Seine, towards 
I of Paris, and commands an extensive 

the river and the Champs Elyse^s. It 
ted in 1722, by Louise-Prancoise, Duchess- 

of Bourbon. It was begun after the de« 
Girardini, ax^ Italian architect, and con^ 
y J. H. Mansart, TAssurance, and others. 

coming into the possession of the prince 
1^, it was considerably enlarged, and the 
was embellished with the utmost mag- 
. Thougli not completely terminated in 
had already cost nearly a million sterling, 
riicies is about eiglit thousand eight lum- 
d seventy feet. Its front towards the 
s composed of two pavilions, each formed 
a ground-floor. That which faced the 
Liis XY liad never been finished j its archi- 
vas in the worst style, and when the Pont 
VI was built, the Palais Bourbon could 
be seen. 

revolution, the Palais Bourbon was one 
rst mansions that was plundered, and It 



ine pavilion opposite me Dnage was seiectea tor 
the sittings of the council, and the rest appropri- 
ated as a residence for the President. It was 
afterwards occupied by the Corps Legislatif. 
Upon the restoration in i8i4, the Prince de Conde 
took possession of the palace of his ancestors, 
and entered into an arrangement with the king, 
by which that portion which had been occupied 
by the legislative body, and which had been in 
great part rebuilt, was ceded to the nation for 
ever, for the use gf the deputies of the depart- 
ments. 

Palace of the Prince. The part occupied by 
the Prince de Conde is a pavilion only one story 
high, which was formerly called H6tel Lassay, and 
was annexed to the origiqa) building after it be- 
came the property of the rrincc de Cood^. Its 
appearance is mean, indicating a spacious country 
seat, rather than the palace of a Prince. Its en^ 
trance is by the rue de Bourbon, from whence it 
is approached by an avenue, 270 feet in length, 
terminating in a court 174 fWf in length, and 126 
in breadth. The plan consists of ten principal 
courts, surrounded with buildings, affording ample 
accommodation for a numerous household. 'The 
ofiices are upon an extensive scale, and there is 
stabling for lifty horses. The entrance to the in- 
terior is by a flight of steps. Formerly, nothing, 
could exceed the splendour of the mirrors, gilding, 
paintings in fresco, and costly furniture whi^ 
decorated these apartments ; at present they are 
only remarkable for the beauty of their pro- 



portions, 
lections. 

representii tnc y^ y \ 

Cond^ commanded, J i Ta, t 

of Nordlingen, by Lep on i y-piece 

is a bronze bust of the great Conae ^ there is also 
a portrait of the Prince de Gond^, at the age of 
twenty- two, when he gained the battle of Rocroy, 
and another when he was more advanced in 
years : also a superb piece of furniture, containing 
a mineralogical collection, presented in t'^'ji to 
the Prince de Cond^, by the King of Sweden. In 
the billiard-room are two pictures, representing 
the battle of Fribourg, by Casa-JVova, and that 
of Lens, by Lepan, with superb hangings of Gobe- 
lin tapestry, representing the wrath of Achilles. 
One of the chimney-pieces is adorned with a 
small statue of the ^reat Conde> throwing his 
generaVs staff into the lines of Fribourg, and one 
of Marshal Turennc. On the second chimnev- 
picce are llie chevalier Hayard and the Connetahle 
Duauesclin. In llie next saloon, on the clilmncv- 
piece, are IjusIs in wjjite marble ol" the great 
Conde and Turennc,*T^V Coysevox j between them 
is a bust of Henry 1\ in coloured wax, taken 
from nature immediately alter the death of that 
unfortunate monarcli.^ At the corners, are busts 
of the h»te Prince de Conde, and his son tlie Duke 
of Bourbon, by Deseine. The garden, consisting 
of flower-beds, bowling-greens, and bowers, is 
bounded by a terrace one thousand hvc hundred 

■^ This bust was fornioi ly al ihc Consei vatoire dos At i-^ 
'I Metiers. 

PART I. 17 



■9» 

:e, Strength, Navi- 

Jwiences, and Commerce. At 

, upon pedestals eighteen feet 

lossal stntues of Justice Biid 

he foreground are figures of 

; Colbert, bj Dumont; I'Hopi- 

d'Ague»seau b; Foucoti. Tlie 

towards the Place Bourbon, is 

nphai arch of the Corinthian 

th two pavilions by galleries 

s. The ornaments and the 

marked it as the residence of 

le great Conde, were destroyed 

The first court, 280 feet in 

;adth, is skirted by buildings 

The second court, or court 

et in length by 96 in breadth, 

assemblage of porticoes and 

luted. At the extremity is a 

ih eight Corinthian columns. 

_>edestals before it are Minerva, 

' Bridan, jun., and Strength, by Espercieui. The 

fo figures supporting the clock are by Fragonard. 

a one side of the court is the Salle de la Ficloire; 

I the other the SalU de la Paix. 

The chamber is of a semi-circular form, lighted 

am the roof, and disposed like an amphitheatre. 

le members sit upon benches wbicb rise one 

love another. Two benches in front, cohered 

ilh blue cloth, are appropriated to the king's 

inisters. In the upper pnrt of the chamber arc 

dleries for the. council of state, the Peers of 

ranee, the foreign ambassadors, journalists, and 

le public. They extend round the circular part 



feet in length. At the extremity of the terrace* 
on the side of the Hotel des Invalides, are some 
small apartments, with a garden laid out in the 
English style. The Palais Bourbon may be seen 
at any time of the day, a servant being always on 
the spot to attend visitors. 

Chamber of Deputies. In 1796, when the Palais 
Bourbon was chosen for the sittings of the Council 
of Five Hundred, Gisors was charged to execute 
the works requisite for its new destination. The 
architect, guided by economy, preserved part of 
the old structure, blocked up the windows, and 
added to the front a portico, ornamented with six 
columns. The pediment was adorned with a bas- 
relief, representing Law punishing Ciime and 
protecting Innocence. The whole was surmounted 
by a heavy attic. Bonaparte determined to give 
to the Palace of the Legislative Assembly a more 
magnificent facade, and, in 1 807, Poyet was charged 
to prepare designs. The present front, which cost 
1,759,000 francs, and which may be considered 
one of the finest specimens of architecture in the 
French capital, was thei^ erected . It presents a 
portico nearly one hundred* feet in breadth, com- 
posed of twelve Corinthian columns, and ascended 
by twenty-nine steps. The columns are crowned 
by a triangular pediment, the tympanum of which 
is ornamented with a bas-relief^ in plaster, by 
Fragonard, representing Law supported by the 

* Th« bas-reliefs which adorned the wall of the por- 
tico were destroyed in 181 5, as was the magnificent dis- 
play of sculpture in the tympanum of the pediment, a 
chej-iVoeuyre of Qiaudet, and the last production of his 
cliiscl. 



...^^ 



Charter, and attended by J Ice, Strength, Navi- 
gation, the Arts and Sciences, ; Commerce. At 
the foot of the steps, upon ped Is eighteen feet 
in elevation, are coIo s of Justice and 

Prudence ; and in the foreground are figures of 
Sully, by Beauvallet^ Colbert, by Dumont; FHopi- 
tal by Deseine j and d^Aguesseau by Foucou. The 
principal entrance, towards the Place Bourbon, is 
adorned with a triumphal arch of the Corinthian 
order, connected with two pavilions by galleries 
formed of columns. The ornaments and the 
family arms, which marked it as the residence of 
the descendants of the great Conde, were destroyed 
at the revolution. The first court, 280 feet in 
length by 162 in breadth, is skirted by buildings 
devoid of character. The second court, or court 
of honour, is £4<^ ^^et in length by 96 in breadth, 
and presents a fine assemblage of porticoes and 
masses, well distributed. At the extremity is a 
porlico adorned ^vith eight Corinthian columns. 
The two figures on pedestals before it arc Minerva, 
by Driclan, Jan., and Strength, by l^'spercieux. The 
two figures supporting the clock are by Fragonard. 
On one side of the court Is the Salle dc la V ictoire ; 
on the other tlie Salle de la Faix. 

The cham])er Is of a senil-clrcular form, h'ghtcd 
from llie roof, and disposed like an amphitheatre. 
The members sit upon benches which rise one 
above another. Two Iienches In front, covered 
wltli blue cloth, are appropriated to the king's 
ministers. In the upper part of the cliamber are 
j^'allerles for the council of state, the Peers (»l 
France, tlie foreign ambassadors, journalists, and 
the public. They extend round the circular part 



of the house, and are omameDted with thirty 
Ionic columns, and the same number of pilasters, 
in stucco, to imitate white veined marble. The 
pavement is of marble, in compartments, with 
allegorical attributes. The ceiling is richly painted 
in caissons with figures and ornaments. Tlie two 
grand doors are of solid mahogany studded with 
gilt stars. The door posts are of marble richly 
sculptured. The walls arc of stucco, ornamented 
with plates of copper gilt. At the centre of the 
chord are the chair and desk of the President. 
In front of the desk is the tribune which the 
deputies ascend when they address the chamber. 
It is of marble, adorned with a bas-relief by Le- 
mot, representing History. Behind the Presidetit's 
chair are marble busts of Louis XYI, Louis XYII, 
and Louis XYUI. In six niches, three on each side of 
the tribune, are placed statues of Lycurgus, Solon, 
Demosthenes, Brutus, Cato, and Cicero. 

The Salle des Gardes is richly decorated with 
paintings and sculptures after the designs of Frago- 
nard. The two bas-reliefsL on the supports of the 
vault represent Henry IV distributing recompenses 
to warriors and agriculturists \ and Francis I en- 
couraging the sciences, letters, and arts. 

The Salon du Roi is decorated with twelve Co- 
rinthian pilasters, regularly disposed on each side 
of the doors and windows, and supporting a ceil- 
ing richly ornamented. On each pilaster are 
painted military emblems. Above the windows 
are figures of Fame, holding crowns. In the 
archivolt are the names of all the battles in which 
the French armies have been victorious since th% 
revolution. The pictures in this saloon are Louis 



la loe LFucness oi Augouieme, dj Ui 
ind his daughter, byThevenin; and.([ 
by Mademoiselle Duvidal. On the 
! is a splendid clock, by Lepaute^ 
epresenled showing the hours to Ti 
on which are the hours turns round, and 
ig under the pointed instrument held by 
e clock strikes. In this saloon are busts 
T IV, the Count d'Artois, the Ouke of 
ne, and the late Duke of .Berry. Here 
r be seen the chair on which the King 

seat when he opens the session of the 
s ^ it is that once used by Bonaparte, 

eagles have given place to Jleurs de lis, 
oot-cushion is quite new. 

Salle de la Paix are two fine pictures 
ing the Death of Socrates, by Peyroaj 
3Ctetes, by Lethlers. At the extremities 
magnificent groups in bronze, one of the 
, and the oilier of Arria and Petus. Tliev 
t by kolier, in the reigti of Louis XIV. 
allc de la rictoirc, which is opposilc 
alle de la Paix, is wortliy of particular 
.. Betieath a line portrait o( Louis X\ 111, 
n Guerin, is a colossal bust oi the late 

berry, witli the following inscription, 
► ere tlie last words addressed by that 
ipon his dealli-bed to the marshals of 
— J'avais Ksri rk vi.iisei; imon sanc. pour la 

Opposite is a statue of Henry IV by 

On the ])edestal are the words addressed 

nionarcli to the notables assembled at 

-Lh MOLlriN'r AMOUU QUE JK PORTE A MES 

•: KAIT lOUT TROLMa; AISi-: ET MONORARLE. It 



^7- 



likewise contains pictures representing the siege 
of Calais, by Scheffer j the death of Bayard, by 
Beufort; the resistance offered by the President 
Molay to the ligueurs, by Vincent; and the death 
of the connetable Dugiiesclin, by Brennet. 

There are several other apartments for the hn- 
reaux or committees of the chamber, for a library, 
and the accommodation of the ofBcers of the 
chamber. The embellishments of this part of the 
Palais Bourbon have cost within the last ten 
or twelve years above three millions of francs 
(laojOoo/.). 

The Chamber of Deputies may be seen every 
day by inquiring for a gargon de Salle, During 
the session, tickets to hear the debates may be 
had by writing to M, le Quest eur de la Chambre 
des Deputes, au Palais Bourbon, 



Palais de V Elysee-Bourbojiy 

Rue du faubourg St. JUonore, 

This hotel, constructed in 1718, after the designs 
of Molct, for the Count d'Evreux, was afterwards 
purchased and occupied by Madame de Pompa- 
dour, mislress of Louis XV. Whilst in her pos- 
session, part of the Champs Elysces was added to 
the garden. At the death of Madame de Pompa- 
dour, Louis XV bought it as a residence for am- 
bassadors extraordinary. In 1773, it became the 
property of M. Beaujon, a famous banker, who 
enlarged and embellished it in the most magnifi- 
cent style. The Duchess of Bourbon purchased it 
after the death of Beaujon, and occupied it till 
1790, the period of her emigration. In 179^* it 



became national property, and durii the most 
stormy period of the revolution was u: as the 
Printing oflice of the government. 1800, it 

was sold and converted into a public garden, 
which proved an unsuccessful speculation. Maret, 
duke of Bassano, bought this hotel in 1804* ^*'^l 
occupied it till, his departure for Naples. It then 
fell into the hands of the government, and was 
inhabited by Bonaparte several times before his 
abdication. He returned to it after the battle of 
Waterloo, and here was performed the hurried 
drama of the cent jours. In i8i4 and 181 5 it 
was occupied by the Emperor Alexander, and 
afterwards by the Duke of Wellington ; and in 
1816 was given by Louis XVIII to the late Duke 
of Berry. The architecture is elegant and simple. 

The garden, one of the largest in Paris, is laid 
out in the English style. In the middle is a 
bowling-green, leading by a gentle descent lo a 
fine piece of water surrounfled by large trees 
overshadowliiii deliahtlnl walks. 

Lpoii ihe assassination of the Duke of Kcnv 
i)y Louvel, at the door of the Opera house on 
the i?.th of February 180.0, the Duchess reruovtvl 
to l!ie palace of the Tiilleries, and since tliat ]u'riO(l 
the Palais dc rElysee-Bourhon has l)een iinoccii 
pied. 

J.MF.PJOR. Nothing can exceed the taste with 
\\ hich the apartments of llils palace are (hslrihuled 
and iurnished. 

\ isitors arc successively introduced into llir 
apartments of tlie laic Duke \ the summer ;ip.u t 
menls of the Duchess j and the winter aparlmeiiL^ 
of her royal Highness. 



The apartments of the late Duke are on the 
ground-floor. They are the least splendid, but 
are furnished in an elegant and manly style, and 
contain a choice collection of fine paintings. The 
first room is the usher s anti-chamber^ which pos- 
sesses some good pictures of the Flemish school. 
The Salon feaille morte (dead foliage), is so called 
from the colour of the tapestry and curtains. This 
room contains twelve pictures of the Flemish 
school, among which is a Tavern Scene, by Te- 
niers, which for nature, warmth of colouring, and 
expression, ranks amongst the first compositions 
of that artist. It possesses also two magnificent 
candelabras of porphyry and bronze, ten feet in 
height. On the chimney-piece is a superb time- 
piece, by Lepaute. The crimson saloon is orna- 
mented with gilt pannels and crimson silk hang- 
ings, with furniture to correspond. In this saloon 
are some good pictures of the Flemish school, 
amongst which may be remarked, a Village Fair, 
by Wouvermans, the more remarkable on ac- 
count of its being different to the general style 
of that painter, and rivalling, ih the vivacity of 
its composition, the excellent grouping of its 
figures, and its genuine expression, the pictures 
of Gerard Dow and John Steen. 

The Duke's bed-room* is hung with green silk, 
with bed and furniture to correspond. A stranger 
will be struck with the numerous and beautiful 
paintings it exhibits. We recommend to their 

* The Duke and Duchess regularly occupied the same 
bed-room, although separate rooms are called by their 
names. 



ir. Two small pictures by Mieris, repre- 
g Children at play, deserve attention for 
3rilliant colouring, and exquisite execution. 
s cbamber is a plaster bust of tbe late Duke 
rry, which presents a most striking like- 

Toilet-room is hung willi green silk, with 
ure to correspond. The most remarkable 
es are : a Portrait of a Lady holding a palette, 
ieris, which resembles a miniature by its 
inish, but is far superior in expression j and 
ure of the conclusion of the peace of Mun- 
remarkable for numerous figures, all por- 
An engraving near it gives the explanation, 
u'let-room contains also two antique Etruscan 
besides several curious objects, antiquities 
•etrifactions, found by the Duchess in the 
of Herculaneum and Pompeii. The library 
Qg with tapestry j and the curtains iined 
jreen silk, with furniture to correspond. The 
arc disposed on sliclvcs^ in the upper part 
roori), round wliich a gallery extends. The 
part ol the room is ornamented witii pic- 
the most remarkable ol ^vl)ich are: two 
able ellects ol" Light, by Sclialk and Gerard 
a Naval Piglu, by backliuizcn j some horned 
Is, by Paul i^otter ^ and a Cliase, by Wouver- 
i the latter is rcmarkal)lc for its bold ex- 
3n and lively colouring. On the chimney- 
is a nealand elegant clock, on a car drawn 
ipids. The ^silfer saloon is so called Irom 
hite with slKer oinamenls^ the hang- 



ng vv 



y 



inf^s and furniture are lilac, with silver l}orders. 
The masterpieces of painting which adorn this 
room would require too long a description to do 
them justice; the observer will particularly notice 
the interior of churches, by Neefs ; landscapes of 
Ruysdael and Van Berghem ; pictures of John 
Sleen, Mieris, and Vernet; and dead animals by 
Wecninx; all of admirable composition and exe- 
cution. On the chimney-piece is a time-piece 
ornamented in silver, representing Cupid in a car 
drawn by a dog. The fire irons and fender are 
also of silver. In the middle of the room is a 
small table, the top of which is formed of a single 
mosaic, twenty inches in length by sixteen in 
breadth, representing birds drinking from a vase. 
The summer apartments of the Duchess, also 
called Apartments of Honour, are on the ground- 
floor, and separated from those of the late Duke 
by an anti-chamber. The first apartment shown 
is a small dressing-room^ hung with white plaited 
muslin, embroidered with white flowers. The 
furniture is mahogany. It contains a magnificent 
portable looking-glass. The work-room of the 
Duchess is furnished in a most costly manner; the 
pannels and furniture are richly gilt ; the cur- 
tains are green silk, of Lyons manufacture, with 
very rich flower borders; the furniture, is covered 
with silk tapestry, of Boauvais manufacture, re- 
presenting landscapes. It contains a superb musi- 
cal time-piece representing the fall of Phaeton; 
and a second time-piece which, although more 
ancient, is remarkably fine. The bed-room rivals 
the preceding in richness, and surpasses it in ele- 
gance. The bed is gilt, with hangings of lilac silk 



itains a small marble statue of Marius, of 
iful execution, four magniiiceut candclabras 
:phyry and bronze, and two vases of Swedish 
:e, eleven feet in height and of exquisite 
y. The Aides dc Camp's hall is remarkably 
The dining-room is fifty feet in length by 
y in breadth. It is ornamented wnth archi- 
ve of the Corinthian order, gilt^ and possesses 
large pictures, affording views of the Tiber, 
ile, the Rhine and the Seine. The last room 
!s suite of apartments is the guard^chamber, 
2 winter apartments of the Duchess are on the 
loor, and although not so sumptuous as the 
!r, possess a degree of elegance and comfort 
1 will enhance their merit in the eye of Eng- 
isitors. 

ier the peristyle leading from the summer 
ments to those of winter, is a good statue of 
o Belvedere, and six medallions representing 
rms of the city of Paris. A magnificent stair- 
bordered Willi a rallini^ of iron gilt, in the 

of" palm leaves, leads to the usher's anti- 

her. jNexl eoines the Saloon of the officers on 

and then tiie Family Saloon^ which is hung 

crimson silk damask lurnllure to corre- 
l. Upon tlie chimiiev-piecc is a bust of the 
ess. The billiard-rooia is yellowy hut con- 
notliing remarkable. The errand Saloon is 
rge dimensions. The walls are of dead gold 




ornamented with paintings of the four seasons. 
The curtains and furniture are of red silk. On 
the chimney-piece is a beautiful time-piecci repre- 
senting the Oath of the Horatii. It also possesses 
a small marble statue of Agrippina. The Duchess* 
library is fitted up with mahogany shelves and 
book-cases. The decoration is neat. The sofas 
and chairs are of mahogany with green morocco. 
It contains a large looking-glass with plaited green 
silk behind it. The bed-room of the Duchess unites 
costliness with simplicity and comfort. It is 
hung like a tent with yellow plaited silk, em- 
bellished with crimson ornaments. The posts of 
the tent are gilt spears, which meet in the centre 
of the ceiling. The bed is of solid mahogany with 
gilt ornaments, representing Silence and Sleep, 
and rich yellow draperies. It contains a splendid 
piece of furniture, eight feet in height, and six in 
breadth, of French wood with costly gilt orna- 
ments, which was formerly used by the Duchess 
as a cabinet for her jewels. The boudoir or toilet- 
room is lined with white plaited muslin fastened 
by crimson ropes. It also serves as a bath-room. 
The late Duke of Berry allowed, in the most con- 
descending manner, strangers to visit his palace. 
To obtain admission application must now be 
made by letter to the Marquis de Sassenay, at the 
palace, or M. Guchete, at the Petit Hotel, who ge- 
nerally send tickets by post, a few days after. 

Palais des Beaux Arts^ 

Se(! Institute, 



Palais ,j4rchiepiscopaL 

I'his palace is annexed to and communicates 
with the cathedral of Notre Dame, on the southern 
side. 

The entrance of the first court is marked by a 
pavilion on each side of an iron railing. Attached 
to the church, is a building of a plain and noble 
style of architecture, which formerly served as an 
entrance to the palace. In the centre is a niche, 
containing a fine statue of Pity. Within the se- 
cond court stands the old palace, on a parallel 
line with the course of the Seine : here is a re- 
markably beautiful chapel, decorated with orna- 
ments in stucco. A superb staircase, constructed 
in 1772, by Desmaisons, leads to the magnificent 
apartments which were sumptuously furnished by 
order of Bonaparte. 

The interior of the palace is very splendid, and 
ronsisls, ist, of the apartments of honour, whlcli 
are reserved for the klii" when he visits llie cathe- 
dral^ '2nd, the apartments of the archbishop. 

The apartments of honour look on tlie c;nnlcn 
and tlie quay- The entrance Is on the right in 
golnp; into the second court. At the lop of the 
errand staircase are two anti-chambers, the second 
of wliich separates the apartments of lionour 
from those of the arcld)lshop. On the right is a 
saloon, hung with green velvet and silk, and orna- 
mented with gilt pannels. The furniture is covered 
with velvet and silk to correspond. A second 
saloon is iitted up with crimson silk. The next 
room is the saloon of the life-guards, which leads 

PART I. l*^ 



to the grand couucil-chamber of the chapter, who 
liold their meetings there when the king is pleased 
to be present. This room is of stucco, in imitation 
of marble. Next to the latter is a gallery, leading 
to the cathedral. 

The apartments of the archbishop consist of 
two dining-rooms, which are entered by doors on 
the left of the second anti-chamber mentioned 
above. Next is the hall of attendance, and, on its 
left, the large and splendid library of the arch- 
bishop. In this room is a fine portrait of Cardinal 
Talleyrand, archbishop of Paris, who died in 1821. 
The archbishop's saloon is splendidly hung with 
crimson silk, with curtains and furniture of the 
same; the pannels and ornaments are gilt. It is 
to be regretted that the ceiling does not corre- 
spond with the general magnificence of the room. 
Next comes the private library, and then the private 
closet of the archbishop, both hung in green. The 
archbishop^s bed-room is hung with cnmson silk, 
with curtains and furniture to correspond. The 
bed and chairs are most splendid. In this room 
is a beautiful small ivory crucifix, valued at more 
than 6,000 francs, which was brought from the 
Brazils by Duguay Trouin. 

The summer apartments are on the ground- 
floor near the garden. The first room is an anti- 
chamber : on its left is the private chapel of the 
archbishop, which is very neat but contains no- 
thing remarkable. On the right is a saloon hung 
with crimson silk, the furniture to correspond. 
It contains a painting of the Crucifixion. The 
bed-room is hung with lilac silk, with bed and 
curtains to correspond. Next come two small 



ies, the council-cha :r of the chapter, and 
ack library. 

is palace has been enlarged towards the east, 

re a new quay has been built. The garden, 

jircled by an iron railing, afTords an interesting 

iCW of the river, the island St. Louis, the wine 

wharf, the quays, etc. 

It is difficult to obtain permission to see this 
palace. No person is allowed to enter when the 
archbishop is from home 5 and the present prelate 
requires that applications for admission should be 
made by letter, addressed immediately to himself. 



Palais de Justice, 

Place du Palais de Justice, 

This edifice, also called le Palais, was formerly 
the residence of the kings of France. Its origin is 
lost in the night of time, but it appears to have 

been occupied by Dagobcrt, and certainly was in- 
habited by the counts of Paris, and the major- 
donios or mayors of the palace. Eudes or Odo 
was the first king who dwelt in it, and some of the 
towers built by him arc said still to exist. Hugh 
Capet united this palace to the domains of the 
crown, and his son liobcrt, about the year lono, 
constructed some of the galleries and low'ers. This 
ancient structure was enlarged and endicllishcd by 
St. Louis, who inhabited it, and who also built 
the Sainte Chapelle, Under Philippe Ic Bel, about 
the year i5i3, it w^'»s almost entirely rebuilt. 
Louis XI, Charles \11I, and Louis XII, likewise 
made considerable additions to it. The Parlcnunt 
of Paris first held their sittings in the Palais under 



iiic reigu ui oi. jljuuis, auu iicrc tucy ci/uiinuea lo 
hold them till the revolution. 

In i364, when Charles V left the cite to live at 
the Hotel de St. Paul, the Falais was merely an 
assemblage of large towers commumcatiog with 
each other by galleries. The extensive garden 
formerly belonging to this palace was formed or 
improved by king Childebert I. 

In 1/410, during the quarrels between the Duke 
of Orleans and the Duke de Bourgogne, which 
filled Paris with disorder, Charles VI, considering 
himself unsafe at the Hotel de St. Paul, came and 
dwelt in the Palais. Francis I also resided here in 
i53i. This royal residence seems to have been 
used from an early period for state ceremonies. 

On the 7th of May, 1618, the ancient and mag- 
nificent room called la salle du Palais^ with se- 
veral contiguous buildings, were destroyed by fire. 
It was in this hall that ambassadors were re- 
ceived, that splendid banquets were given, and 
the nuptial festivals of the royal family were 
held. The roof was of timber, supported by co- 
lumns also of wood, enriched with gilding upon 
an azure ground. In intervening spaces, were 
statues of the kings of France, from Pharamond to 
Francis I, with an inscription stating the name of 
each king, the length of his reign, and the year of 
his death. At one extremity of the hall was the 
chapel built by St. Louis, and at the other an im- 
mense block of marble, which served for a dining- 
table upon state occasions. To this table none 
were admitted but emperors, kings, princes of 
tlie blood, peers and peeresses of France. By a 
singular contrast, this table was afterwards used 



as a stage for \\ie farces^ moralites et sottUes per- 
formed in the Palais. After the ^iire in 1618 the 
grande salle, also called la salle des Pas Perdus, 
was rebuilt after the designs of Desbrosses, and 
finished in 1622. Its length is a 16 feet, and its 
breadth 84- It consists of two spacious collateral 
naves, with vaulted ceilings, separated by arches 
resting upon square pillars. The decoration is of 
the Doric order, and light is admitted by two 
large arched windows, and four small oval ones, 
at the extremities. The salle des Pas Perdus is the 
Westminster Hall of Paris. It serves as a prome- 
nade, and leads to the various courts af Justice 
and other apartments. In this hall a monument, 
after the designs of Dumont, was erected in 1822, 
to the memory of the courageous and- unfortunate 
Malesherbes. It consists of a statue of that up- 
right minister and bold defender of Louis XVI, 
with a figure of Fidelity on one side and of grate- 
ful France on the other. Over the door leading 
lo the Court of Cassation is a Ijas-rclicf of Jusllcc 

Beneath tlic salle de.^ Pas Ferdus is a hall of 
I he same (llinensions, called la cuisine de St. Louis. 
l.lkc the room aiiove it is divided into two naves 
by pillars, which extend its whole length and sup- 
port a vault. At the lour corners arc chimneys ol 
large dimensions, remarkable for their construc- 
tion. A staircase still exists which probably served 
for carrying the dishes to table when grand enter- 
laiimicnts were given. 

Abov(; the salle des Pas Perdus are three vaulted 
rooms constructed towards the cn(\ of the reign 
of Louis XV , in order to form a depot of archives. 
The conslruction of these galleries is much ad 

18. 



three stories, the hall on the ground floor is of the 
reign of Louis IX; that of the first-floor, of the 
lime of Louis XIII, and that of ihe second, almost 
of our own days. 

In 1776, another fire destroyed the buildings 
extending from the prisoners' gallery to the Sainte 
Chapelle, and a plan was then formed to erect a 
front corresponding with the dignity of the Palace 
of Justice. The modern part of the structure, as it 
now appears, was constructed under the superin- 
tendeuce of Messrs. Moreau, Oesmaisons, Couture 
and Antoine, members of the Academy of Archi- 
tecture, who also formed the semi-circular /^/actf 
before the palace. The front of this building pre- 
sents a platform, ascended by an immense flight of 
steps, which serves as a basement for a projecting 
body of four Doric columns. Above the entabla- 
ture is a balustrade; and upon four pedestals arc 
colossal statues representing Strength and Abun- 
dance, by Berruer, and Justice and Prudence, by 
Lecomte. The central projecting body is sur- 
mounted by a quadrangular dome, at the base of 
which are two angels supporting the arms of 
France, by Pajou. On each side of the steps is 
an arch, one of which leads to the Tribunal of 
Police, and the other to the Conciergerie, the prison 
from which Marie Antoinette was led to execution.* 
The two wings, which extend to the street, 
consist, at the ground-floor, of piazzas, above 
which is a row of windows. Towards the street, 
the wings are oraamented with four Doric co«- 

* See Conciergcriv. 



;s. 



The Toilet-room is hung with green silk, with 
.umiture to correspond. The most remarkable 
pictures are : a Portrait of a Lady holding a palette, 
by Mieris, which resembles a miniature by its 
high finish, but is far superior in expression j and 
a picture of the couclusion of the peace of Mun- 
ster, remarkable for numerous figures, all por- 
traits. An engraving near it gives the explanation. 
The toilet-room contains also two antique Etruscan 
vases, besides several curious objects, antiquities 
and petrifactions, found by the Duchess in the 
ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii. The library 
is hupg with tapestry J and the curtains lined 
with green silk, with furniture to correspond. The 
books are disposed on shelves^ in the upper part 
of the room, round which a gallery extends. The 
lower part of the room is ornamented with pic- 
tures, the most remarkable of which are: two 
admirable effects of Light, by Schalk and Gerard 
Dow; a Naval Fight, Ijy Backliuizcn ; some horned 
animals, by Paul Potter ; and a Cliase, by Wouver- 
nians ; tlic latter is remarkable for its bold ex- 
pression and lively colouring. On the cbimney- 
piece is a neat and clegjuit clock, on a car drawn 
by Cupids. The sih-er saloon is so called ironi 
its being vvbite vvltli silver ornaments^ tbe hang- 



ol the king and the seats of the presidents. Op- 
posite to them are the arms of France, and the 
statues of the Chancellors d'Aguesseau and I'Ho- 
pital, by Deseiae. The railing wbich separates 
the space beyond the bar from the advocates^ 
bench is remarkable for its ornaments and the 
excellence of their execution^ A portrait of Loub 
XVIII adorns this Court. 

It is surprising to behold so important a public 
edifice encumbered on every side, and even in the 
interior, with private dwellings and shops, which 
expose it every day, as well as the archives it 
contains, to destruction by fire. One of the in- 
terior galleries is called the galerie merciere. On 
each side of it are shops. Above this gallery the 
Cour Royale holds its sittings upon civil cases. 
The staircase leading to it is decorated with a sta- 
tue of Law, with this inscription : — In Legibus Sa- 
ins. The Court of Assises is held at the extremity 
of ihe galerie Dauphine, in rooms formerly oc- 
cupied as the offices of the Chancellor. The first 
sections of the civil tribunal arc on the side of the 
cour Lamoignon, above the perron des lions ^ the 
others are round the salle des Pas Perdus. 

The Cour des Comptes occupies a separate build- 
ing in the cour de la Sainte Chapelle. It was 
erected in i74o> after the designs of Gabriel, but 
presents nothing remarkable. On the left of this 
building is an arcade, which serves for a commu- 
nication with the hotel in which the premier pre 
sident of the court of Accompts formerly dwelt. 
This arcade, said to be the work of Jean Goujon, 
is one of the most remarkable constructions in the 
cite, from the richness and perfection of its oma- 



un cacb side, aoove tne vault, rises an 
window, presenting two coupled Ionic pi- 
, the capitals of which are sculptured in 
lines, a kind of ornament unexampled, it is 
n that order. On the keystone of the archi- 
are two heads of fauns, one has hanging 
3ars and serpents entwined with its hair* 
i the windows are other heads crowned with 
idsj and the tympanums exhibit figures of 
bearing palms, executed with great elegance 
elicacy. The cornice of the arcade is sup- 
l by eight consoles richly adorned with fo- 
and terminated on the outside by four female 
, which differ from each other in attitude, 
3gnomy, and dress, but all have a crescent 
ir hair. Four corresponding heads, placed 
the arcade, are Fauns with cornucopiae* In 
issons, which adorn the lower part of the 
;e, is the monogram of Henry II and Diana 
ictiers, so often found on the monuments 
d J)y that prince. This monograni is here 
ipanled hy ajlaur dc lis and a crescent. Be- 
thc cour des CoinpUs is the Frefectiire de 
, lonneily tl»c hotel of the lirst President of 
rlement. To the ri^hl of the cour de Ilarlay 
ic dependencies of the Conciergerie. An 
arcade, lowartis the (juai de lliorlot^e, leads 
it prison and comninnicates witii the cour 
noignon. The huihiings wliich separate the 
court from the cour de Harlay arc private 
s connected with \\\ii f!;alerie mercie/t^. 
)n part of tl:e ground which forms the Place 
hi is de Justice, stood tl»e house of Jean Clia- 
hos(; son atlenipted to assassinate Henry IV, 



on tae '^7111 ot December, lOQ^^. Inis man, against 
whom there was no charge, was sentenced to nine 
years banishment, to pay a heavy fine, and to 
have his house demolished. A building, called a 
pyramid, was erected upon its site to "attest the 
crime and punishment of the Jesuits," who were 
supposed to have instigated the assassin. The mo- 
nument was demolished in i6o3. Upon this place 
the sentences of criminals who stand in the pillory 
or are branded are carried into execution. 

La Sainte Coapelle do Palais. Upon the spot 
now occupied by the Sainte Chapelle there origin- 
ally stood a chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas, which 
was erected by king Robert, and afterwards an 
oratory, constructed by Louis le Gros. St. Louis 
having purchased of Baldwin, emperor of Con- 
stantinople, various relics, at an immense expense, 
constructed the Sainte Chapelle for their reception. 
The buildings, erected after the designs of Pierre 
de Montreuil, consist of two chapels, one above 
the other, both of which were dedicated bn the 
same day, in 124^; the upper one by Eudes, le- 
gate of the Sovereign Pontiff, in honour of the 
Holy Crown of Thorns; and the lower one by 
Philip, archbishop of Boiirges, in honour of the 
Virgin. The expense of this structure was 40,000 
livres, or 800,000 fr. according to the present 
value of money. And that of the relics'Snd their 
shrines •! 00,000 livres, equal to a, 000,000 fr. of 
French money. Thus the Sainte Chapelle and its 
treasure cost St. Louis a sum equal to 2,800,000 fr. 
present money. 

This structure, which is one of the finest edifices 
of the middle ages in Europe, rests solely upon 



slender detached coli s. Its height, from the 
pavement of the lower chapel to the lop of the 
pediment, is one hundred and ten feet. The upper 
chapel is one hundred and ten feet in length hy 
twenty-seven in breadth. The ornaments, both 
within and without, are finished with remarkable 
elegance and delicacy. The windows, of painted 
glass, representing scriptural subjects, are greatly 
admired for their height and the beauty and va- 
riety of the colours. The lower chapel formerly 
served as a parish church for the servants of the 
canons and chaplains, as well as for the inha- 
bitants of the court of the Palais. In one of the 
vaults was buried the celebrated poet Boileau. 
His body was taken up during the revolution and 
removed to the Musee des Monumens Francais; 
it is now in the church of St. Germain des Pr^s. 
The Lutrin sung by that celebrated poet was de- 
posited in the chapel. To the right of the upper 
chapel is shown a small oratorvto which St. Louis 
repaired daily to hear mass. The spire or steeple 
ol this cliapel, a work remaikahlc for its boldness 
and lightness, havliij; i'allen into decay, -was taken 
<lo\vu a lew years belbrc llic revolution. 'J'iic rest 
of the building is now undei going repair. The 
outer stairs leading from the ground- floor to the 
upper chapel, have lately been j-eeonslruetcd after 
the designs and under the direction ol'M. Pevre. 

The Sainte Chapelle Is approached from llie rue 
tie la Calandre beneath a portico, al)ove Avhicli 
is a bas-reliel", by Gois, fifteen feet in length hy 
seven in height. It represents the Chaml)re des 
Comptes receiving the oaths of all the geneials ol 
both secular and regular orders. 



judicial archives, which are systematically an 
in cases forming a gallery supported by s 
columns. They consist of more than ten the 
volumes, in folio, written upon parchmen 
more than twenty thousand minutes of dif 
jurisdictions annulled at the time of the n 
lion. The depot likewise contains some ve 
rious papers, highly interesting in an hist 
point of view. This depot, from its nature 
not be open to the public as a library, but tJ 
chipiste readily shows it to strangers. . Ap 
tion must be made at his office in the grand 
of the Palace . 



Palais du Temple^ 

See page ia5. 



Palais des Thermes^ 

JYo. 63, rue de la Uarpe. 

Paris can boast of but few monuments ol 
remote antiquity, which is partly to be attri 
to the dreadful ravages of the Normans in the 
and tenth centuries. The venerable ruins 
edifice called Palais des Thermes, are unque* 
ably a monument of Roman architecture, ai 
that account extremely interesting. From t( 
timony of history it is proved that several R 
emperors resided occasionally at Paris, or i 
near it, for the town then <;onsisted only oi 
part which is now called the citS; and the] 
tainly had a habitation worthy to receive t 




ne was pro imeu pcror. u )iy « ai 

public acts also repi ; Clovis, the d( of 
the French monarchy, and several of his suo is 
of the first and second races, as inhabiting the fa- 
lais des Thermes till the royal residence was trans- 
ferred to the edifice called the palais, now appro- 
priated to the administration of justice. Finally, a 
tradition from the most remote times and authen- 
tic documents since 1 138, give the name of Palais 
des Thermes to the building in the rue de la Harpc. 
£xcavations made at various periods have led to 
discoveries which tend to establish the identity of 
these ruins with the palace of the Roman empe- 
rors ; such as that the Roman road from Paris to 
Orleans passed close by this spot; and the latebret 
occultcB, spoken of by Ammianus Marcellinus, are 
found in the vicinity of the Palais des Thermes. 
To these may be added that there is in Paris no 
other edifice that has resisted, for an equal period, 
so many active causes of destruction. It seems to 
Jiavc occupied a considerable space, and to liave 
conialiied thermae, or wann-batlis, as its name in 
(licatcs. 

The only perfect pait of tliis palace remaining, 
is a liall, presenting in its plan two contignou's 
parallelograms, Ibrniing logetlier a sitigle room. 
The largest is sixty-two feet in lenglli by forty- 
two in breadth, and the smallest is thirty feet by 
cinhtecn. Tin; semicircniar ridc;ed vanlt which 
covers this hall is Ibrtv-two i'ect above the gionfui : 
it is substantially built, and above It was. IVn .. 
I'AKT J. H) 



great numDer oi years, a inicK oea ot mouia, cul- 
tivated as a garden, and planted with trees. 

The architecture of this hall is plain and ma- 
jestic. The walls are decorated with three grand 
arcades, of which that in the centre is the most 
lofty. In the wall to the south, the central arcade 
presents the form of a large semi-^ircuIar niche, 
in which, as well as in the lateral arcades, some 
holes are pierced, which lead to the presumption 
that they served for the introduction of water to 
the baths. The groins of the vault rest upon conr 
soles, which represent the stems of ships : in one 
some human figures may be distinguished. These 
stei^ns, the symbols of water, may probably have 
served to characterise a place destined for baths. 
The masonry of this hall is composed of alternate 
rows of squared stones and bricks, covered in some 
places by a coat of stucco four or five inches thick. 
A fine light enters by a circular-headed window 
in front of the entrance above the great niche and 
precisely under the arch of the vaulting. 

This interesting monument of antiquity had long 
been used by a cooper as a workshop j but, in 
1819, it was purchased by the government, with 
the view of converting it into a Musee d'Antiquites, 
The houses which obstructed the view of it from 
the rue de la Harpe were demolished, and it was 
roofed, in order to save it from further degrada- 
tion. The principal discoveries since that period, 
are a flight of stairs leading down to subterranean 
chambers, and a wall which seems to have formed 
a reservoir for the water of the baths. It appears, 
however, that the ancient foundations extend 



/al contiguous no s, w i be 

i if it were sought lo ascer r 

the Palais des Thermes, 
ruins may be visited by applying to M. 
jain, gardien, upon the spot, or at his 
,f No. 60, rue de la Harpe. 



CHAPTER IX. 



\l 



PUBLIC EDIFICES. 



Hotel de FillCy 

Place de Greve. 

The place where the corps de ville or municipality 
of Paris assembled under the first and second races 
of kings is not known. In the earliest reigns of 
the third race, their meetings were held in a house 
called la maison de la marchandisey situated in the 
Valine de la Mis^re. From thence they removed to 
the Parloir aux Bourgeois, near the grand Cha- 
telet, and afterwards to a kind of tower in the city 
wall, which, like the preceding, took the name of 
Parloir aux Bourgeois, In iSSy, the municipality 
purchased, for 2880 francs, the maison de la Greve^ 
called also maison aux Piliers, because it was sup- 
ported in front by a range of pillars. This house 
had formerly belonged to Philip Augustus, and 
was frequently made a royal residence. The 
building was very plain, being merely distinguished 
by two turrets from the private houses which sur- 
rounded it. When the municipal body became 
its proprietors, it underwent considerable repairs. 
Upon the site of this and some neighbouring houses 
the H6tel de Ville was erected. The first stone 




iy lb, I ODD, by Fierre de Vioie, pr&pSi 

mds. The front was raised to the se- 

y in the Gothic style; but a taste for 

arts, which had long flourished in Italy, 

mg to dawn upon France, the whimsical 

of Gothic architecture fell into disrepute. 

9, Dominick Boccadoro, surnamed Cortona, 

lian architect, presented a new plan to Henry 

/hich was adopted, but the building proceeded 

^ly, and was not completed till the reign of 

ry IV in i6o5, under the celebrated privot 

icois Miron. The architecture of the H6tel 

^ille presents nothing remarkable, except that 

one of the first buildings in Paris which 

layed a return to regularity of forms, and a 

ect style of decoration. The flight of steps 

ing to the vestibule is grand, the vestibule is 

ious, and the porticoes are very convenient. 

Ir decorations, as well as the sculptures of the 

case, are admirably execuled. Over the prlnci- 

cntrance, in Uic semicircular J)lack marble 

mciit, was a lias-rcllef in lironze. l)y Biard, 

esentini]r Ilenrv IV on horseback. This was 

down during the war de la Fronde, leslored 

he son of Biard; destroyed during the revo- 

)n, and renewed in plaster In i8i4« The clock 

an immense sum. It is the work ofLepaute, 

m-ay })e considered one of the best in Europe. 

light it is lighted by a lampe paraboliqiK^, so 

the hour may constantly be seen. The court 

irrounded with porticoes, which support the 

ding. Upon the marble frieze were inscrip- 

s in golden letters, which marked the princi- 

e vents in the life of Louis XIV, from his 

19- 



marriage in i659 to 1689. There were also iiv- 
scriptions of the most striking events in the reign 
of Louis Xy. The court was likewise ornamented 
with medallions representing portraits ofthc pr^ 
i^ots and the echevins. In this court is a bronze 
statue, by Coysevox, of Louis XIV dressed a la 
grecque, but with a court wig 5 it stands on a 
pedestal of white marble, which formerly was 
embellished with ornaments and bore an inscrip- 
tion. 

If this edifiee bears no proportion to the pre- 
sent extent and magnificence of Paris, we must 
consider that the city has been more than doubled 
in size and population since the middle of thfe 
16th century j and luxury and magnificence has 
increased in a much greater proportion. 

The Hotel de Ville was the theatre of violent 
disorders during the war de la Frondcy and 
also at the revolution. At the latter period its 
apartments, which conlained many valuable paint- 
ings and ornaments, were stripped of every thing 
that could call to mind a monarchical government. 
The spirit of destruction which then reigned re- 
spected, however, the twelve months of the year, 
carved in wood, in one of the rooms near the 
grande aalle. At this period it was called Maison 
Commune, and the busts of Marat and Chalier 
were placed in the grand hall. Destined after- 
wards to inferior uses, this edifice seemed devoted 
to oblivion, when, in 1801, the project was formed 
of establishing in it the prefecture of the depart- 
ment 

The execution of thb project led to the com- 
plete restoration of the H6tel de Ville, which was 



jrably enlarged^ to effect which, the H^pital 
d church du St. Esprit and the church of St. 
in en Greve were added. Upon the return of 
uis XA^III the emblems of the reigning dynasty 
jre restored. 

rhe ground-floor of the church du St. Esprit is 
w transformed into a spacious vestibule, des- 
ed to receive the king when he visits the Hdtel 

Yillej a grand staircase leads from it to the 
partement d'honneur, formed out of the upper 
rt of the church, llie salle de Saint Jean, the 
Ly remains of the church dedicated to that 
int, presents a vast parallelogram, lighted from 
ove, and decorated with twelve Corinthian 
umns, behind which is a gallery. This room 
s fitted up after the designs of F. Blonde], and 
admired for the beauty of its proportions. It 
ippropriated to the drawing for the conscripts. 
The Grand Salle fonns a banqueting room 
tere civic festivals are given. It is hung with 
)erb crimson velvet paper ornamented with 
den fleurs de Us and surrounded by a rich 
I'der. The chairs, sofas, and curtains, are of 
mson silk. Ahove the two chimney-pieces arc 
•tares of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII ; the latter 
is given by the King to the city, and is a master- 
ice in resemblance and execution. In no other 
;tnre is the imitation of velvet, silk, feathers, 
1 ornaments, so natural. When lighted up by 
ht rich lustres suspended from the ceiling, this 
om is exlrcmely magnificent. Upon grand oc- 
sions, when splendid civic entertainments are 



given, temporary rooms are lormed at tbe I 
lie Ville by covering in tlie courts. 

Dpon the ground formerly occupied b] 
church ofSt. Jean, it 15 lulended to construci 
buildings dependent upon the Udtet de '^ 
which will be so disposed as to afford a vi« 
the portico of the church of St. Gerraii. 
H6tel de Ville may be seen every day before 
o'clock, Sundays excepted. 

Hotel Rojal des Invalides. 

The first establishment in Prnnce Tor mi 
invalids was formed by Henry IV, in i5g6, 
Httcient convent in the faubaun; St. Marcd, 
wus afterwards transferred to the Chateau 1 
cSlre, by Louis XHI. Louis XIV, hy whose 
the number of invalids was greatly augmt 
determined to erect a huil(Hi;g to receive I 
commensurate with the object of its deslinj 
\. spacious piece of ground was purchasec 
funds were assigned for the construction an 
dowment of this estalilishmcnl. The foundi 
were laid in November, 1670, and at the e 
four years several oflicers and soldiers mi 
their abode. In ihe same year, the Hinis 
War was constituted superintendent -genera 
held u monthly council to deliberate upo 
alTairs of the institution. The main buildin 
the lirst church were constructed bjLJberal B 
The second church, or the dome, is the w 
.lules llardouin Mansart. The Hotel occupi 
immense space of ii5,i5o square metres 
tireiidth is 553} and its length, from the fr 



^ 



ti beyond the dome, is 346. \ ro< 
easure 17 acres; and the entire 
surrounds twenty-five courts, 
the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI, 
)eing for the most part at peace, the num- 
nvalids was diminished, but the institU' 
Qtained its dignity, privileges, and internal 
»ns. At the revolution the H6tel des In- 
00k the name of Temple de THumanitS; 
ng the disasters of that period was |dtray» 
1. Under Napoleon it was called Temple 
and the number of its inmates was con- 
r augmented. At the restoration, the Hotel 
its original title. 

lagnificeut establishment is under the di- 
if the Minister of War. Its affairs ar« 
by a Council of Administration, which 
:d by the Minister, or, in his absence, by 
imor of the Hotel. The Governor, who 
icer of high rank, has a staff under his 
1. Skilful pliysicians and surgeons are 
to the institution, and the Scvurs de la 
Hirsc the sick with the tenderest care, 
riors find in this asylum abundant and 
lie food, every attention to their infirini- 
wounds, and pay proportioned to the 
ch X\ey held in the army. The Hotel is 
3f containing seven thousand inmates, 
3sent there are not more than three tliou- 
luding the out-pensioners. 
iDE. The Hotel is approaclied by an es- 
)lanted with trees, which extends from 
on the bank of the Seine to the iron 
le outer court, and measures one ihou- 



sand four hundred and forty feet by iseven hun- 
dred and eighty. It was planted in 1760, after 
the designs of De Gotte, superintendent of the 
king^s buildings and gardens. It is divided into 
extensive grass-plats by roads, which are skirted 
by barriers. In the centre of the high road, which 
traverses the esplanade and forms a link between 
the two parts of the rue St. Dominique, is a cir- 
cular basin, from the centre of which formerly 
arose a fountain, formed of a pedestal surmounted 
by the celebrated bronze lion brought from the 
Place of St. Mark, at Venice. This trophy was 
taken back to Venice by the Austrian?, in i8i5, 
and in its place it is intended that a fountain 
should spring in the form of a wheat sheaf. The 
esplanade is lighted by lamps supported by iron 
rods, surmounted by fleurs de lis^ and inserted in 
posts of granite. From this spot communications 
are formed with the Champ de Mars and the 
Boulevard by avenues of trees. It was the in- 
tention of Napoleon to have converted the espla- 
nade into a military elysium. The statue of erery 
ancient and modern hero was to have been placed 
under the waving foliage. This would have com- 
pleted the sublimity of the establishment. 

Grand or Northern Front. The outer court is 
surrounded by ditches, and closed by iron gates 
surmounted by the arms of France, richly gilt. 
On each side of the gates is a pavilion of stone, 
ornamented with military trophies and the royal 
initials j one of them serves as a guard-house, 
and the other as a porter's-lodge. Upon each 
platform behind the ditches, is a battery of six 
twenty- four pounders, which are lired upon grand 



irals and remarkable o ions. T j 

3rmed by the invalids. 

le front of the Hotel is six hundred and twelve 
in length, it is divided into four stories, and 
^nts three projecting masses. That in the 
re is decorated with Ionic pilasters, support- 
si grand arch, ornamented with military tro- 
s, in which is a bas-rehef of Louis XIY on 
eback, attended by Justice and Prudence. This 
relief, executed by Coustou junior, was dis- 
red at the revolution, but restored by Cartel- 
in 1816. Upon the pedestal is the following 
ription : 

luUDovicus Magnus 

MILITIBUS REGALI MUNIFICEHTIA, 

IN PERPETUUM PROYIDEITS, 

HAS JEDES POSUIT, 

AN. M.DC.LXXV. 

nthe sides of the entrance are statues of Mars 

Minerva, h\ Cousloii junior, and the key- 
e of the arcb presents the head of Hercules, in 
te inarljle. The numljer of windows in the 
it is i53, exclusive oi those of the fourtli storv, 
ch are dormer windows, ornamented with 
tary trophies above the entablature. At the 
emities are two large pavilions crowned by 
tary trophies resting upon attics, each of 
ch is pierced by two windows. They are ter- 
ated by square terraces surrounded with bal- 
ies. in i8oo, the four bionze figures, by Des- 
ins, which adorned the statue of Louis XIV, in 
Place dcs \ ictoires, were placed at the angles of 
e pavilions. The figures are twelve feet high, 

represent ihj nations conquered by France. 



two broad, is entered by a spacious and elegant 
vestibule adorned with columns. It is surrounded 
by four piles of building, haying projections in 
their centre and pavilions at the angles. Each 
pile is decorated wath two ranges of beautifully 
formed arcades crowned by an entablature, and 
terminated by windows ornamented with military 
trophies. At each angle is a group of horses 
treading the attributes of war beneath their feet. 
Behind the arcades are spacious galleries. Beneath 
the lower galleries is an immense range of cellars 
capable of containing four thousand pipes of wine. 
The Cour Royale, which is one of the finest 
specimens of architecture in existence, is not less 
remarkable for the regularity than the grandeur 
of its proportions. At the bottom of the court, 
in front of the entrance, is the portico of the 
church, formed of columns of the Ionic and Com- 
posite orders. It is surmounted by a pediment 
which contains a clock supported by statues of 
Time and Study, and is crowned by a small steeple 
terminated by a cross. The clock was placed here 
in 1 78 1, and is one of the finest productions of 
Lepaute. By ascending the upper gallery the 
works may be seen through a window. It is upon 
a horizontal and perfectly symmetrical plan, so 
that the movement of all the pieces may be per- 
ceived. It strikes the hours and quarters, and 
gives warning before it strikes. It marks the hours, 
days, and mouths, as also, with the greatest pre- 
cision, the hours and minutes of the true time, or 
the return of the sun at the meridian of each day. 



s movement is not afTected by heat or cold. The 
orks of this clock are twelve feet in breadth, 
id the pendulum is twelve feet long; and yet 
ich is the perfection of its execution, that the 
Tight which sets it in motion is only five pounds. 
Interior. In the piles of building to the right 
ad left on entering the Cour Royale, are four 
rand refectories, or dining-rooms, contiguous to 
36 galleries on the ground-floor. Each of them 
twenty-five toises in length by four in breadth, 
^ne is devoted to the officers, and the three others 
J the sub-officers and privates. These refectories 
re ornamented with paintings in fresco executed 
y Martin, a pupil of Vander-Meulen, represent- 
]g different fortified towns and places in Flanders, 
[oUand, Alsace, Franche Comte, Burgundy, etc. 
onquered by Louis XIV. The paintings of the 
privates' refectories were retouched in 1820, by 
'authier. 
In the first refectory (on the left of the court) is 
lai'gc picture over llic door, wlilch represents 
uis XIV seated u[)on clouds, surrounded by the 
aces, and attended by Justice, Slren^lJi, Prudence 
I Temperance, who put to lliglit Ignorance and 
icrstllion. In a group of llgures are seen A]3un- 
cc and Munificence, and France in the act of 
iksgiving for the l)enelils conferred upon her 
he monarch. Above the clouds appears llic 
of Battles ^vith the Genii of ^Var, one of 
11 is measuring the earth with a compass, 
iide of the room opposite to the windows is 
ated witli pictures of the taking of Cam- 
Charleroy, Tournay, Douay, Bergues, St. 
, Lille, Furnes, Courtray, Alosl, Ouden- 

HT 1. 70 



arde, etc. uver tne oiner aoor is a large picture 
in which Louis XIV is represented on horseback, 
followed by his guards, and returning from his 
conquests. Before him is Fame eager to pro- 
claim his deeds j and behind him are Valour and 
Victory bearing palm-branches. In the foreground 
appears Franche Gomt^ under the figure of a 
woman in chains, accompanied by an old man 
in the attitude of ^jcpnquered enemy. In the 
pannels between the windows are represented the 
taking of Besancon, Salius, Dole, Gray, Jouy, 
St. Laurent Laroche and St. Anne. 

In the second refectory (on the same Side), which 
is much smaller than the former, is a large picture 
over the door representing the declaration of war 
against Holland. The King appears seated upon 
a lit de justice attended by Reason, Religion and 
Justice, who seem to counsel him to declare war. 
Pallas is at his feet and the Muse of War is draw- 
ing up the act of declaration. In the foreground 
is seen Bellona preparing to deal around her 
disorder and death. She destroys every thing 
she meets, and seems to contemn the cries of a 
child who runs after her. In the back-ground 
is the Temple of Janus, from whence flock the 
nations dismayed at the declaration of war. Peace, 
struggling upon the ground, endeavours to lift 
up an olive branch, and beckons a Genius who, 
having taken a helmet and other arms, refuses to 
listen, and runs to the battle. On the side of 
the room opposite to the windows are the taking 
of Reimberg, Orsoi, Wesel, Fort de la Lippe, Rees, 
Schin, Emerick, Guritz, Zutphen, Narden, Utrecht, 
and Tiel. On the panels between the windows 



HOTEL ROYAL DES IPTVALIDES. 2^1 

are the taking of Graves, Bommel, Cr^ve-Goeur, 
Fort St. Andrew, Voorn, Nimegucn, Znotxem- 
bourg, Oudenarde, Gulembourg, Doesbourg, Yi- 
anem, and Amheim. 

In the third refectory (on the right of the court), 
over the door, is a large picture of Louis XIV ac- 
companied by Minerva, Beilona and Victory. The 
monarch seems to be directing his course towards 
the Meuse, represented as ah^'iady subdued, by pre- 
senting to the king a star which forms the arms of 
the tovrn of Maestricht. On the right is the Rhine 
rendering homage to the monarch, and on the ieflt 
is Europe. Opposite the windows are several pic- 
tures which represent the takings of Maestricht, 
the battle of Senef, the taking of Din an, the rais- 
ing of the siege of Oudenarde by the combined 
Spanish, Imperial and Dutch armies, the taking 
of Limbourg, etc. Between each of these pictures 
are military trophies. Between the windows are 
the taking of Joux, Bcsancon, Dole, Salins, Lure, 
Vesoul, and Faiiconnicr. Over the other door is 
a large piclure of Clemency seated upon military 
trophies, holding a Victory in her liand, with 
this inscription: — Vi-ctoris dementia. 

In the fourth refectory (also on the riglit) is a 
large picture of the King on horseback, giving 
orders Tor the expeditions on his latter campaigns. 
Opposite the windows are pictures of the taking 
of Valenciennes, Conde, Cambray, Bouchain, St. 
Omer and Aire, the Succour of Maestricht, and 
the battle of Mont Cassel. In the panels lietwcen 
tile windows are the burning of the bridge of 
Strasbourg, the taking of Ypres, Fort Uougc, 
Puicerda, St. Guilain, Fribourg, Fort de Linck, 



232 HOTEL ROYAL D^S INYALIDES. 

and Bouillon, and the battle of St. Denis near 
Mons. Above the second door appears Louis XIV 
receiving the thanks of the ambassadors of Spain, 
Holland and Germany, for the peace which he 
had just made with them. 

Colonels and lieutenant-colonels have the privi- 
lege of taking their meals in their own rooms. 
The officers are served upon plate and porcelain, 
at tables of twelve each. Their hour for dinner 
is one o^clock, and for supper, seven. The sub- 
officers and privates being very numerous are di- 
vided into three parties to take their meals/ viz. 
I St party, breakfast ten o^clock, supper half-past 
four: 2nd party, breakfast half-past ten, supper 
live o'clock: 3d party, dinner twelve o'clock, sup- 
per, six. Twelfth Day and St. Louis's Day are 
festivals at the H6tel des Invalides, and extra allow- 
ances are then granted to all the inmates. It is 
highly interesting to see tliose veterans seated at 
their repasts. 

The library^ founded by Bonaparte, occupies 
the first floor of the central pavilion of ihe princi- 
pal front. It is richly ornamented with carved 
wood, and contains about twenty thousand vo- 
lumes. From the window a fine view is com- 
manded of an avenue which is prolonged in the 
Champs Elyse^s to the Avenue de Neuilly. Under 
a bust of the king in white marble is the following 
inscription: — 

LtS VIEUX DEPEN8EURS DE l'eT4T 
Elf OUT ICI PLACE LE PERE. 

The library is open to the Invalids daily, except 
on Sundays and festivals, from nine o'clock in the 
morning till three in the afternoon. 



HOTEL ROYAL DBS INVALIDES. 233 

The Council Chamber is contiguous to .the li- 
brary. The King having decided, by an ordon- 
nance of March 26lh, i8a3, that the portraits of the ' 
Marshals of France should, at their decease, be 
removed from the palace of the Tuileries to the 
Hotel des Invalides, they are placed in the coun- 
cil-chamber, and two adjoining rooms, with other 
pictures, till a gallery be prepared to receive them. 
The following is their order: — In the first room, 
I. The duke de Choiseul. 2. M. de Guibert. 3. The 
battle ofRocroy, by Bourguignon. 4» The battle 
of Lance, by the same artist. In the second room, 
1. The duke de Coigny, by Rouget. 2. Marshal 
Davoust, prince d'Eckmuhl, by Gautherot. 3. Mar- 
shal Lefebvre, duke de Dantzick, by Madame Da- 
vin. 4» Marshal Beurnonville, by Rattier. 5. Mar- 
shal Kellermann, duke de Yalmy, by Jansiau. In 
the council-chamber are, i. Marshal Lannes, duke 
de Monlebcllo, hy Paulin-Gucrin. 1. iMarslial 
Bessieres, duke d'lstrlc, by J\lcsncr. 3. Marslial 
Bcrlliier, prince de rSeulchalcl ol Wagrani, l)v 
Pajol. 4- Marslial Brune, l)y I\ladainc licnoil. 
5. Marslial Serrurier. 6. Marslial Aiiiicrcau, duke 
de Castiglione, by Robert Lclebvrc. 7. Marshal 
iMasscna, duke de Rivoll, prince d'Essling, bv Gros. 

8. Marshal Clarke, duke de Feltre, by Descamps. 

9. Marshal Perignon, by Hcnnequfn. In this room 
are also a marble bust of Louis XYJII, and a bust 
of Vauban, by Heraux. 

Tlie dormitories are above the refectories, at Uu; 
first and second stories, and consist of eiglu spa- 
cious rooms which contain together four hundrod 
and twenty-nine beds. They are called, 1. Salic* 
de Louvois. 9.. Salic d'Haupoult. 3. Salle de 

>»o. 



234 HOTEL ROYAL DES INVALIDES. 

Luxembourg. 4* Salle de Mars. 5. Salle d^Assas. 
6. Salle de Latour-d'Auvergne. 7. Salle de Bayard. 
8. Salle de Kleber. These dormitories are^ re- 
markable for their extent, order, and cleanliness. 
The other sleeping rooms contain each from four to 
eight beds. 

The kitchens are two in number, and are situ- 
ated behind the refectories on the left. One serves 
for the officers and the other for the privates. 
Adjoining them is a larder for the provisions re- 
quired for the consumption of the day. Nearl}g 
a thousand pounds weight of meat is daily put 
V into the copper, and the same quantity is used 
for ragouts. Twenty-five bushels of vegetables 
are likewise consumed daily. The meat and vege- 
tables are dressed by economical furnaces newly 
constructed, each of which contains eight large 
coppers. There are in the kitchens two cop- 
pers, each of which. will dress 1200 lbs. of meat. 

The Infirmaries are upon an extensive scale, 
are well aired, and possess every requisite depen- 
dence. They are seven in number, and are known 
by the names of, i. Salle de St. Louis. '2. Salle de 
St. Joseph. 5. Salle de la Yaleur. 4* Salle de St. 
Vincent de Paul. 5. Salle de la Victoire. 6. Salle 
deSt. Come, ]\o. i. 7. Salle de St. Come, No^ 1. 
Besides the rooms already mentioned, there are 
extensive offices commensurate with the magni- 
tude of this splendid establishment. The left wing 
of the principal front is occupied by the governor 
and his family, and the right by the chief physi- 
cians and surgeons. Under the roof to the right 
are a considerable number of models of fortified 
places in France, many of which were taken away 



ROYAL DES INVAUDES. ^35 

by the F This collection is not shown to 

the pub] ic. 

On the eastern side of the Hotel is a building, 
called Batiment Neuf, erected in 1749 by Louis 
XV, for the residence of oHicers of different ranks. 
It is sixty-five toises in length, by six in breadth, 
and consists of a ground-floor and attic. In front 
of this building is a walk for the blind. There 
are in the establishment no fewer than three hun- 
dred men who lost their sight during the cam^ 
paign of £gypt, and that of Spain under Bonaparte. 

First Church, called Eglise Anqenne. This . 
church is devoted to the officers and invalids of 
the establishment, to which a rector and three 
chaplains are attached. Above the principal en- 
trance, from the Gour Royaie, is an organ, the 
pipes of which are richly gilt. This church and 
that of the dome are nearly of an equal length 
from north to south. Tlie two churches toqtlhci' 
.ue four ]iundrcd and twenty feet in length rikI 
about forty feet in llieir least bread tli. TJie (irst 
church is sixty-six feet in height Irom tlie pa\e- 
ment to the centre of the vaulted roof. At the 
northern extremity and on the sides are galleries 
built in eighteen arclies, ornamented with twenty 
Corinthian pilasters which rise to the height of 
the galleries. Other pilasters of the same order 
and height coupled together form a semicircle 
towards the south, and serve as a sanctuary in 
front of the high altar. The greatest breadth, 
including the aisles, is nearly seventy-two feet. 
The aisles and galleries receive light by thirty-six 
windows exclusive of eight lunetta above the en 
lablature. The ceiling is of stone. It is surrounded 



236 HOTEL ROYAL DES IN'VALiDES. 

by bands ornamented with roses, fieurs de lis, and 
crowns, wbich rest upon pilasters above tbe cor- 
nice, and another band in the centre extends the 
whole length of the church. The high-altar* 
stands under an arch sixty feet in height by 
twenty-four in breadth, which is open between 
the coupled pilasters, and has for its impost the 
same Corinthian entablature as that which deco- 
rates the ceiling. The arch is ornamented with 
emblems of religion in bas-relief. In a round 
border under the key-stone is a triangle with 
radiiy having in the/Centre the word Jehovah in 
Hebrew. The triangle, a symbol of the Holy 
Trinity, has two angels prostrate at its sides. In 
oval borders near ihe imposts of the arch on each 
side, are military trophies with shields bearing 
the arms of France. Two borders, between the 
three preceding, contain, one the figure of the 
Ark of the Covenant; and the other the figure 
of the Holy Sacrament. Four large altar candle- 
sticks are represented on the sides of each of these 
bas-reliefs in separate borders. A compartment 
of frames serves as a ground for the different 
ornaments. 

The sanctuary is fifty-four feet in length from 
east to west, by thirty-six in breadth from north 
to south, and seventy-two in height to the key- 
stone of the ceiling. Two female figures are seated 
upon the bands, of each of the lower windows 

* This altar is placed -with its back to that of the 
second church or dome, so as to form one altar with 
two fronts. ' As this is one of the principal ornamenU 
of ihe dome, wc shall inclndc it in onr description of ii. 



H^TEL ROYAL D£S INVALIDES. 287 

of the sanctuary, by the side of a bracket, from 
which are suspended garlands of flowers. The 
figures of the western window represent Charity 
and Christian Liberality. Those of the eastern 
represent Faith and Hope. 

The pulpit, executed after the designs of Vass^, 
forms a kind of canopy borne by two palm-trees, 
and surmounted by the crown of France sup- 
ported by cherubim. 

Under the nave is a spacious vault in which 
formerly the principal officers of the establishment 
were interred. Governors alone are now allowed 
to be buried there. 

Upon the first pilaster to the right, on entering 
the nave, is a monument to the memory of the 
Count de Guibert, governor of the Hotel, who 
died in 1786. It consists of a pedestal surmounted 
by an obelisk in white veined marble. Upon the 
middle of the obelisk is a trophy composed of a 
shield ornamented with Medusa's head crossed by 
a sword, the whole surmounted by a crown of 
laurel suspended to a patera by a sash. The 
trophy is in bronze partly gilt. Upon the pedestal 
is an inscription. 

Upon the first pilaster on the opposite side is 
the monument of tlie duke de Coigny, governor 
of the Hotel, who died in 1822. It is of veined 
marble, and extends the whole breadth of the 
pilaster. It is decorated on each side with two 
lances, to the heads of which arc attached sabres 
with the point downwards, supporting a wreath 
of cypress. Above the wreath are the arms of 
the Duke in bronze, and below is an inscription. 
This church was formerly decorated with nuinc- 



238 HOTEL ROYAL DES INVALIDES. 

reus trophies : the sword of Frederick the Great 
and three thousand colours were suspended from 
the roof. On the evening before the entrance of 
the allied armies into Paris? (March 3t, i8i4), the 
duke de Feltre, Minister of War, ordered the 
sword to be broken, and the colours to be burnt. 
The orders to that effect were given thrice befoi^ 
they were executed. 

Dome, or second church. In front of the dome 
is a court or esplanade, bounded by a ditch 
lined with masonry and fenced by barriers. In 
the centre of the ditch was formerly a wooden 
draw-bridge, which was lowered when the king 
visited the church. From the ditch extends a fine 
avenue, called avenue de Breteuil, from whence 
a noble view of the building is obtained. 

This dome is considered one of the masterpieces 
of French architecture. It was erected after the 
designs of Jules Hardouin Mansart, and the works 
occupied thirty years. This edifice is ranked with 
those of St. Peter at Rome, and St. Paul in London, 
though of much smaller dimensions than the latter, 
and infinitely below the former. The building 
presents a regular quadrilateral mass, which mea- 
sures twenty-eight toises on each side. Its princi- 
pal front is towards the south. In the centre are 
two different orders of architecture, ornamented 
with columns and pilasters, the Doric order below, 
and the Corinthian above. An attic decorated 
with pilasters rises upon the Doric order at the 
extremities, and on the eastern and^westem fronts. 
A flight of fifteen steps leads to the portico, which 
forms a projecting body. It is ornamente4 with 
six Doric columns, behind which are the same 



L BOYAL DES INVALIDES. 289 

number rs. Four of the columns are in 

fronty ai . ut two near the church-door. 
Between four columns less advanced than the 
preceding, are two niches, in each of which is a 
statue of white marble, one representing St. Louis 
clothed in a warrior's habit for the conquest of 
the Holy Land ^ the other is Charlemagne. Above 
the Doric entablature rise the Corinthian columns 
and pilasters, in a line with those below* In front 
of four pilasters of the attic are statues, of which 
those nearest the • re represent Justice and 
Temperance, and th( se larthest from it. Prudence 
and Strength. Thee projection is terminated 

by a pediment, in the v lanum of which are the 
arms of France. On t sides are statues of Con- 
fidence, Humility, C01 ncy, and Magnanimity. 
Round the church is a stone balustrade. At the 
angles of the building were formerly four groups, 
in gilt lead, representing four doctors of tlie Latin 
and four of the Greek cliurcli. These were de- 
stroyed at the revolution, but have been recast, 
and, when gilt, will be restored to their former 
situation. 

The eastern and western fronts have each a 
projecting body in the centre, with tables bear- 
ing the entablature, upon which rises the attic. 
Four pilasters support a large pediment, in the 
tympanum of which arc the arms of France and 
various ornaments. 

Nothing can exceed the richness of the principal 
front, although it must be admitted that much of 
the effect is lost by its division into stories. The 
dome is surrounded by forty Composite columns 
raised upon a basement. Between these columns 



24o HOTEL ROYAL DES INVALIDES. 

are twelve windows ornamented with cherubim^s 
heads, and surmounted by a cornice upon which 
are vases with two angels on the sides. 

Above the Composite columns is an attic deco- 
rated with twelve semicircular windows orna- 
mented with festoons of flowers. Eight scrolls 
in the form of brackets, each ornamented on the 
top with a cherub's head, and on both sides of 
which were colossal statues, contribute greatly 
to the embellishment and solidity of the attic. 
Between the pedestals, a stone balustrade extends 
round the dome. Above the cornice of the attic 
are candelabras, behind which rises the summit 
of the dome. The latter is covered with lead, 
and divided into twelve • large compartments, 
adorned with military trophies in bas-relief, and 
above them, garlands and other ornaments of 
metal gilt. In the midst of the trophies are 
helms, in which dormer windows are contrived. 
Above the dome rises a lantern, encircled by a 
balcony, and surmounted by a spire and a cross, 
the whole of which is richly gilt. The lantern is 
pierced with four arches, and adorned with twelve 
columns. 

In the interior, the dome is supported by four 
large masses, pierced with arches, so as to afford 
from the centre a view of four round chapels, 
separated from each other by a Greek cross. The 
pilasters which adoi*n these masses, as well as 
the eight Corinthian columns in front, are fluted, 
and executed with great perfection. The columns, 
placed on each side of the entrances to the four 
chapels, support upon their entablature four 
galleries, surrounded with gilt balustrades. The 



ligh-altar, which was destroyed at the 
on, has since heen restored under the 
a of Boischard, and forms a most niagnifi> 
ect. Il presents a front to each church, 
ituated in the midst of six columns, three 
»rm of a triangle heing placed on each side, 
imns are ornamented with hands of vine- 
id wheat-ears, which pursue a spiral direc- 
n the hasc to the capital. Upon the entab- 
hich they bear, are six angels, by Marin, 
;t in height, four of which support the 

of a superb canopy richly adorned with 
ery, and looped up with cords. The other 
^Is, placed upon the columns, are turned 

the tabernacle and hold a censer in their 
Above the canopy, are two cherubim, 
1 globe snrmounled by a cross. The altars, 
>ack to back, are of white marble, en- 
rith bas-reliefs and ornaments, in bronze 

lat ^vhir.h i«; Inwards the dome i<? deco- 



242 HOTEL ROYAL DES 1NVALI0ES. 

the altar are decorated with lilies crossed, so as 
to form a wreath. The front of the altar towards 
the church has a bas-relief, formed by two palm- 
branches, in the centre of which are the initials 
of St. Louis (S. L.), to whom the church is dedi- 
cated. 

The altar belonging to the first church, being 
lower by ten steps than that of the dome, pre- 
sents a front of less extent ^ consequently the 
part wbich rises above this altar forms a kind of 
stylobate, the gi:y)und of which is divided into 
lozenges, enriched wiih. fleurs de lis, and roses in 
gilt bronze. The tabernacle, which ^^ of large 
proportions, is decorated with four fluted Corin- 
thian columns. The front and sides, of white 
marble, are enriched with antique caudelabras, to 
which are attached wreaths of fruit. Above these 
wreaths are allegorical representations of the 
sacrifice of the mass. The pavement of the high- 
altar is a beautiful coloured marble, or mosaic- 
work. 

The chapels of the dome are six in number, 
two of them, with the great door and the sanctu- 
ary, form the Greek cross j the four others are at 
the angles. T|;^e latter, in a similar style of archi- 
tecture, and decorated with similar ornaments, 
are ascended by seven marble steps. Their ele- 
vation is about seventy-four feet by a diameter of 
thirty-six. Eight three-quarter columns of the 
Corinthian order, raised upon pedestals, have be- 
tween them at equal distances three arches, three 
niches and two windows, and support an entabla- 
ture, above which is a kind of pedestal or attic 
from which the vaulted ceiling springs. The attic 



four Fathen of the Chnrcli lo whom 
>p«is are dedicated. Above the aittd an 
iDg ublels supported bv ingels, anclonHt- 

with foliage and shell-work, 
irst chapel to the right, on entering hj tbe 
MK, it dedicated to 6l. Aogosline. It COD- 
lie followiag pictures by Louis Bonllogiie, 
DTC the entrance, Su Auguxine preachii^ at 
ia, in the pre^nce of the bishop ValeriuSj 
left, his Baptism j bis Convenion ; theSaint 
death-bed, curing a sick inan j his Confer- 
, Carthage with the followers of Donatas, 
be coufoundi in the presence of Marcellin, 
sol of Africa ^ liis conseixation to the ep»- 
office, by Megalius, primate of Namidia : 
ling icpreseots tbe apotheosis of St. Angus- 
rbis cbapel formerly possessed marble sta- 
St. Aoguslioe, St. Alvpios, and St. Hoiiica. 

contains a marble statne of Religion, bj 



^44 HOTEL ROYAL DES INVALIDES. 

Deration of the people a part of the holy crosf 
which he had brought from Jerusalem. The bas- 
relief over the opening leading to the dome, is b]j 
Lapierre, and represents Religion under the figun 
of a woman holding a cross, and who has neai 
her the model of a church. 

The next chapel is that of the Holy Virgin. Dpor 
the spot where the high-altar stood, a monumeni 
was erected to Marshal Yauban, in 1807, a cen- 
tury after his death, by the royal body of engi- 
neers. It presents an obelisk of deep blue stucco 
Below is a base of Serancolin marble, upon whicl 
is a white marble socle with a tablet of blacl 
marble bearing this simple inscription — Yauban 
Above the socle, amidst emblems of fortifications, 
rises a column in black stucco surmounted by s 
funereal urn in white marble, which contains th< 
heart of the Marshal. The joining of the iwc 
parts of the urn is covered with a bronze serpent 
the emblem of immortality. Upon the basement 
are military trophies and emblems of the digniti 
of Marshal. The chapel is thirty-eight feet ii 
depth by forty in length and sixty in height. Tw< 
arches lead from it to the chapels of St. Ambros* 
and St. Augustine. Above that which leads t< 
the chapel of St. Ambrose is a bas-relief, repre 
senting St. Louis giving orders for the construe 
tion of the hospital des Quinze-Yingts. That abovt 
the arch leading to the chapel of St. Augustine i 
by Simon Hurtrelle, and represents the capture o 
Damietta. The female figures upon the archivaul 
of the window are Prudence and Temperance, b; 
Philip iMagnier. 

The chapel of St. Ambrose is next the sanctuaiy 



HOTEL ROYAL DES I^rVALInES. 245 

contains the following pictures, by Bon Boul- 
^ne. Above the entrance^ St. Ambrose con- 
erting a disciple of Arius^ next, St. Ambrose 
inding the body of St. Nazariiis, martyr j his 
iappy Deathj curing a Demoniac; enforcing pe- 
nitence upon the Emperor Theodosius J his election 
to the bishopHc of Milan: the ceiling represents 
St. Ambrose conveyed to heaven. In this chnpel 
were formerly statues of St. Ambrose, St. Satire 
and St. Marcellina. Above the side entrances is a 
bas-relief, by Poultier, of St. Louis washing the 
feet of a poor man, and one, by Philip Magnler, 
representing a vision, in which St. Louis saw Jesus 
Christ under the form of a child. The bas-relief 
above the opening leading to the dome represents 
Humility. The gilt bas-reliefs under the windows 
and side pictures represent concerts of angels, by 
Aiiselme Flamant, St. Omcr and Hardy. 

The chapel next tlic sanctuary on llie op]^o.sitc 
side is dedicated to St. Grcgorv, nr.d contains the 
following pictures, by 3Iichaei Corneille : above 
the entrance, St Gregory distrilmting his goods to 
the poor 5 next, St. Eustache, having been con- 
verted by St. Gregory, burns what be had written 
upon the subject of the resurrection- Jesus Christ 
appearing to St. Giegoryj a procession ordained 
by St. Gregory for the cessallon of the pbtgue at 
Rome j an angel appearing to Si. Gicgory; tiie 
translation of his body. On tlic ceiling Is th(! 
apotheosis of St. Gregory. The statues licrc arc, 
St. Gregory, St. Sylvia and St. Eniillana, In plaslci 
Above the entrance nearest to the sanctuary is > 
bas-relief, In' Lapierre, of two angels supporlln,; 
a medallion, which lepresenls the Pope's Legal- 

V. 1 . 



246 HOTEL ROYAL DES INVALIDES. 

giving the Cross and his Benediction to St. LouL 
upon his departure on the Crusade. Ahove th 
opposite entrance is St. LouisV marriage, by ih 
same artist. Above the entrance leading to tt 
dome is the figure of Hope, by Le Comte : tt 
gilt bas-reliefs under the windows and side pictun 
represent angels seated upon clouds and haviu 
musical instruments, by Poultier. 

The chapel of St. Theresa is of the same dimet 
sious as that of the Holy Virgin, and contains lli 
monument of Turenne, after the designs of L< 
brun, as it formerly stood in the abbey church c 
St. Denis, from whence it was removed to tl 
Museum of French Monuments, and afterwarc 
erected at the Invalids in 1799. This monumei 
represents the Hero expiring in the arms of Immoi 
tality, who crowns him with laurels, which sli 
lifts towards heaven. At the Marshal's £eet is a 
affrighted eagle, a symbol of the empire ov< 
which Turenne gained several victories. This gran 
composition, terminated by an obelisk in veine 
marble, was sculptured by Tuby. In front of tl 
tomb is a bas-relief in bronze, representing tl 
battle of Turkeim. Beneath are figures of Wisdoi 
and Valour, by Marsy. Upon the basement 
the simple inscription — Turenne. Over tbe arch< 
which lead to the Chapels of St. Gregory an 
St. Jerome are bas-reliefs. That over the form< 
is St. Louis touching and healing the sick, b 
Philip Magnier. The other is the Translation ( 
the Crown of Thorns from Jerusalem to Franci 
by Van Cleve. The two figures upon the arch 
vault of the window represent Justice andStreugtl 

The next and last is the chapel of St. Jeromi 



HOTEL ROYAL DES INVALIDES. 247 

J pictures are by Bon BouUogne, and repre- 
,ot, above the entrance, St. Jerome reprimanded 
oj Jesus Christ, for his attachment to profane 
books ; next, the same Saint in a desert, afraid of 
God^s Judgments \ his Death ; his Ordination as a 
Priest j his Baptism j his Visit to the Tombs of 
the Martyrs, in the environs of Rome. On the 
ceiling is St. Jerome in Heaven. The statues for- 
merly here were St. Jerome, St. Paul and St. £us- 
tache^ in marble. The present statues are St. Paul, 
St. John and St. Eustache, in plaster. The gilt 
bas-reliefs under the windows and side pictures 
represent groups of prophets, by Nicholas Cous- 
tou. Above the ^entrance towards the chapel of 
St. Theresa is a bas-relief of two angels supporting 
a medallion in which St. Louis is represented at- 
tending the sick, by Poultier ; over the opposite 
arch is St. Louis, at the Funeral of the Warriors 
slain during the Holy \Aar, by tlie same ailist. 
Over the opening which hiads to the dome is a 
bas-rehef oi" Charity. 

The lour chapels jusL described coirespond wilii 
the centre ot" the grand dome, wliicii presents a 
most mnjestic appearance: its height is one hun- 
dred and ninety leet, and its diameter sixty. 
Above the great door are the royal arms supported 
by two angels, by Gorucille \ an Cleve. Above 
the openings ol' llie four chapels at the angles, are 
bas-reliefs of" extreme beauly. Over those ol" the 
chapel of St. Augustine are St. Louis on his death- 
bed receiving extreme unction, by Corueille Van 
Cleve, and an angel holding a helmet, by Coyse- 
vox. Over the chapel of St. Ambrose, St. Louis 
is represented sending out missionaries to tlie In 



248 HOTEL ROYAL DES INVALlDES. 

fidels, by Sebastian Slodtz ; and an angel bearing 
a buckler, by Nicholas Coustou. Over the chapel 
of St. Gregory, is St. Louis serving ihe poor at 
table, by Legros; and an angel holding the Holy 
Ampulla, by Antoine Flamant. Over the chapel 
of St. Jerome is the Pope pronouncing his bene- 
diction upon St. Louis and his children, by Francis 
Spingola ; and an angel holding in one hand a 
crown, and in the other a flag enriched with Jleurs 
de lis, by Corneille Van Cleve. 

The entire ceiling of the grand sanctuary of the 
dome is painted or gilt. Two magnificent pro- 
ductions of Noel Coypel first attract the attention. 
One represents the Trinity 5 the second, which is 
above the former, is the Assumption of the Virgin. 
The arch which forms a frame for these painting^ 
is richly sculptured and gilt. This part of the 
church is lighted by two windows, on the sides 
of which are figures of angels, with instruments 
of music. The picture to the right is by Bon 
BouUogne, and that to the left by Louis Boui- 
logne. The vault of the nave forms four arches, 
in the pendenlives of which, above the galleries 
with gilt balustrades, are the four evangelists^ by 
Charles de la Fosse. They are masterpieces, and 
being the lowest of all the pictures, and in the 
best light, are the most conspicuous and remark- 
able. Towards the sanctuary are St. Mark hold- 
ing a pencil, and St. Matthew holding a book j on 
the opposite side, St. Luke, with an Angel, hold- 
ing a Crown 5 and St. John, with an Angel, hold- 
ing the Manuscnpt of his Gospel. Above the 
pendentives are an entablature and an attic in . 
mosaic, ornamented with raed alliens, in bas-relief, 



c serves as u uasei . ror iwcniy-i« i 

omposite pilasters, oeiweea which 
richly ornamenled with brackets, fr 
'lands are suspended. Upon the pilas* 

an entablature from which the upper 
he vault springs. Arches ornamented 
Lets of roses correspond to the pilas- 
ith. Between them are twelve win- 
)ve which are twelve pictures more 
ity-eight feet in height, by eleven in 

bottom, and about eight at top. They 
I ted by Jouvenet, and represent the 
3sties with their attributes, as follows : 
the Elder, with an Angel before him j 
V, with Three Cherubs j St. Paul, with 
>earing a Sword ; St. Peter, with a Cross 
s; St. James the Less, with an Angel ^ 

with two Angels and a Cross ; St. Tho- 
led by an Angel holding a Cup ^ St. Jude, 
ngel and Sword; St. Simon, with au 



25o HOTEL DES MONNAIES. 

with Yine-leaves, and forms a circular openiDg 
forty-eight feet in diameter, through which is 
seen a second ceiling, which receives light by win- 
dows not seen from within. The painting of 
this ceiling, by Lafosse, is of vast extent and ad- 
mirable execution. It represents St. Louis arrayed 
in his royal robes, entering into glory amidst 
angels, and presenting to Jesus Christ the sword 
with which he triumphed over the enemies of the 
Christian name. This picture is fifty feet in dia* 
meter, and contains more than thirty figures of 
colossal size. 

The Hotel may be seen daily, from ten o'clock 
in the morning till four in the afternoon, and 
there are in the interior three guides to conduct 
visitors. The library cannot be seen without spe- 
cial permission from the Governor, which must be 
applied for by letter. 



Hdtel des MonncueSy 

Quai Conti. 
A Mint, in the capital of a powerful state, holds 
a high rank among the public buildings. There 
is reason to suppose that money was coined at 
Paris under the first race of kings j it is certain 
that it was struck under the second. The build- 
ing devoted to this purpose was probaWy part 
of the palais de la cite. At a later period, after 
the northern faubourg had been inclosed within 
the city walls, the Mint was transferred to that 
quarter. A mint was afterwards established in 
the rue de la Monnaie. This building falling into 
ruins, the government determined to pull it down. 



XV. The principal front is three hun- 
sixty feet in length, and seventy-eight 
)n. It is three stories high, each story 
;venty-iive openings for windows and 
a the centre is a projecting mass, which 
reed with five arcades on the ground- 
ires for an entrance, and forms a base- 
six columns of the Ionic order. These 
support an entablature and an attic, 
ed with festoons and six statues, placed 
^endicular line with the columns. The 
vhich represent Peace, Commerce, Pru- 
w, Strength and Abundance, are by Le- 
galle and IMouchy. 

)nt towards the rue Guenegaud is three 
and forty -eight feet in length, and al- 
ss ornamented than that towards the quay, 
a noble appearance. Two pavilions rise 
remities, and a third in the centre ; the 
[ate parts have only two stories ; that of 
id-floor forms a basement, and ibc upper 
attic. The pavilion in the centre, which 
projecting mass, is ornamented with four 
f the Elements, the number of which at 
of its construction was considered to be 
lesc statues are l)y Caflieri and Dnpre. in 
t is a door by vvliicb ibe workmen cnler 



252 HOTEL DES MONNAIES. 

The central arcade of the prlDcipal front leads 
into a superb vestibule, adorned with twenty- four 
fluted Doric columns. On the right is a magnifi- 
cent stairease decorated with sixteen columns of 
the same order. 

The plan of the edifice consists of eight courts, 
surrounded with buildings devoted to different 
purposes. The court leading to the vestibule is 
the most spacious, being one hundred and ten feet 
in length, by sixty-two in breadth, and is sur- 
rounded by a covered gallery. The peristyle in 
front, formed of four Doric columns, leads to the 
salie des balanciers, where the coin is struck. This 
room is one hundred and ten feet in length, by 
ninel»y-two in breadth j the ceiling, is supported 
by columns of the Tuscan order. At the bottom 
is a statue of Fortune, by Mouchy. The architect 
had the precaution to detach this part of the edi- 
fice, in order that the other buildings might not 
feel the effects of the concussion occasioned by 
the stamping machines. Over this room is the 
salle des ajusteurs^ of the same dimensions as ^e 
former, containing places for a hundred ajus- 
tears. Wear it is the chapel, used at present for 
a workshop. Several other buildings are occu- 
pied as foundries, rooms for flattening the metal, 
and apartments for the superintendent and other 
officers of the establishment. The room in which 
arc the mil.ls for flattening the metal is contiguous 
to the salle des ajusteurs, and under one of the 
arcades to the right of the court. Its interior de- 
coration consists of Ionic columns ^ and it receives 
light frdVn a cupola adorned with caissons. 
The cabinet de mineralogie occupies the first 



bas-reliels and arabesques. lUe cornices, 
posts, and window-frames are enriched wilU 
'oaments. Round the room are benches, and 
cases containing the minerals, which is one 

finest collections in Paris. This is a nohle 
^ the gilding and variety of colours with 
I it is set off, give it the appearance of a 
rt or ball-room. The glass-cases are filled 
specimens of minerals, of which the most 
IS are placed above the grand saloon. A stair* 
>pposite the entrance conducts ihe visitor to 
illery which extends round the room, and 
eads to a transversal gallery, containing, 
gst other articles, a fine table of granite, 
the Yosges mountains in France, and some 
curious shells and fossils. In the side closet 

pair of gloves, made of Siberian asbestos ; 
d models of breweries and furnaces^ some 
as drawings, amongst which is a correct re^ 
itationof the effect of lightning upon a wall; 



9.54 TIOTEL DES MONNAIES. 

fine specimens of agates, cornelians, amethysts, 
jasper and malachites. There are also a table 
made of lava from Vesuvius; a unique vase of 
ophite; a not less curious vase of the calcareous 
sediments of the aqueducts near Rome; a very 
uncommon table of green Egyptian marble, and 
a table of rock granite with orbicular spots of 
extraoixlinary size. In one of the cases, near the 
entrance, is an enormous comua uimmonU^ and a 
curious tube, formed by the aggregation of gravel 
with lime and iron, found in France. 

The most pleasing objects to the eye are in the 
southern gallery, facing the court; the first case 
contains specimens of the most curious marbles, 
jasper, agate, alabaster, tlint, and Egyptian stones, 
which present a variety of colours and designs » 
In the second case are carbonates of every kind, 
an abundance of lavas and volcanic productions, 
amongst which is a remarkable specimen of con- 
vex alabaster, resembling a grotto. The third 
case contains native sulphur, volcanic stones, and 
pyrites of different colours. The fourth case con- 
tains some rock crystal of Madagascar, perfectly 
transparent, an aggregate of rock crystal, of re- 
markable size, found in Daiiphiny, and a singular 
plate of earthen ware made three centuries ago, 
presenting a most curious assemblage of leaves, 
frogs, perches and pikes, with a coiled snake in the 
middle. In the fifth case are specimens of va- 
rious curiosities in marble. INear the windov^ 
is a case containing shells, petrifactions and in- 
crustations; a table of African marble, upon 
which are specimens of native salt of Wilitska, in 
Poland, some of which are worked as salt-cellars 



I 



HOTEL DES MOIfnTAIfS. 255 

and cages, a salt iacrustation resembling a pear, 
and a most carious aggregate of salt cubes. There 
is also a table of red Sicilian marble, which for 
brightness and fineness is the greatest ponder in 
the cabinet. On this table are some specimens 
accidentally produced by chemical operations, 
such as a glass bloated by the introduction of a 
cricket in it when melted, and a botde broken in 
a chemical process. 

In the pavilion No. 8, in the rue Guenegaud, is 
a door leading to the cabinet de la monnaie des 
medailtes, which was transferred to this editice 
from the Louvre. It contains a complete collec- 
tion of all the dies and punches of the medals 
and counters struck in France, since the time of 
Francis I. Medals are sold here for the benefit 
of the establishment. This cabinet is subject to 
the control of the Minister of the Interior. The 
other branches of the IMiiit are dependent upon 
tlie Minister of the Finances. 

In the Hotel des Monnaies are performed all the 
operations of coining, besides the verilication and 
stamping of the gold and silver articles made in 
Paris. It is also the seat of the general adminis- 
tration of the coins of ihe realm. The quantity 
of gold money coined in it from the ^Sth oi 
March, i8o3, to the 5ist of iMarch, \^ii, amounted 
to the sum of 774,000,000 fr.; and of silver, to 
594,000,000 fr. 

Iq England there is only one mint for the wholr 
kingdom. In France, besides the Hotel des iMon- 
naies at Paris, there are mints in twelve othti 
cities of France: viz. Bayonne, Bordeaux, la Ho 
ohelle, Lille, Limoges, Lyons, Marseilles, JNanles, 



5-56 HOTEL DES POSTES. 

Perpignan, Rouen, Strasbourg and Toulouse. Each 
mint ]ias its separate officers, but all are subject 
to the authority of the Administration des Mon- 
naies. 

The Cabinet de Miner alogie is open to the 
public daily from ten o^clock till two. The Ca^-' 
binei de la Monnaie des Medailles is open from 
ten to four. It is difficult to obtain permission 
to see the process of coining : application must 
be made by letter to Son Excellence le Ministre 
des Finances, 

Observatory^ 

Sec Scientific Institutions. 



Hotel des Postes (General Post-OlHce), 

Rue Jean Jacques Rousseau, 

This hotel, towards the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, was merely a large house, called tlmage 
Saint Jacques f belonging to Jacques Rebours, pro- 
cureur de la ville. It was purchased and rebuilt 
by the duke of Epernon, and afterwards sold by 
his son to Barth^lemi d'Hervart, comptroller-gene- 
ral of the finances. The latter nearly rebuilt it, and 
spared no expense to make it a magnificent habi- 
tation. It was remarkable for several works of 
Mignard, and for a picture in the chapel by Bon 
BouUogne. This hotel afterwards bore the name 
of d'Armenonville, till it was purchased by the 
government, in 1767, for the General Post-office. 

The service of the Post-office in Paris is exterior 
and interior. Letters coming from or going to the 
departments or foreign countries are carried to 



H«o». Kr.. lo. [wrnlv-siT rin. 

The maila leave P^ri/; daily al half pasl six o'clock 
In theeveiilii}?, Tlie last collection orlciterslor the 
day is made, at the petty hoxes, at' five o'clock; at 
the bureaux d'arrondissemens, at half past five; and 
al tlie Excliange box and General Post-office, at 
live. Letters, paid and unpaid, to be sent olf the 
same day for foreign countries, are received at the 
bureaux itarrondisseniens till ode o'clock, and al the 
General Post-otifice till two. Paid letters, lo go off 
the same day for the interior, are i-eceived al the 
bureaux d'atrondi.isemeaa till three o'clock, find at 
the Post-office till four; and the office for paid let- 
ters is open from eight till four, tellers, called 
leltrta rle Bourse, destined for foreign countries, are 



a58 HOTEL DES POSTES. 

received (whelher paid or unpaid) at the General 
Post-oftice till five o'clock. These letters must be 
printed in French or some other language upon 
half a sheet of paper, and be folded in a particular 
manner. 

The post days for England are Mondays, Tues- 
days, Fridays, and Saturdays. Letters arrive from 
England on Sundays, Mondays, Thursdays, and 
Fridays. The postage of an ordinary sized letter 
for England is fourteen sous, and from England 
twenty-four sous^ but the French Post -office go- 
verns its charges according to the weight, in con- 
sequence of which a letter upon thick paper is 
charged thirty-six sous, and sometimes forty-eight 
sous. Besides the mails which start in all direc- 
tions at half past six o'clock in the evening, letters 
are sent off at seven in the morning for such towns 
in the department of the Seine as are nearest the 
capital. At one o'clock letters are again dispatched 
to the same places, and to those which are at rather 
a greater distance, such as Pontoise, Meaux, Melun, 
Poissy> etc. The towns which receive two mails a 
day dispatch two in return, which reach Paris at 
eleven in the morning and four in the afternoon. 
The places which receive only one mail, send off 
one, which arrives at four o'clock. Each mail 
carries four passengers, who are booked at the 
H6tel des Postes. 

Journals, periodical publications, and other 
works, are sent under, a band, by post, at the rate 
of one sous per sheet for France, and two sous for 
foreign countries, where a similar arrangement 
exists. These packets, which are very convanient 
for literary communications, are received at ike 



DE5 P0STE8. 35g 

ock iu winter, nod one in 



to iaclose i 


COID 


in letters) 


where mot 


■eyfo 


r .ny part 


on payinR fi 


ve per cent. 


M where letters a 


iDd packets 


!n care of, o 


n paying double 



Indies and the French colo- 

ir, as far as the sea-port at 

shipped. 

vc his letters directed to him 
petit rtttanit, fans, or au j other town where he 
intends to go. On applying at the Post-oftice, and 
showing bis passport, the letter will be delivereJ ; 
buttbe best and safest way is to have them ad- 
dressed to a friend or some estahUshed house. 

There is at the Post-office, the Bureau de Bebut, 
where letters misaddressed or unclaimed rcnirtin ii 

according lo llicir contents, destroyed or rttiirncil 
to the address of the ivriler. 

The Petili Foils was established in i^fjo. TIj.: 
number of boxes, as we linve already staled, is 
two hundred and three. '1 he letters for Paris 
and the nclgUboiirlioocl arc collected and distri- 
buted every two hours. The charge of a letter 
by the Peti'u Paste is three sous. 

The system of the I-Veucli I'osl-ollicc is vci v 
inferior to that of Eoglaml, tiotwiliislaiuiliii; ,:on- 

wilbin the last lew years. 



260 IMPRIMERIE ROYALE. 

Imprimerie RoyalCj 

f^ieille rue du Temple* 

This establishment, founded by Francis I, is the 
iinest and richest in the world. Besides the charac- 
ters known by the name of Grec de Garamond, it 
r possesses a splendid collection of Hebrew, Syriac, 
Persian, Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopian, Etruscaiiy 
Samaritan, and other type. It was fii'st established 
upon the ground-floor and entresol of the gallery 
of the Louvre ^ it was afterwards transferred to 
the Hotel de Toulouse (now the Banque de 
France), and finally, in 1809, to that part of the 
H6tel de Soubise which has its entrance in the 
Vieille rue du Temple. This building was erected 
in 1712, and is commonly called Palais Cardinal f 
from its having been built by Cardinal de Rohan, 
into whose family the Hotel de Soubise had pre- 
viously passed. The front towards the court is 
very plain ; that towards the garden is decorated 
with a projection formed on the ground-floor of 
four Doric columns, and at the first floor of four 
Ionic columns, surmounted by an attic, and termi- 
nated by a pediment. 

When Pius VII visited this establishment in i8o4, 
two hundred and thirty presses were set to work, 
of which one hundred and fifty presented him 
the Lord's prayer, in as many languages, from He- 
brew to the languages of savages. The compli- 
ment intended to be paid to the Pope upon this 
occasion was not well judged, when it is con- 
sidered that a great part of the characters with 
which the impression was made, had been taken 
ivoiu the Propaganda of Rome. 



de CUsson. The lime when it took iU present 
name ii unknown. It was atterwards poMMsed 
by the princes ol' the House of Lorraine, and be- 
came, in 1697, the properly of ihe Duke de Ro- 
han. The I'ront is composed, at the grouDd-floar, 
of sisleen coupled columns of the Composite or- 
der j eight of which form aproiectJoa in the centre, 
and are siirmoimted by eight columns of the Co- 
rinthian order, crowned by a pedimeal. The other 
columns of the ground -floor support statues of the 
four seasons, and groups of children, sculptured 
bj Lorrain; above the pedimeat are statues of 

* The archives deposited here are chatter*, laws, con- 
■tliuiioiis, etc. The judicial archivM ate ai the Saiiitc- 
Chapelle. 



262 HOTEL DU TRl^SOR ROTAL. 

Strength and Wisdom. The; courts 186 feet -in 
length by 120 in bi'eadth, is elliptical, and sur- 
rounded by a covered gallery formed of fifty-six 
coupled columns, of the Composite order. The 
principal door is decorated without and within 
With coupled columns. The vestibule and stair- 
case are ornamented with paintings by Brunetti. 
It is a remarkable fact that the most ancient ar- 
chives of the kingdom of France are in the Tower 
of London. Till the time of Philip Augustus, the 
French kings were accustomed to take with them 
in their campaigns their most precious effects, anJ 
the archives of the kingdom. Philip Augustus hav- 
ing been defeated by Richard, King of England, at 
the battle of Freteval, near Yenddme, about the 
year i ig^ , all his baggage was taken , together with 
the archives, which were transported to London, 
and have remained there since that period. 

Those which are still left, however, are extremely 
valuable, and may be seen every day, except Sun- 
days, from nine o'clock till three. None of the 
manuscripts are allowed to be touched without 
permission of the Minister of the Interior. 



Hdteldu Tresor Rojral. 

The royal treasury occupies a building, situated 
at the corner formed by the rue Yivienne and the 
rut Neuve des Petits Champs. This building, toge- 
ther with the structure now occupied as the royal 
library, formed originally an immense hotel, which 
cardinal Mazarin bought of Jacques Tubeuf, presi- 
dent of the Chamber des Coniptes. Its extent em- 



: aevi structure in the rue de Rivoli is (inished, 
p^ill form at ouce tlie royal treasury aud the resi- 
ice of the Minister of Finances. The present 
asurynill then, it is supposed, be annexed to the 
)al library. Till i8a6 the Royal Treasury pos- 
sed a dependence on the opposite siile of ihu rue 
iiienae, which, before the revoliilion, served as 
Lies of the Duke of Orleans. This has been con- 
ted into shops and private houses, and the Ga- 
ie Colbert opened through ihe court. Tliis is 
e of the most highly ornainenteil passages in Pa- 
. It consists of n spacious rotund o; from which 
E branch leads into the rueVivienue, and an- 
ler into the rue ?ieuve des Pctits Champs. 



264 BANQUE DE FRANCE. 

Banqiie de France^ 

Rue de la f^rilliere. 

The hotel in which the Bank is estahlished long 
served as the habitation of noblemen before it 
became an edifice of public utility. It was con- 
structed in 1 6^0, for the duke de la Yrilli^re, by 
Francis Mansart. In point of design it is neither 
beautiful nor interesting \ it is built on an irregular 
piece of ground, and extends from the rue des 
Bons £nfans, to the rue Baillif. The Count de 
Toulouse having purchased it in 1713, caused great 
additions and embellishments to be made, and it 
assumed his name. At the death of the Count de 
Toulouse, it passed to the Duke de Penthievre, 
who possessed it till it became national property. 
Id 181 1, it was ceded to the Bank of France, when 
considerable alteratioos were made in it under the 
-direction of Delannoy ^ the chief of which, at least 
in a public point of view, was the formation of the 
principal entrance towards the Place des Victoires* 
This entrance is decorated with Ionic pilasters, 
and surmounted by statues of Prudence and In- 
dustry. On each side are bas-reliefs ; one repre- 
seuting Mercury, and the other Plenty presenting 
a crown. Upon the walls which communicate 
with the two wings are escutcheons formed of 
cornucopise, in the centre of which is a cock. 
The numerous and spacious apartments which it 
contains were formerly decorated with a profusion 
of ornaments. The paintings of a picture gallery 
lormcd by the Count de Toulouse were destroyed 

* For commercial transactions of the Bank, sec page 60. 



; nam of an edifice aprciall j ilcvnlcd lr> comni<T- 

iSVenlXiFlJl'JsriVoina/aflbuCj^rmc?"""^^ 
;[ ailanicd Tcir tiicli a const rncliun. U. Biongniard 
liai^il to fiiiiiisli nlun< for on Kxclisnfsc, and the 
ton« wa> laid on the a^lli of Marcli, iSolt. Ilie 
I proceeded with actiiily till i8r4> M'livn iliey wfrc 
nitcd; thev were siih»'ijiiciittv K'liiincd. and this 
:<iouB strucLDtu wat com|.l.'te<l in iSaS. fiion|;niar<1 
in i8i3, tlic works proceeded under llie direction 

! form of llie Exchange is a paralicloin'aTn of two 
ed anil twclvir feet by "nf hondird and twirniy-jij:. 
inrrnimdect 1>y a pi-iistvlc of ainty-six Corinthian 
ns, inppoi'tine an cnla'blatnre and an attic, and 
ig a coTered gallery, vhich is approached by a flight 



266 HOTEL DE LA BOUBSE. 

whicli relate to commerce and industry. OTer the en- 
trance is inscribed : 

BOURSE ET TRIBUNAL DE COMMERCE. 

The roof of this magnificent edifice is entirely formed 
of iron and copper. 

The Salle ae la Bourse, in the centre of the building, 
on the ground-floor, is one hundred and sixteen feet in 
length, by seventy-six in breadth. It is surrounded hr 
arcades, the basements of which, as well as the sides of 
the room, are formed of coloured marble. Between the 
arcades are inscribed in bronze letters the names of the 
principal mercantile cities in the world. The roof, 
which rises in a coving form, has a large sky-light in 
the centre, by which light is admitted, it is remarkably 
rich in sculpture, aiid is adorned witli monochrome 
paintings of a grey colour {chiaro-scuro), in imitation of 
marble bas-reliefs, t)ie figures of whicli are about ten feet 
in height. Their number is sixteen, viz. five on each 
side, and tlirce at each end. They were executed by 
M. Abel de Pujol and M. Mcynier. The subjects are as 
follows : — On the left or I^orth side. Commercial France 
accepting the Tribute of the four parts of the World- 
Europe —Asia — the town of Nantcb - tliat of Rouen. In 
front of the principal entrance: The King of France pre- 
senting the new Exchange to the City of Paris — the town 
of Lille— that of Bordeaux. On the right : The Union of 
Commerce and the Arts giving birth to the Prosperity of 
the State — Africa — America — Lyons -Bayonne. Above 
the entrance : The City of Paris receiving from the Nymph 
of the Seine and the Genius of the Ourcq the Productions 
of Abundance— Strasbourg — Marseilles. All these pic- 
tures arc of admirable execution, and equally excel in 
purity of design and elevation of style. The pavement 
of this room, which will contain two thousand persons, 
is entirely of marble. At tlie extremity is the hall of the 
affens tie change^ having a double entrance by a flight 
of steps at the back. To the right of tl>e salle de la 
Bourse are rooms for the committee and syndicate of the 
agens de change, and the courtiers de commerce, as 
well as the hall of meeting for the latter. The grand 
stair<:ase and register-office of the tribunal of commerce 



■ •ff »a a %^ ».««sx#fta v^A «Ba^« %*• aa «. • ^^«*«r a ^^vra 



ind the communications are easy and well af' 
bat on the outside the covered walks are too 

entire plan of the Bourse be execnted, the rue 
r w>li be prolonged to the boulevard. 



Ecole Rojale Militaire, 

I XIV distinguished his reign by erecting 
um for wounded or infirm warriors; Louis 
td lustre on his by forming an establish^* 
nr the education of young officersi. By 
t of 175 1, the latter monarch declared that, 
; to give the nobility new proofs of his 
o, he intended to found a school for die 
>us education of five hundred young gentle- 
be chosen from the sons of poor nobleinedy 
ace being given to those who, baring loH 
ithers in ihc field, were considered as chiU 
f the state, k certain number of foreign 



268 ECOLE HOYALE MILITAIRE. 

courts and corridors are called after the names of 
officers who fell at the battle of Austerlitz, viz. 
Cour Fraineau, Cour Gamier, Cour Morlan, Cour 
Roederer, Cour Jaquelot, and Corridor de Lille, 
Corridor Lahbey, Corridor Benoit, and Corridor 
Foubert. The principal entrance is towards the 
place de Fontenoy. It presents two courts sur- 
rounded wilh buildings { these were formerly 
hidden by the adjacent houses, which, in 1789, 
were pulled down and palisades erected in their 
place. The first court which is a square of four 
hundred and twenty feet, leads to a second, called 
the Cour Royale, forming a square of two hun- 
dred and seventy feet. The buildings of the second 
court are surrounded by a gallery, formed of 
Doric columns. The principal mass displays a 
row of Ionic columns above those of the Doric 
order; and in the centre is a projecting body or- 
namented wilh Corinthian columns, which rise to 
the lop of the second story, and are crowned by a 
pediment and an attic. In this court was a statue 
of Louis XV» by Lemoine, which was broken to 
pieces at the revolution. The pediments of the 
wings were formerly painted in fresco by Gibelin, 
who first introduced that style of painting into 
Paris, but these no longer exist. 

The front towards the Champ de Mars presents 
two rows of windows, each consisting of twenty- 
one. The central projection is decorated with 
Corinthian * columns, which embrace the two 
stories, 4nd support a pediment, ornamented with 
ha«-r«iiefs, behind which rises a quadrangular 
dome terminated by a spire. To the height of 
the first story the columns are fluted, and at this 



^, by.Rolland \ and the Marshal de Saie, by 
!t. On the first floor is the salle du eorueil, 
led with military emblems and pictures^ by 
1, representing the battles of Fontenoy.and 
eld, and the sieges of Tournay, Fribourg, and 
3. In two adjoining rooms are eight pictures 
(Terent masters. The chapel is truly magnifi- 

and much resembles that at Versailles, al- 
;h less sumptuous. The roof is supported 
renty fluted columns of the Corinthian order, 
valuable paintings which it possessed were 
3yed at the revolution. On Sundays irfass 
ebrated here three times. In front of the 

is a clock by Lepaute, ornamented with 
IS of Time and Astronomy. The Duke de 
;eul, Minister of war, ordered an Observatory 
; established in this edifice in 1768, and the 
rated astronomer de Lalande was charged 
rry the project iuto execution. He caused 



270 ^COLE ROYALE MILITAIRE. 

incr. In one of the courts is an hydraulic ma- 
cliiiie, worked by two horses, which sets in mo- 
tion four pumps, and supplies forty-four hogs- 
heads of water per hour. 

The military school was suppressed in April 
1788, by a decree of the council, and the pupils 
were distributed in regiments and colleges. In 
the same year this edifice was one of the four 
structures destined to replace the hospital of the 
Hotel Dieu, and the architect Brougniard was 
charged to make the necessary alterations. Dur- 
ing the revolution, the Ecole Militaire was trans- 
formed into barracks for cavalry. Bonaparte after- 
wards made it his head quarters. It now forms 
barracks for the royal guards, and contains three 
regiments, consisting of about three thousand five 
hundred men, infantry and cavalry. Being ne- 
glected, the building and ornaments go to decay 
daily. 

For permission to visit the Ecole Militaire, ap- 
ply by letter to Monsieur Charles Comte de BeaU" 
monty Gouverneur General. To see the Observa- 
tory, apply to M, Bustrafty Memlre de CJlcademie 
des Sciences, who resides upon the spot. 

CnAMP DE Mars. Between the Ecole Militaire 
and the Seine, is the Champ de Mars, an immense 
lield belonging to that establishment. It forms a 
regular parallelogram of 2,700 feet by t,52o. It is 
surrounded by ditches lined with stone and has 
four rows of trees on each side. The sloping 
embankments, extending its whole length, were 
Ibrmcd by the population of Paris of both sexes 
and all ranks in 1790, for the celebrated Fete dii 
la Federation^ which took place on the i/jth of 
July, when an altar, called I'autel de la patrie, 



Neuilly, and to liave placed llicm nearer lo ilie 
Champ) Eiysces. Since the Restoration, ihs ground 
has been planted in rei;ular walks, and as it Torms 
a gentle ascent froTii the quay, one liundred thou- 
sand persons ir.ay be placed there to obtain a view 
oFletes and reviews in the Champ de Mars, 



Garde-Me.ub(e de la Coufoniie, 

Formerly there esisled near the I.ouvre a bnili 
in" where the furniture, jewels, etc. of the crow 
were depoMted. In 1760, when the two edilici 
were erected on the north side of the Place Lou 
XV. that nearest to theTnileries was desti-ied 1 
receive tbese valuable objecls. At the revohitioi 



5i72 GARDE-MEUBLE DE LA COUROIflfE* 

the articles deposited at the Garde Meubie wtre of 
immense value. In the night of September i6, 
179a, a robbery was committed, but most of the 
stolen objects were afterwards recovered. The 
most costly articles, however, were dispersed dur- 
ing the troubles of that period. Under Napoleon 
the building in the place Louis XV was devoted to 
the residence and offices of the Minijiter of the Ma- 
rine, and the Garde Menble was established at 
No. 6, rue des Champs Elysces, from whence it 
was removed in 1826 to where it is at present. The 
articles deposited here are, in general, furniture 
more or less ornamented, consisting of beds, draw- 
ers, secretaries, tables, etc. wiiich being piled to^ 
gether without order in small rooms, give them 
the appearance of a broker^s shop. Another room 
surrounded with glass cases, containing basons, 
ewers, etc. resembles a china shop. The jewels 
are particularly worthy of attention. The crown 
is covered with diamonds, relieved from distance 
to distance by superb sapphires. On the summit 
appears the beautiful diamond, weighing nearly 
five hundred grains, known by the name of the 
regent. There are also a sword with a hilt covered 
with diamonds; another sword, the sheath of 
which is richly set with diamonds in Jleurs des lis, 
two superb maces, the insignia of numerous orders , 
among which is that of the Garter; complete pa- 
rures of diamonds and emeralds, diamonds and 
rubies, diamonds and turquoises, diamonds and 
sapphires, and pearls, besides a great number of 
buttons, wheat ears, buckles, clasps, etc. covered 
with diamonds. There are also two curious tables 
inlaid with line wood, ivory, and mother of pearl; 



bore. The eulrauce lowsrds llie rue de Bour- 
n presents a trinmplial arch decoraleii with Ionic 
liimtK, and a perislyleorthe same order; on the 
les of the arch are iwa galleries, leading to pa- 
ions forming the winys, the attics of which ar« 
ornud with bas-reliefs, by Roland, The pe- 
lyle terminates in a front decora led with Coriu- 
ian columns, of large proportions, forming a 
rlico, under which is the entrance to the vcsti^ 
le. Upon this front is ibe inscription— 

le front towards the qua! d'Orsay is enriched 
th orn.iniental joints. In the centre is a cii~ 
lar projecting mass, decorated with columns 
licli support a baliislrade crowned bjsixsta- 
es. The apartmenls of this hotei are decorated 



-274 HOTELS DO TIMBRE ET DES GARDES DU COR 

with elegance and simplicity, either with stu 
paintings, or wainscotting, according to the < 
racier of the different rooms. The principal 
loon, which looks to the river, is in the fori 
a rotunda, the diameter of which is forty 
The ceiling is decorated with a has-relief in 
saille, on a mosaic of gold. The Prince de S 
having been beheaded in 179^, his hotel 
drawn for by lottery, and a journeyman h 
dresser obtained the winning number. 

The Legion of Honour was created by a la^ 
May 19th, 1802, and its inauguration was c 
bra ted on the i4th of July, i8o3. The H6te 
Salm was chosen for this new order, and a hap 
selection could not have been made. 

Strangers are allowed to visit the hotel, by 
plying at the porter^s lodge. 

Arsenal^ 

See Bihlioihkque de Morsieua. 



H6tel du Timbre^ 

Rue de la Pair, 
The Stamp-OfKce occupies a part of the • 
vent des Capucines. This ruinous buildin| 
screened from public view by a plain front, 
senting merely a wall, terminated by a Doric 
tablature and pierced by a single arched door, 
has scarcely the appearance of a public buildi 

Hdtel des Gardes du Corps, 

Quai d^Orsay, 
This immense pile, designed, under the reig 
Napoleon, by Clarke, dnke de Feltre, Ministi 



MINIST^RE DES AFFAIRES lETRANGERES. 2^5 

, is in the ino$t miserable style of arcbitecture, 
1 presients no ornaments except the arms of 
ranee in bas-relief over the principal entrance, 
be supporters of the shield are two colossal 
male figures in a sitting posture. One is Fame, 
lowing a trumpet and holding a crown; the 
iber is France leaning upon a sceptre and bold- 
ig a branch of laurel in her right han4- T^-Cse 
gpires, by Taunay, are remarkable for grandeur 
I position, correctness of form, and the good 
yle of the draperies. 

Hotel du Ministers des Affaires 
EtrangereSj 

JVo. i4> rue jyeuue des Capucines. 
The office of the Minister for Foreign A^i^s 
as for many years at the Hotel Galifet^ No. 84, 

e du Bac. In 1821, tlic government purchased 
e Hotel Wagram of" the lieirs of Marshal Eer- 
ier, Prince of" Wagrani, where llie minister now 
sides and llie business of the Foreign Office is 
insacted. Tiie passport office is open from 
;ven in the morning till five in ibe afternoon. 
A magnificent building, after the designs of 
•nnard, was begun upon the quai d'Orsay, 
der the reign of Bonaparte, but the works have 
en discontinued since i8i5. The principal front 
intended to consist of a centre and wings orna- 
mted with two orders of architecture, which 
i carried round llie othci' side of the building, 
imitation of the Farnese palace at Rome. The 
)und-floor is to be devoted to the ofticcs, and 
i first floor to be occupied by the minister. 



^7^ CASERNES. 

Mont de Piete, 

See page 5o. 



Casernes (Barracks). 

Paris IS indebted to Marshal Biron's zeal fc 
military discipline, and to the regard which 1 
paid to the comfort of the troops, for thoj 
spacious, commodious, and even magnificent bai 
racks which are situated in the faubourgs an 
environs of the capital ^ they were erected aboi 
the year 1780. There are not fewer than thirti 
six that will frequently meet the eye of tt 
stranger in his perambulations through Pari 
The barracks are of two classes, namely Grand 
Casernes, and Petites Casernes. The number i 
the former is twenty-six, and of the latter tei 
The following authentic list will show the nara< 
of the varrious barracks and the number of me 
contained in each. Grandes Casernes, ^-^^xie Vert 
faubourg duRoule, seven hundred and ninety*tw 
infantry of the royal-guards; Pepiniere, near tli 
rue d^Anjou, faubourg St. Honor^, eight hundre 
and sixty-three ditto; Montblanc, rue de Clich] 
five hundred and three ditto; Babylone, one thoi 
sand two hundred and ninety-six ditto; Petil 
P^res, rue Notre Dame des Victoires, one thou 
sand and seventy-seven veterans ; JNouvelle Franci 
faubourg Polssonni^re, one thousand two hundre 
and sixty-two infantry of the line ; Gourtille, seve 
hundred and fifty-seven ditto; Popincourt, ou 
thousand and thirty-two ditto; Avc-Maria, nes 
the Place dc Gi-^ve, one thousand live hundre 



Ateliers de Sculpture, 

Qua! lies litvoUtles. 
lis cslaMisliiiicnt lliere arc always lo be seen 
of sciil[i[ure ordt'i-eil by ihe govciiimciit, in 
It strftps of Ibrwarducss, wliicli aie well 
llic Bttenlioii of strangers. For tickets of 
on, ap|iiic:if{on must be made at tlie Virec- 
s travaiix i/es Monumens publics. No. z<), 
rUtiivei>itij, or by Idler (post paid) ad- 
1 to Monsiaui In Dircclviii; 



278 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

Jfci 



CHAPTER X. 



'i; 



PRIVATE HOTELS, ANCIENT AND MODEMI. -^ 



» 



It appears tHat it was formerly the custom in 
London, as well as in Paris, to give the name of 
Inn or Hotel to the houses of the nohility; for 
Gray's Inn, Fumivars Inn, Lincoln's Inn, Glifibrd*s 
Inn, and others, now devoted to the education of 
law students previous to their being called to the 
bar, were originally the residences of Lords Gray, 
Fumival, Lincoln, and CMbrd. This denomina- 
tion has quite fallen into disuse in London, 
but is still preserved in Paris, where the prindipal 
houses of tne nobiUty apd gentry are called hStels, 
and the term is even applied to some of the pubHc 
buildings. The plan of^the principal private map- 
sions or hotels in Paris is very different from those 
of London. The house is seldom to be seen from 
the street, being almost always situated between 
a court- yard and a garden, and separated from 
the street by lofty walls and gates, generally 
adorned witn some order of architecture. On 
each side of the court are the oflOices, coach-house 
and stables. The garden is often extensive, and 
some of the hotels are truly magnificent. 

In the hotels down to the end of the reign of 
Louis XIV the grave and severe style of archi- 
tecture prevailed, of which some models have 



PRIVATE HOTELS. 279 

L leil by Delorme, Bullant, and Ducerceail. 
same style was generally preserved by Des- 
ses and Mansart. Under Louis XV the archi- 
ire of private buildings degenerated, but the 
rior distribution attained improvements which 
i continued to augment down to the present 
In the new quarters of Paris a considerable 
iber of hotels, erected by architects still living, 
bine a new and varied style of decoration 
L a commodious distribution of the interior. 



Hotel de St. Aignarij 

JVo. 57, rue St, Avoye. 

bis ancient hotel, which in succession has 
le the names of Montmorency, d*Avaux, and 
i^mes, was built by Le Muet, and is now the 

rie of the seventh arrondissement . The gate is 

rned w Illi a cornice and pediment. Tiic court, 

le form ol" a parallelogram, is decorated willi 

inlliian pilasters, raised on a socle, and crowned 

» halustr.ide. Ihe L;ate and court produce a 

etfecl; the architecLure is pure, and of fine 

portions. 'I'lie vestibule is decorated with Ionic 

sters and eight niches. The grand staircase to 

left, skirted with square balusters, is of stone. 

crowned bv a cupola, round the base ofwhicli 

galler3^ The front towards the garden pre- 

s several small projections, rendered necessary 

laps bv the irregularity of the ground. All 

windows are adorned with pediments. The 

earance of this hotel has been much injured bv 

erection of several small buildings towards 

court and the garden, without respecting the 



28o PRIVATE HOTELS. 

architecture j and the finest rooms have been di- 
vided by partitions. The garden is.large, and orna- 
mented in a picturesque style. 



Hotel d*j4umonty 

JYo» g, rue de Jouy. 
This hotel was built after the designs of F. Man- 
sart. The architecture towards the garden is of 
fine proportions. On the ceiling of one of the 
apartments is the apotheosis of Romulus, by Le- 
brun. 

Hotel Beaumarchais , 

Porte St. Antoine. 

This truly magnificent hotel, upon which such 
vast sums were expended by the celebrated Beau- 
marchais, was entirely demolished in i8a5, pre- 
vious to which period it had been purchased by 
the city of Paris, for the purpose of forming upon 
its site a junction canal between the moat of the 
Bastile, and the basin de la Yillette. The works 
arc already considerably advanced. The canal 
will have on each side a street skirted with im- 
mense storehouses for salt. 



"T- 



Hdtel de Beauveau, 

Place de Beauveau, 
This hotel was built by de Mezi^res. The en- 
trance is ornamented with columns. 



PRIVATE HOTELS. a8l 

Hotel de Bimn, 

Vo. 4'> '*«€ ^® P^arennes, Faubourg St. Germain. 

rbis hotel, ope of the finest in Paris, is occupied 
a cotiyent. The garden is immense, extending 
>n^ the boulevard deslnvalides, from the ruede 
irennes to the rue de Babylone. At the extiemily 
the garden is a Calvary, from which rises a cross 
th the figure of Christ, thirty feet in height. 

Hotel de la Reine Blanche^ 

JVo, 18, rue du Foin Su Jacques, 

This building is supposed to have been erected 
the. thirteenth century, and exhibits remains of 
e luxury of the times vrhen it was built* The 
te at the entrance of the vestibule is o,C a l|iter 
riod. Although repaired and white-washed, 
»ces of" its antiquity may still be seen. 



Hotel BorghesCy 

JVo. 39, rue du Fauhout'i^ St. Honore. 

Tin's was formerly the residence of the Princess 
uline, sister of Bonaparte, and is now occupied 
• the British ambassador. 



'otel of the late Duchess of Bourbon, 

JVo. 23, rue dc V^arenncs. 

It would be difiicult to find a more agrceahle 
uation than that of this hotel, which was con- 
'ucted by Brongniard in lliat excellent style 
iiich chavactcrises bis productions. 



i\. 



282 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

Hotel BretonvillierSy 

JYo. 1, rue Jiretonuilliers, lie St. Louis. 
The architect of this hotel was Ducerceau, wl 
built it for the president Ragois de Bretonviliiei 
The apartments were extremely magnificent, ai 
contained paintings by the first masters. It h 
been partly demolished, and that still existing 
occupied as a brewery, but enough remains to i 
dicate its former splendour. 

Maison Le Brun, 

]Yo, 4> f^c ^" Gros Chenel, 
This house was built by Raymond, a few yea 
before the revolution. The front is plain, b 
the court is richly decorated. It is round, ai 
the terrace wall, which faces the vestibule, pi 
sents niches iu which are antique statues : sor 
large trees rise above this decoration, and pr 
duce a charming effect. It possesses a pictu 
gallery, very tastefully ornamented, in whi< 
paintings for sale were formerly exhibited. 

Hotel de Bruiioj^ 

JYo. 49, rue du Faubourg St. Uonore, 
This elegant edifice, situated in the midst 
lofty trees, has the appearance of a temple r 
ther than a private house. It consists of a sin^ 
story formed of seven arcades, above which c 
tends u frieze in bas-relief. A peristyle of s 
Ionic columns of slender proportions, raised < 
steps, is crowned by the statue of Flora. Tj 
architecture, however, being at once graceful ai 



PRIVATE HOTELS. 283 

simple, is generally admired. The entrance is by 
a long passage, which leads to thecoart: the two 
wings contain staircases and vestibules ; the front 
towards the court is adorned with rustics. The 
interior contains six principal rooms. The saloon 
is decorated with fluted Ionic pilasters, and the 
vaulted ceiling exhibits a good painting by Yin- 
cent. Two wings project into the garden, and 
are composed, to the right, of a boudoir and a 
library j to the left, of a bath and a study. From 
a broad terrace, is a descent into the garden, and 
the view from it extends over the Champs-Elys^es, 
which, being separated from the house merely by 
a ditch, seem to form only one property. 

The H6tel de Brunoy is occupied by the Prin- 
cess Bagracio, who does not allow it to be shown 
to strangers. 

Hotel de BnlHoTiy 

7\o. 3, line Jean Jdcqiics Itousscdu. 

TIlis hold was I)iilit about llic year i6!")o, l>v 
Claude de Bullion, supcrlnlendcnt of the (Inancos 
The archilccLure is very inciilfcrent. It has liecii 
long Inhabited by private individuals. 1\vo i;;i! 
Icries, which wcie painted and decorated bv\ou(;t, 
Blanchard, andSarazin, have Ijecn destroyed. '\h\> 
hotel is now the principal mart in Paris tor the 
Sale ol eii'ects ol" every description. 



Mai SOU Callet ^ 

l\o. 5, rue (III 3/o/it Pani'is.se. 
This house, Iniilt in 1777, by the archllecL \\ hoM 
name it beais, is situated bcl\ACcn a court and .< 



:i84 PRIVATE HOTEIS. 

garden. The two fronts are of pure and correct 
architecture. The principal eutratice presents four 
Ionic columns, above which is a large bas-relief. 
At the bottom of the vestibule, the staircase winds 
round a statue which receives a briliianl light 
from above. The fine garden attached to the 
maison Callet has recently been sold in lots. 



Hotel de Camavalety 

2Vo» 37, rue Culture St. Catherine. 

This hotel is one of the most curious mopu- 
ments of the sixteenth century. Its. erection^ was 
successively entrusted to BuUant and Ducerceaa, 
and it was afterwards thoroughly repaired under 
the direction of Francis Mansart. The sculpture 
with which it is richly adorned is by J. Goujon. 
The building to the street is raised one story only 
above the ground-floor. It has fiVe windows in. 
front, and presents, at the extremities, two pro* 
jecting pavilions crowned with pediments. . The 
ground-floor, adorned with vermiculated rustics, 
fonns the basement of a. range of coupled Ionic 
pilasters, which decorate the first story. The door 
is situated in a circular niche, surmounted by a 
cornice in the form of a pediment. Under the 
arch is a shield surrounded by ornaments^ on 
the key stone is a small figure, and an the 
sides of the door a Lion and a Leopard. Above 
the cornice of the basement are two allegorical 
figures in bas-relief representing Strength and Vi- 
gilance. Bound the court are twelve large figures 
in bas-relief, of which four, representing the Sea- 
sons, are remarkabiq for that beauty of design and 



PRIVATE HOTELS. 285 

ition whic distiiiguishGoujon^s works. The 
others are inferior, and their authors are 
lown. 

e hotel de Carna valet is remarkable for having 
the residence of the celebrated Madame de 
;n^ and her daughter the Countess de Grignan.. 
low occupied by the Ecole des Fonts et Ghaus- 
Strangers are not admitted into the interior, 
upon applying to the porter, may enter the 
: to eiamine the fine sculpture. 



'son des CameauXy or de la Cou- 
ronne d'Or, 

JYo* II, rue des Bourdonnais. 

is is a curious monument of the architecture 
e fourteenth century. It was purchased, in 
, by the Duke of Orleans, brother to King 
, and to lilm must be attributed the con- 
tion of lliose spires, turrets, and open galle- 
by which it is distinguished. Tlie Gothic 
:ase to the left on entering, is extremely curl- 
Though disfigured by modern repairs, scve- 
arts of the elegant architecture arc still cn- 
and there is perhaps no ancient building in 
the ornaments of which are wrought with 
er delicacy. This house, which has been in- 
,ed by several illustrious personages, now 
> the sign of the Golden Crow^n. 



Hotel Chaiiisot , 

JVo. j5, Rue St. LouiSy tie Sf, Louis, 
:C architecture of the buildings which sur- 



28G PRIVATE HOTELS. 

round the courts of this hotel is worthy of ob- 
servation. 



Hotel de Chatillon^ 

JYo. i32, rue du Bac, 
Tliis hotel, built by L'Assurance, pupU of Julc 
Hardouin Mansart, is now a convent. 



Hotel de Clunj^ 

JVo, i4, rue des Mathurins St. Jacques. 

This hotel, in the florid Gothic style, was bnill 
11 i5o5, by Jacques d'Amboise, Abbot of Clunj 
on a part of the ruins of the Palais des Thermei 
and is one of the finest specimens' of the architec 
ture of that period remaining in Paris. The vaul 
of the chapel, which is richly decorated, rests o 
a single column, of exquisite workmanship. Di: 
ferent statues which adorned the outside bav 
been destroyed, but the delicately wrought niche 
still remain. A few years ago the beautiful en 
trance was deprived of its ornaments. Some of th 
rooms are now used as a Printing Office. 

M. Beliu, who occupies the most intcrestin 
part of the Hotel de Cluny, takes pleasure in show 
ing it to strangers. 



Maison Colbert^ 

JVo. i4, rue des Hats. 

Although within a few years called after hi 

name, this house was never occupied by Colbcri 

The fronts towards the court are decorated wit 

several bas-reliefs admired by artists. On lli 



noici au i^oniroicur i^e/ierat, 

A'n. 40, me iVe'i^e des Petils Champs. 

This spacious structure wns erected alter llie 
designs of Louis Levau. hy Ungues ile Lioune, 
secretary of state. In 1^0?) it was purchased by 
Louis Phelipeaux de Pont Chartrain, chancellor of 
France, was aflerwards appiopriatcd as a resi- 
lience for ambassadors extraordinary; and at a 
subsequent period became llie dwelling of tliu 
minister ol'lhe finances. The grand staircase wa'j 
ornamented nith an Woti railing of exquisite TVork- 
inanship. The garden was very extensive. Durinf; 



ATE HOTELS. ^89 

own hal The front presents a base* 

f^. fonnii a terrace, behind which rise the 
d and second stones. The portico, formed of 
w Doric columns, has a pretty appearance, and 
> boascy though not large, is commodious. 



Hotel du Prince d'Eckmuhl^ 

JYo. 107, rue St, Dominique, 

rhis hotel, lately called H6tel Monaco, was for- 
5rly devoted to the reception of oriental am- 
ssadors. Marshal Davoust, Prince d^kmuhl, 
id here in i825. The hotel is now let to private 
nilies. 

Hotel £gerton^ 

JYo, 335, rue St. Honor e. 

This hotel was built by Henry Piissort, coun- 
lor of state, and uncle of the celcbralcd Colbert, 
was afterwards purchased by Adrien Maurice, 
ke de INoailles, and was called Hotel dc IN'oailles. 
le grand entrance is decorated witli two Ionic 
lumns wbich support a balcony, an attic, and 
entablature. At the bottom of the court is 
peristyle, composed of six Doric columns and 
namented with four niches. The apartments of 
is hotel are splendid. Under Napoleon, it be- 
nged to the Prince Lebrun, duke of Placentia 
d arch-treasurer of the Empire. It is now the 
operty of Francis Egerton, earl of Bridge waiter, 
hio possesses a curious collection of manuscripts, 
rticularly of letters written by great men. 
PART I . '^ ''> 



290 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

Hotel des Fennes (formerly de Seguier), 

JVo. 55, Rue de Crenelle St. Honore, 

This hotel has been the habitation of princes 
and several illustrious personages. In 1^']% it be- 
longed to Francoise d'Orl^ans, widow of Louis de 
Bourbon, first prince of Conde. In 161Q, it was 
the property of the due de Bellegarde, who re- 
built and enlarged it, after the designs of Ducer- 
ceau. The new constructions were built, ac- 
cording to the custom of that time, of bricks 
connected by stone bracings. Pierre Siguier, chan- 
cellor of France, having purchased this hotel in 
i655, added to it two spacious galleries, wH'ich 
were adorned with paintings by Vouet. It was 
in this hotel that Seguier received the artists and 
learned men of his time; and the French Aca- 
demy having chosen him for their president, after 
the death of cardinal Richelieu, his house became 
the place of assembly for that distinguished body 
till 1675, when Louis XIV granted them a hall in 
the Louvre. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century, the 
farmers-general of the taxes purchased this hotel 
for their meetings and ofhces \ and continued pro- 
prietors of it down to the revolution, when it 
became private property. The only part of the 
old building still remaining is the principal en- 
trance and the left vdug, which may be easily 
known from the new constructions. It is now 
occupied as a diligence office, warehouses, a print- 
ing office, etc. 



PRIVATE HOTELS. 29 1 

Hotel du Cardinal Feschy 

JVo, 70, Rue de la Chaussee d^^ntin. 

Cardinal Fesch expended an immense sum in the 
construction of this mansion, which is entirely 
built of free-stone. The front next the garden 
has a hundred windows. The staircase is re- 
markably grand. The apartments, which are nu- 
merous and magnificent, were formerly adorned 
with valuable sculpture and antiques, which were 
sold in the beginning of 1824* 



Maison St. Foiocj or Hdtel d'Osmondy 

JVo. 8, rue Basse du Rempart, Boulet^ard des Capucines. 

This splendid mansion was built, in 1776, by 
Brongniard, but has since undergone material 

alterations. Tlic vestibule towards the court is 
fine, and in the centre of the building is a mag- 
nificent and richly decorated staircase terminated 
by a cupola. A communication with the apart- 
ments on the first floor is formed by means of a 
gallery which extends round ihem. The apartments 
are very spacious^ and on the ground-floor are ex- 
tensive offices. Two terraces, round the court, are 
on a level with the first story, from winch a grand 
flight of steps leads to the garden. The front on 
this side presents a single story wilh five windows ; 
it is adorned with rustics, and crowned l)y an 
Ionic cornice. Above three windows in the centre, 
is a large bas-relief. Those at the extremities are 
decorated with two Ionic columns, surm^uiited 
by figures. The front towards the court presents 



292 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

a single story liaviDg seven windows adorned with 
bas-reliefs, and is decorated with eight three- 
quarter Doric columns. The two wings pro- 
jecting to the street form pavilions, adorned with 
Ionic columns, crowned by a pediment. In the 
right wing is a magnificent chapel. From the 
boulevard, this facade produces a very striking 
effect. The countess d^Osmond, the present 
proprietor of the maison St. Foix, forbids it to be 
shown to the public. Since in her possession, the 
interior of the hotel has been repaired and embel- 
lished in the most magnificent style. 



Hotel Frascatiy 

iVb. 108, Rue dc Richelieu* 

This was originally a public garden, and is now 
a gaming-house, which may be considered the 
second in Paris in point of respectability, as the 
company is select^ and the persons fVequenting it 
generally venture high stakes. Ladies are a4- 
jnitted here, and balls and suppers are occasionally 
given. Buildings are about to be erected upon 
the garden. Upon the Opera-House in the rue de 
Richelieu being closed, it was in contemplation 
to construct a new house upon the site of this 
hotel. 

■ ■ II I I ■■■■!■ — ^^M^^— 

Maison du Chanoirie Fulbert^ 

iVb. I, quai de la Cite, at the comer of the rue des 

Chantres. 
Two ancient medallions in the wall, represcnt- 
iug Eloisa and Abelard, oncedislinguished the house 



PftlVATE HOTELS. 2g3 

cious Canon Fulbert, so often mentioned 

<8tory of those unfortunate lovers, but at 

lution they were broken to pieces. A 

ae ago, the house being under repair, a 

escutcheon was discovered containing 

its of Abelard and Eloisa, which, accord- 

/ connoisseurs, are of a perfect resemblance. 

present proprietor has caused the following 

jription to be placed over the door: 

e fut ici la dcmeare d'Heloise et Abailard en rannc« 

M.C.XVIJI. 



y 



Hotel de Galijetj 

JYo. 84, rue du Bac, 

This hotel was built in 3785, after the designs 
of Legrand, for the marquis de Galifat, to whose 
heirs it now belongs. It was long occupied as llie 
residence and cilices of ihe minister for Forciifu 
Affairs, and whilst that post was held by prince 
Talleyrand considerable alterations were made in it. 
The situation of this hotel is remarkably line, the 
apartments are spacious and elegant, and the ex- 
terior architecture is lich. Being found too 
small and inconvenient for the Foreign depart- 
ment, the minister removed, in 1821, to the Hotel 
Wagram, rue Neuve dcs Capucines, which had 
been bought for that purpose by the government. 



Hotel de Mademoiselle Guiniard^ 

JYo. 9, rue de la Chausscc iVAnlin. 
This house, built by Lc Dgux, lor a cclel)ialc(l 



25. 



294 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

dancer at the opera-house, whose name it bears, 
is remarkable for its elegance and distribution. 
The portico is decorated with four columns, above 
which is a beautiful group in Conjlans stone, re- 
presenting Terpsichore crowned on earth by 
Apollo. The figures, which are six feet in height, 
are by Le Comte, who also executed, in the recess 
behind the columns, a superb bas-relief, twenty- 
two feet in length by four in height, representing 
the triumph of Terpsichore. The nymph is seated 
in a car drawn by Cupids, and preceded by Bac- 
chantes^ the Graces attended by Music follow the 
car. Two Fauns, playing on cymbals, indicate a 
dance in character. Behind the group is a fine 
demi-cupola ornamented with caissons. Above 
the entrance is an elegant small theatre, the ceil- 
ing of which was painted by Taraval. 



Hotel d'Hollande^ 

IVo. 5i, P^ieille rue du Temple. 
This hotel, built after the designs of Cottard, is 
remarkable for its interior decorations. On the 
great door next the court is a bas-relief, by Reg- 
naudin, representing Romulus and Remus sucking 
a wolf, and found by Faustula, which is worthy of 
attention. 

Hotel de Jassaudy 

TVb. aa, Rue des Pr4tres St. Paul. 
This was formerly a palace belonging to queen 
Blanche. Notwithstanding the considerable re- 
pairs that this structure has undergone, there are 
in the first court a ^ry curious cornice and tur- 



PRIVATE HOTELS. SgS 

The architecture of the second court is in 
preservation. The small front is decorated 
4,he style of the arts at the period of their re- 
/al. The piers of the w^indows present cariatides 
ilptured with good effect. The porter readily 
companies visitors desirous of examining the re- 
lins of this hotel. 



Tour St, Jean de Latran, 

Place Cambrai, rue St» Jacques, 

We shall here notice a square tower of remote 
tiquity, situated on the montagneSt. Genevieve, 
ar the place Cambrai. It is supposed to have 
en part of a palace inhabited by Clovis, and 
)uld be much more interesting in appearance 
t were not surrounded by mean houses. 



TloLel Kunskiy 

No. loj, Hue Si, J)oiniiiique., 

riiis hotel possesses liltle attraction in its ex- 
lor, but no 1 1 ling can J)e more magnificent than 
interior decorations. 



Hot el Lambert y 

iVo, 2, rue St. Louis, lie Si. Louis. 
riic I^le St. Louis J which is now covcied with 
uses and skirled will) quays, was originally 
led Isle anx loaches j a name given to distinguish 
Irom the isle ISotrc Dame, of which it was a 
)endence. Henry IV conceived the project ol 
cting houses upon this spot, but the execution 
it was reserved for Louis XIII. In 16 r 4, a com- 



296 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

inunication by means of a bridge was formed be- 
tween the two islands, and all the houses in the 
Isle St. Louis were constructed before the middle 
of tlie same century. 

Among these edifices the HSi el Lambert is ikke 
most remarkable. It was built by Levau, cAief 
architect to Louis XIVj the architecture is ele* 
gant, and the ornaments are extremely rich. The 
entrance towards the street has a fine appearance. 
The court, which is small, is surrounded by build- 
ings decorated with the Doric order ; and that at 
the bottom of the court displays likewise the Ionic 
order. The staircase, between the columns which 
form the vestibule, is magnificent, and its dispo- 
^tion is remarkable. The right wing has another 
front, along which extends a terrace, on a level 
with the first floor, which commands a view of 
the Seine, the Isie Louviers, the ancient arsenal, 
the pont du Jardin des Plant es, and the banks of the 
Seine. This front is decorated with pilasters of 
the Ionic order, crowned by an attic. 

The apartments of the Hotel Lambert were or- 
namented by several celebrated painters. In one 
room are some large pictures, including the Rape 
of the Sabine Women, by Bassano. A cabinet ad- 
joining is adorned with landscapes, by Patel and 
d'Hermans, and five paintings taken from the his- 
tory of .Eneas, by Romanelli. On the second 
floor is a gallery, richly decorated, the door of 
which has two gilt columns. The ceiling, painted 
by Lebrun, represents the labours of Hercules, and 
is enrichedj with a great number of ornaments. 
On the piers, between the windows, are land- 
scapes painted by different masters, and bas-reliefs 



PRIVATE HOTELS. 297 

}d, in imitation of bronze. It was in 
.hat, in i8i5, Bonaparte, regarding all 
a long conversation with his minister 
From this gallery we pass into a large 
paintings of which are by Lesueur. On 
^ is Phaeton entreating his father to 
1 to drive his chariot. There were also 
res on wood, representingthe nine Muses, 
ave been transferred to canvass, and are 
.he gallery of the Louvre. In the angles 
ceiling of the salle des bains^ Lesueur has 
^ented the Divinities of the sea and rivers, 
mpanied by children with branches of coral, 
^re are also four imitation bas-reliefs, which 
)resent the Triumph of Neptune, the Triumph 
Am phi trite, the fable of Actseon, and the his- 
ty of Calisto. The view from this room extends 
dearly to Iviy. It was here that Voltaire dwelt 
when he formed tlie plan of la Henriade. 

This hotel is now used as a depot for the beds 
of the royal guards ; hut the fine remains may be 
visited upon giving a small fee to the porter. 



Maison Lathuiley 

JVo. 3o, me du I^'aubourg Poissonniere. 

This pretty pavilion, between a court and a 
garden, was built, in 1788, by M. Durand. The 
garden front being a story lower than that to- 
wards the court, tJie principal apartments are only 
a few steps higher than the court. It is preceded 
hy a vestihule and staircase, and tlie interior is 
adorned in a modern and elegant style. The lower 
story, on a level with the garden, presents a large 



298 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

vestibule decorated with columns. The front to- 
wards the garden has three stories; it is adorned 
on the ground-floor with a portico of four rustic 
columns, and on the first floor with four caria- 
tides bearing an entablature. That to the court 
has only two stories, and is adorned with four 
Done columns to the height of the ground-flooi* 
only. The garden is in the English style. This 
mansion is now inhabited by several families. 
Upon giving a sniiall fee to the porter, visitors 
are allowed to enter the court and garden, but 
not the interior of the hotel. 



ii 



Hotel de Longuei^ille, 

JYo. 6, place du Carrousel. 

This mansion was formerly the habitation of the 
dukes of Lojgueville and Elbeuf, and celebrated 
as the spot where the intrigues of the fronde were 
formed during the minority of Louis XIV. It was 
afterwards used by the farmers-general for a snuff 
manufactory, and now serves for the King's stables. 



Maison de St. Louis ^ 

IVo. 5, rue des Marmouzels. 

Such was the name-of a spacious edifice, of which 
some interesting remains are still to be seen. These 
remains consist of two piles of building commu- 
nicating with each other by a gallery, beneath 
which is the entrance. In the court is a staircase 
ornamented with sculpture of beautiful design 
and execution, which seems to be of the beginning 
of .the thirteenth century. Near the staircase is 



PIIIVATE HOTELS. 299 

The court also conUins a lai^ 
is said, was fonnerlj supplieid 
1 ibc Seine, by a sublerrapean 
cellars will contain three ibou- 

house was ever occupied by Si. 
eas;^ to determine, ihe only cii^ 
vourofsucli an opinion being the 
and a medallion, resembling the 

monarch, over ifae principal en* 
iw occupied by a dyer. 



6tel de 


Litynes^ 






33,, 


vueSt 


. Domininu 


e. 




lilt 


aTtcr the desij^n 


<s or Le Muet, 


d, a 


nd h 


as a fine 


Harden. 


The 


floe Gobelin tapestry, and. 


■boYe 


ires 


inRu 


ssiancostui 


me. Tlie Hotel 


;;;.' 


is;io<i 


vvhi;n tlic 


ris" 


10 tl.^ 



. II:,./.:;::.! M. f.r,!.,!,.,,. 

cdifu'c. sJtiiiilc.l ,.s il were in tlie 

Livcsi.ks, l.iilJtIiMS lost much of 

Is which iire iirincipally occupied 
^11 who abound in the neighhour- 
sed two sLni'ies abovi: n basement. 
ic, adorned with columns, leads. 



r 



300 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

ou the right, to the staircase, and in front to a 
dhilng-room, a saloon, a bed-chamber, etc. Two 
fronts only are decorated. The entrance te the 
vestibule is adorned with two Doric columns. 
The grand front presents at the extremities two 
projections, which are crowned with pediments. 
In the centre is an open lodge, forming a terrace, 
on a level with the first story j it projects beyond 
the two pavilions, and is composed of six Doric 
columns. Four statues in niches adorn this colon- 
nade, and two others decorate the terrace, which 
is commonly verdant with flowers and shrubs. 
A double flight of steps leads from the lodge to 
the garden, and forms the basement of the co- 
lumns. This mansion was built by Peyre, in 1762, 
who has here successfully imitated the pure and 
severe style of Palladio, both in the distribution 
of the plan and the elegance of the facades. 



Bureau des Marchands Drapiers^ 

JYom II, Rue des Decliargeurs. 

This edifice was the hall of the drapers' com- 
pany. It was erected about the middle of the 
seventeenth century, after the designs of Liberal 
Bruant, and is remarkable for the beauty of its 
front. It is of Doric architecture; with some in- 
novations upon the rules of that order. It now 
serves as the d^p6t-general des Bonneteries de 
France. The cariatides^ and other ornaments of 
sculpture, have been destroyed, and the balus- 
trade, above the second pediment, has been de- 
molished. 



PRIVATE HOTELS. 3oi 

Hotel de MSsmeSj 

iVb. 4c, Rue St. Auoye, 

A was originally the residence of the 

nne de Montmorency, who died here 

.h of November, 1567, of the wounds 

received at the battle of St. Denis. It 

ds passed to Jean Antoine de M^smes, 

resident of the parlement, A short time 

IS to the revolution, it was the residence 

'eceiver-general of the finances, and is now 

id as the administration des contributions 

'es. 

Hotel de Mirabeauj 

IVo, 6, rue de Seine. 

house is so called because the father of 
3hrated Mirabeau resided in it. Queen Mar- 
irst consort of llcnry IV, died in this hotel. 



Hotel de Moiitholon., 

No. 'ij, Boulev^avd IMonlmarlre. 

hotel, constructed by Soufflot le Romaiii, 
vr and pupil of the architect of the church 
Geueyieve, is composed of several large 
of apartmeuls. The front, vvhicli is of 
lie order, combines the noble and severe 
^ith a pure imitation of the antique. The 
il decoration corresponds by the riclincss 
ste of the ornaments. Iii the principal 
ig-room is a ceiling painted by llobin, re- 
Ling Themis, attended by Force and Justice, 
to the earth to remove the evils wliich 

HT I. 'iG 



302 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

sprung from Pandora's box j Hypocrisy alon 
escapes the eye of Justice. The oraaments whicl 
surround this subject are figures allegorical of th 
virtues required in a judge. 



Grand Hotel de Mdjitmorency ^ 

JVo. 10, Rue St. Marc, 

This spacious and magnificent hotel, built ii 
i^o4} after the designs of L'Assurance, belonged 
at the period of the revolution, to the duke d 
Montmorency, to whom it was indebted for con 
siderable embellishments. The facade toward 
the court is of the Ionic order, after the design 
of Perini. The entrance, adorned with four Ioni< 
columns, is remarkably grand. Every thing ii 
Paris since the revolution having been turnec 
towards mercantile speculations, the vaat gardei 
of this hotel, which extended to the boulevard 
was partly destroyed, to form the passage di 
Panorama. 

Hotel de Nivernois^ 

JVo, 10, rue de Toumon, 
This hotel was once inhabited by the late Duch- 
ess Dowager of Orleans, but has been purchasec 
by the city, and converted into barracks for gen. 
darmes. It was repaired and decorated abou 
forty-five years ago, by Peyre. The principal rooir 
is a magnificent saloon, adorned with Gorinthiai 
pilasters and eight arcades. Above the entabla- 
ture is a pedestal, decorated with laurel, whicl 
supports a richly sculptured ceiling. In the comen 
are fasces borne by children resting on ducal 



PRIVATE HOTELS. 3o3 

je ceiling, which represents Cupids 
Doves, is by Rameau. Over each 
oval windows, supported by eagles, 
re\[ as the fasces, form a part of the 
e Duke de Nivemois. All the orna- 
jlpture was executed by Cauvet. The 
ions in bas-relief on the dooi*s, and the 
ire by Berruer. This saloon is richly gilt, 
ling-room is decorated with eight Ionic 
;, in imitation of griotta marble; the 
is of stucco, resembling veined marble, 
f these decorations have been destroyed, 
for the gendarmes have been erected upon 
len. 



Hotel d'Oignjy 

JVo. 6, Bue Grange Baielikre. 

hotel is converted into a ganilngliouse, 
akcs prcceilcnce of all the others in Paris, 
irtments are magnllicentlv iitted up, and 
snppcrs, and costly wines are given to 
i tlie grand object of the establishment. 



of the late Dudicss Dowager of 
Orleans^ 

/\'o. 58, rue Si. DoT/iiiiujue. 

nagniticent hotel was formerly inhabited 
enerable Ina^istrates of the family of Mole, 
ong the residence oi^ the Prince de Cam- 
arcli-chancellor of the empire. 



3o4 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

Maison d'Orlian^ 

JYo, 3, rue du Mont Parnasse, 

This house was built in 1775, by Poyet. Both 
fronts are decorated on the ground-floor by two 
cariatides raised on pedestals, and bearing a Doric 
entablature. Towards the court, the windows 
of the first story are adorned with frame-work 
and cornices ^ the middle one is surmounted by a 
pediment: above is a large bas-relief, representing 
the triumph of the Fine Arts. This pavilion re- 
sembles the elegant casinos of Italy. 



Hotel d^Orsay^ . 

JVo* 35, rue de Varenne* 

This hotel possesses two ceilings, by Tarayai; 
one, representing the apotheosis of Psyche \ and 
the other, Cupids floating in the air. The artist 
has here displayed great skill, as well as in the 
figures of a cabinet adorned with arabesques. 
This hotel is in bad repair, but is worth a visit, 
although it is difflcult to obtain admission. This 
favour is sometimes granted by M. Seguin, the 
proprietor, upon being addressed by lettjBr(posi 
paid). 

Hotel de Prdslin^ 

IVo. 54» rue de Bourbon. 
This hotel is remarkable for its situation and a 
garden like a terrace, from which there is one of 
the finest views in Paris. It is now the mairie 
of the ninth arrondissement. 



PRIVATE HOTELS. 3o5 

Hotel de la Reyniere^ 

IVo* I, Rue des Champs JEljrs^es, 

vas once the residence of the famous M. 
, author of the Almanack des Gourmands, 
w the property of the government, and is 
nd occupied by the Russiau ambassador, 
ike of Wellington has resided here several 



Hotel de Richelieu^ 

JVo. 3o, Rue JYeui^e St, Augustin. 

bote! was built in 1707, afler the designs of 
iw€. Its first proprietor was a rich financier, 
bom it passed to the count de Toulouse, 
the duke d'Antin, and afterwards to the 
de Richelieu, who bought it in 1757, and 
it with tlie most rich and elegant objects 
H'ts. The famous Fapillon (Tllajiovrey at 
cmlty of ihc garden, near the boulevard, 
itii money which the marshal brought 
^rmany after Ills campaigns, is now a ma- 
ry of paper for hangings. Upon the gar- 
'eral streets have been formed j and the 
1 is a public hotel. The front, which has 
' been scraped, Is of great beauty. The 
i was painted by Brunettl. The figures are 
n. 

Tlotel de la Rochefoucauld ^ 

JVo. 12, rue dc Seine. 

s licro that llie great Turenne passed his 
od. The hotel is very spacious, and foi 

26. 



3o6 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

the most part retains its ancient distribution. The 
garden is extensive. This hotel, which has lately 
been sold, is about to be demolished, and new 
constructions erected upon its site. 



Hotel de Rohan Montbazon^ 

JYo. 20, Rue de Beihisi. 
In this small hotel dwelt the unfortunate Gas- 
pard de Coligni, admiral of France 5 and Here he 
was murdered during the massacre of St. Bartho- 
lomew. This house was afterwards occupied by 
the Seigneurs de Rohan-Montbazou, whose arms 
it bore as late as 1772. It presents nothing in its 
external appearance which would indicate that it 
had been the residence of distinguished personages. 
The balcony, which is very ancient, is worthy of 
observation. It is now occupied by a restaura' 
teur, who has taken for his sign a VAmiral Coligni. 



Hotel de Sens^ 

No. I, rue du Figuier. 
These interesting remains are now used as a 
place of meeting for waggoners, etc., but signs of 
their ancient grandeur, in the portal, the postern, 
the towers, embrasures, and battlements, are still 
to be seen. The hotel de Sens was erected in the 
fifteenth century, and in the reign of Francb I 
was inhabited by the Chancellor of France. 



Hotel de Sommariva^ 

No. 4) rue Basse du Rempart. 
This mansion is enriched by the Terpsichore 



PRIVATE HOTELS. 3oj 

and the alen of Canova, and contains a very 

superior couection Of pictures, which may be 
seen on Fridays, by inscribing the name at the 
porter's lodge a few days beforehand. 



Hotel de Sully ^ 

JVo. 143, Rue St. yintoine. 

• This edifice is remarkable as the work of Ducer- 
ceau, and the residence of the celebrated minister 
v/bose name it bears. Except the entrance and 
the stories above it, the ancient building is in a 
state of perfect beauty and preservation. Since 
a special school of commerce has been established 
in the buildings of the garden, the principal en- 
trance has been closed by an iron gate, but visitors 
can enter by the watchmaker's shop. 

Hotel Thehisson,, ^ 

zV^f). 28, vnc cle Pro\'cnce. 

This truly magnlliccnt hotel was sold, in 1822, 
for the sum of i,ioo,ooofr. to a tailor of the 
Palais Royal, who pulled it down, and the rue 
d'Artois has beeu prolonged upon its site. 



Hotel da TresorieVy 

Coiir dc la Sainie CJiapclle. 
Tiie facade of this hotel is opposite the Sainte 
Chapelle. It is composed of three rows of eight co- 
lumns, with two pilasters on each side. These 
three rows, of the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian 
orders, rise one above the other. The whole iias 
a magnihcent appearance, and seems to indicate 



3o8 PRIVATE HOTELS. 

the ancient habitation of some distlngui^ed per- 
sonage. The rue St. Anne was formed upon the 
garden formerly belonging to this hotel. 



Hotel d' Uzes ^ 

JVo, 178, rue Montmartre, 

This hotel, built by Le Doux, is remarkable for 
the triumphal arch which forms the entrance, and 
the decoration of the front towards the court, 
which is approached by an avenue. For some years 
this hotel was occupied as the Custom-House. It 
has lately been sold and is about to be demolished. 



Hotel de Valentinois, 

iVb. io5, rue St, Dominique, 

This fine hotel was built after the designs of 
Cortona. It is now inhabited by several private 
families. 

Hotel de J^endome^ 

JYo. 34, Rue d'Enfer, 

This mansion was built, in 1707, by a commu- 
nity of Carthusian monks who liad a convent in 
its vicinity. It was afterwards purchased by the 
duchess de Yend6me, and took her name. Being 
subsequently occupied by the princess d^Anhalt, 
she obtained the king^s permission to establish a 
communication with the garden of the Luxem- 
bourg, by means of an iron gate, which still exists. 
The hotel, which is well built and iias a garden, 
is now occupied as the Ecole des Mines, 



PRIVATE ^HOTELS. ScX) 

Hotel Wagram, 

See Hotel du Ministkre des Affaires Etrangires, 

page 375. 



Nearly all the principal streets in the faubourg 
St. Germain contain magnificent hotels. 

In the rue de Monsieur are two or three spaci- 
ous mansions built by Brongniard, which look on 
the boulevard des Invalides. 

There are many other hotels in Paris which 
display much taste in architecture and decoration, 
hut they are too numerous to describe. 



3lO PLACE VENDOME. 



CHAPTER XI. 

PLACES, TRIUMPHAL ARCHES, COURTS, 
AND PASSAGES. 



PLACES.* 



Place F^endome. 

This Place, called originally Flace des ConquiteSy 
and afterwards Place Louis le Grand, was formed 
upon the site of an hotel, erected in i6o4 ^7 ^^^ 
duchess de Mercoeur, which passed into the family 
of Vendome upon the marriage of Francoise de 
Lorraine, only daughter of the duke de Mercoeur, 
with Cajsar, duke de Vendome, son of Henry IV 
and Gabrielle d^Estrees. At the suggestion of the 
Marquis de Louvois, who succeeded Colbert as 
surintendant des Batimcns, Louis XIV purchased 
the Hotel Vendome in i685, for 660,000 francs, 

* The term Square cannot properJy be applied to all 
those areas surrounded wiih buildings which the French 
call Places, as they use the same denomination for 
every open space skirted with houses, "wheihcr they are 
squares, triangles, circles, crescents, or octagons. Of 
these Places there are abont seventy. We shall men- 
tion those which, hy their extent, regularity, or beauty, 
ileserve to be noticed. 



fLiAKjC' yi di^uxjotr^t 



9t I 



1 the buildings that composed it w^rejd^- 
ed, with the design of forming asqu^ire, to 
rounded with public buildings, and among 
the royal library, the mint, edifices for the 
at academies, and hotels for ambassadors, 
orks were iu a state of forwardness, when, 
sequence of the death of Louvois, the exe- 
of the project was abandoned. Some years 
he king presented to the city of Paris the 
I and the materials collected upon it, with 
to sell them, upon condition that a place 
another plan should be formed, and that 
f should erect an hotel in the faubourg St. 
le for the Mousquetaires Noirs. This pro- 
^as ceded for 620,000 livres to the Sieur 
if, who erected the Place as it now ap- 

Mansart, who furnished the first plans to 
is, was charged to prepare the second. The 
)f the Place Vendome is octagonal, and the 
>lons arc f\5o feet by 420. Two new streets, 
the rue de la Paix and the rue Casti<rlione, 
I wllliiii a few years, conlrlbute greatly to 
bcllislnnent o^ tins Place. Tlic style of the 
igs wliich surround the Place Yendonie, is 
inent surnionutcd by Corinthian pilasters, 
asemenl forms arcades oinamcnted with 
A beautiful equestrian statue of Louis 
:recled in the middle of this Place, on the 
f August, 16(^9, with a degree of pomp un- 
led on any similar occasion, was destroyed 
lolh of August, 1792. In the centre of the 
v'^endome stands the famous triumphal pillar, 

Bonaparte erected to commemorate the 
> of his arms in Germany, in the campaign 






3l2 PLACE YENDOME. 

of 1 8o5. It rests upon the foundation of the statue 
of Louis Xiy, built upon piles al the depth of 
thirty feet below the surface of the ground. It 
was begun in 1806, and completed in 181 o. It is 
in imitation of the pillar of Trajan at Rome, of 
which it preserves the proportions on a scale 
larger by a twelfth. Its total elevation is one hun- 
dred and thirty-five feet, and the diameter of the 
shaft is twelve feet. The pedestal is about twenty- 
two feet in height, by from seventeen to twenty in 
breadth. The architects Gondouin and Lepeyre 
presided over the execution of all the parts, and 
in order to regulate such a variety of operations 
and direct such a number of artists towards the 
same object, the celebrated Denon was placed at 
their head. The pedestal and shaft are built of 
stone, and covered with bas-reliefs, in bronze, 
(representing the various victories of the French 
army) composed of twelve hundred pieces of can- 
non taken from the Russian and Austrian armies. 
The bronze employed in this monument was about 
three hundred and sixty thousand pounds weight. 
The column is of the Doric order. The bas-re- 
liefs of the pedestal represent the uniforms, armour 
and weapons of the conquered troops. Above 
the pedestal, are garlands of oak, supported at 
the four angles by eagles, in bronze, each weigh- 
ing live hundred pounds. The folding door, of 
massive bronze, is seven feet in height by three 
feet eight inches in breadth, and is decorated with 
crowns of oak, surmounted by an eagle of the 
highest finish; above the door is a bas-relief re- 
presenting two figures of Fame supporting a tab- 
let, upon which is the following inscription, no 



PLACE YENDOME. 

sible, it having been covered a 

ite:— 

Neapoleo Imp. Ang. 

Monumentum belli Germanici 

Anno MDCCCV. 

i spaiio, due to suo, profligaii, ex xre capto, 

Gloria exercitus maxirai dicayit. 

in which is the door was executed by 
16 opposite one by Renaud, and the two 
Beauvallet. All the ornaments are by 

-reliefs of the shaft pursue a spiral di- 
»in the base to the capital, and display, 
ogical order, the principal actions of the 

from the departure of the troops from 
to the battle of Austerlitz. The figures 
feet high ; their number is said to be 
and, and the length of the spiral band 
ired and forty feet. The lirst plate 
s in an apex, and cxliibits the sea 
jy the horizon^ it then represents the 
ifterwards the larger billows, and lastly, 
5 Boulogne Flotilla ! The next plate con- 
)assage of ihe Rhine by the army, on 
md !27tli of September i8o5. Rather 
; seen Jionaparte and the King of Wir- 
Dlding an interview; on the left, Virtue 

are displayed In the act of bestowing 
nd a Dragoon receiving the cross of the 
lonoiir from the hands of the Emperoi- : 
ding plates contain a regular series of 

victories. A cordon or band, ascending 
\e direction as the bas-reliefs, divides 
bears inscriptions of the actions which 

27 



3l4 PLACE VENDOME. 

they represent. The designs of these •bas-reliefs 
were furnished by Bergeret, and executed by 
ihirty-one sculptors, including mademoiselle Char- 
pentier. 

Above the capital is a gallery which is ap- 
proached by a winding staircase of one hundred 
and seventy-six steps. Upon the capital is the 
following inscription : 

Monument c'leve a la gloire de la grande armee, 

Par Napoleon le Grand, 

Commence le xxv Aout, 1806, terming le xv Aoi^t, 1810, 

Sous la direction 

de D. V. Denon, 

MM. J. B. Lep6re et L. Gondoin, architectes. 

The capital is surmounted by au acroterium, apon 
which formerly stood the statue of Napoleon, 
eleven feet in height and weighing five thousand 
one hundred and twelve pounds. The white flag 
now waves upon its summit. The platform upon 
which this sumptuous monument rests is of wnite 
marble, forming three steps, each four inches and 
a half in height. The iron railing which surrounds 
the column is four feet and a half in height, and 
encloses an area of ope hundred and seventy-two 
square feet. Beyond the railing are twenty granite 
posts j those at the angles are surmounted by 
elegant lamps, twelve feet in height. 

The execution of this column prefeuted great 
dif&culties, v/hich were surmounted by means of 
several ingenious processes. The nucleus of the 
column being of stone, and its covering of bronze, 
it became necessary to calculate and prevent two 
opposite effects ; namely, tlie splitting of the cir- 
cular masses of stone on the one hand, and the 



astl.o pillur. Tl.we «erc dividod inln [no 

movc!il>l<: upon nn axklrcc; the one placed 
ally mid [lie oll.er liorizoiital!;. One oi' tlic 

■was placed tin cacli of ibesc, and Ihcij, by 
ntcrpiiising ell'ect, the tuo parts of the cy- 

wei-e hwudit logelber or separated, as rc- 
I, till lite pliilcs were adjusted properly and 
lied. Tlic lolal expense of ihis sumptuous 
mciit was 1,5(10,000 fr. (63,ooo/.) From 
St mass and linppy position, this column 
ces ati asloiiishiii^ elfecl, >vhen sceu from 
mievard or ll.e garden of the Tuiieries; and 
iiminini; llie details, it appears lo be a licli 
>itlc iDommeul ; altliougli, ou accounl of the 



3l6 PLACE ROY ALE. 

imperfect manner in which the bronze was made, 
and part of the copper given cot having been' 
purloined, it will ever be of a bad colour and have 
a dull appearance. The view of Paiis and its en- 
virons from the gallery of the column, is delightful. 
To obtain admission into the interior, applicatjion 
must be made personally at the Direction des Tra- 
vaux des Monumens publics , No. 29, ruedeFUni- 
versit^, or by letter addressed to Monsieur le Direc^ 
teur. The office is open every day from 11 to 4- 
In summer the column may be ascended from 9 in 
the morning till 6 in the evening ; in winter from 
12 till 4. 

Place Rojale. 

This Place was formed upon part of the ground 
occupied by the celebrated palais des Tournelles, 
constructecl under Charles Y. At a tournament 
held in tliis palace in iSSg, in honour of the mar- 
riage of Elizabeth, daughter of Henry II, with 
Philip II of Spain, the count de Montgomery broke 
a lance against Henry's helmet, and the king re- 
ceived a wound in the eye which he survived only 
eleven days. Catherine de Medicis, his Queen, 
abandoned tbe palais des Tournelles, and, in i565, 
ordered it to be demolished. The inner court 
was then converted into a horse-market, and con- 
tinued to be devoted to that purpose till i6o4« 
when Henry IV began the construction of the 
Place Royale. It was in the remains of the palais 
des Tournelles that Henry. IV established the first 
manufactory of gold and silver stuffs ever known 
in Paris. That side of the Place wliich is parallel 



PLACE ROYALE. 3l7 

rue St. Axitoine> was built at Uie king's. 
, aud afterwards sold. The rest of the 
was sold to builders upon condition of 
3Cting pavilions similar to those built by 
p the works were terminated in 1612, 
same year, Mary de Medicu gave a niag- 

tournament there, on account of the 
alliance contracted between France and 
This Place, surrounded by thirty-five pa- 
is a perfect square of four hundred and 
YO feet. On the ground-floor are piazzas. 

the public. The pavilions are built of 

id brick, wilh very lofty roofs, covered 

te. The piazzas are decorated with pilas- 

hout entablature or cornice ; and above 

se two stories, besides the apartments 

in the roof. Two pavilions are much 

han tlie others, and have larger roofs. 

Awards ibe rue Roy ale was called Ic pavillun 

the other le pavilion de la lie inc. "i hey 

1 decoralcd with Doric pilasters, crowned 

jntablature. In 16^9, cardinal luehelicu 

an equestrian statue of Louis Xlll to he 

in the centre. This statue was destroyed 

mher lyQ'i, and the Place afterwards look 

le of P/ace des Vosges. In i685, the centre 

Place Hoyale was enclosed with an iron 

which leaves a broad street round it. It 

,000 francs, and the expense was dc^l'rayed 

proprietors of the houses forming the 

which were then considered as the largest 

;st in the capital. The Place lioyale w^as 

period the general resort of the fisldun- 

n'id. At present this part of llie town i.-. 



3l8 PLACE DES VICTOIRES. 

any thing but brilliant. Within a few years the 
Place has been embellished by two rows of trees. 
In the centre, a beautiful fountain was constructed 
under Napoleon, consisting of an octagonal basin, 
into which the water, after playing to a consider- 
able height, 4ell in the form of a wheat-sheaf. 
Since the restoration the fountain has been de- 
stroyed, and a new statue of Louis XIII, by Du- 
paty, is now erecting upon its site. In the Centre 
of four grassplats, corresponding to the angles of 
the pedestal, four fountains are to be formed. 



Place des P^ictoires. 

This Place was formed in i685, by order of 
Marshal Francois d'Aubusson, Duke de la Feuill- 
ade, who determined to erect a statue in its cectre 
in honour of Louis XIV. The city of Paris con- 
curred in the purchase of the houses and gardens 
which previously occupied the site, and its con- 
struction was commenced by the architect Pr^dot, 
after the designs of Jules Francois Mansart. Its 
form is the segment of a circle, whose diameter is 
two hundred and forty feet. The style of archi- 
tecture of the surrounding houses is uniform, con- 
sisting of a rang<e of Ionic pilasters, resting upon 
a basement of arcades. In the centre, upon a 
marble pedestal, was a magnificent pedestrian 
statue, in gilt lead, of Louis XIV, in his coro- 
nation robes, treading a Cerberus beneath his feet 
and crowned by Victory. At the angles of the 
pedestal, four bronze figures of slaves, in chains, 
represented the power of the monarch and the 
success of liis arms. A few days before the FSfe 



:b DCS vicToiRES. 3iQ 

July i4, 1790), tbe stsveSat the 
red to the court of the Lonvre, 
were afterwards transported to 
lides.* Thestatucwssdeslr oyed 
lUgust, 1793, and the place took 
•.e dea Viclairea fiationales. In 
iked statue, cast iu brouze Irf 
! designs of Dcjoux, was erected 
. Desaii. The indeccocj of this 
^overoment to remove it previous 
I, and at that period it was de- 
le second return of the king (in 
;ided that a marble equestrian 
V shonld be erected iu the Place 
d M. Bosio, a member of the 
rged to prepare a model. When 
riy completed, au ordiuauce of 
ipril i4. 1811)1 decreed that the 
1 be executed in bionze. The 
.niveiinm.-i.ic blocks of Cnrrara 
ted :ii\i'i- [lie dMiijiin and under 
.bitoiiie. 'I'l.is sliaue, »liich i^ 
Kigl.t, cvclii,ive of the pedestal. 



p^uls uuder tlie . 
iifl.'r the luodrl ol 
ewlb ofAuKUSI, 
dill of the ]ioi.ia, 
l-iurel, liolds in I1 


llreelion of 
r M. Itoslo, 
iSrj. The 
1 emperors, 
is lell hand 


-ranclnK cbarger, 

Tile kl.i-'.f eou 
V, iiud tlieco.sl.iin.: 
leid.M of power. 


iiud iu Lis 

■ is liappily 
The horse 



320 PLACE LOUIS XV ^ 

is rather heavy, but is well made and fuU of spirit 
The entire mass, vvhieh wreighs nearly sixteen 
thousand pounds, i^ merely supported by the 
hinder legs and tail of the horse. The pedestal is 
decorated with two bas-reliefs, representing the 
passage of the Rhine by Louis XIV, in 1672, and 
that monarch upon his throne, distributing mili- 
tary decorations. On one end is the inscrip- 
tion, LuDOVico Magno; and on the other, Lddovicus 
XVIII Atavo suo. It will shortly be surrounded 
by palisades. » 

Place du Carrousel. 

See page i36. 



Place Louis XV. 

It is difficult to conceive how a spot so advan- 
tageously situated as that which forms this Place 
should have remained so long neglected. It was«. 
till the reign of Louis XV, a vast, unoccupied, 
irregular space which, lying between the garden 
of the Tuileries and the Champs Elys^es, was de- 
trimental to the beauty of both. After the peace 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, the city of Paris determined 
upon the erection of a statue to Louis XV,. le Bien 
jiimS. For this purpose the king presented to the 
municipality the vacant spot above mentioned, be- 
tween the garden of the Tuileries and the Champs 
Elysees. Upon this spot the Place Louis XV was 
commenced in 1763, after the designs of Gabriel, 
but was not completely finished till 1772. Its 
length from north to south, is seven hundred and 



by allegorical statues. Along the bs 
e footpaths ascended by steps. The lour 
on the western side are occupied by 
nd water carriers of the Champs Elys^es. 
5ntre between the fosses are four grass- 
inded with granite posts. Instead of 
an interruption between the Tuileries 
Champs Elysees, the Place Louis XV 
prolong the dependencies of the palace. 
;ipal beauty of the Place is derived from 
:ts which surround it. The terraces of 
!n of the Tuileries bound it on the east, 
mps Eljs^es lie on the west. On the 
e seen two spacious and magnificent 
vhicb, divided by the rue Royale, afford 
r the unfinished church de la Madeleine, 
he south are the pont Louis XYI^ and- 
iber . of deputies. Along the left bank 
ne are seen a line of magnificent edifices, 
nd the chamber of deputies appears the 
dome of the liivalides. 



r . I m 



322 PLACE LOUIS XV. 

brought to Paris from the watering place at 
Mariy, in 1794. 

The two edifices on the north side are each two 
hundred and eighty-eight feet in length; and the 
rue Royale, which separates them, is ninety feet 
wide. The fronts are terminated by two project- 
ing pavilions, between which, on the ground-floor, 
is a gallery formed by arcades, ornamented with 
vermiculated rustics. From this basement rise 
twelve Corinthian columns, surmounted by an 
entablature and a balustrade. The basement of 
each pavilion supports four columns of the same 
order, crowned by a pediment, above which rises a 
cluster of armour. At the first story is a second 
gallery behind the columns. The tympanums of 
the pediments are adorned with bas-reliefs. The 
pavilions are' likewise ornamented with nichei, 
medallions and consoles. These structures were 
erected by Potain, after the design? of Gabriel. 
The aim of the architect seems to have been to 
rival the production of Perrault in the colonnade 
of the Louvre. The coupling of the columns, 
which is considered the chief defect in Perrault's 
plan, is certainly avoided in that of Gabriel; but 
still connoisseurs in general give the palm to the 
former. The building nearest to the garden of 
the Tuileries was formerly occupied as the garde^ 
meuble de la couronne,* and contained an immense 
number of valuable and curious objects. Under 
]Napoleon, it was appropriated to the residence 
and oHices of the minister of the marine and co- 
lonies, who. still dwells in it. Upon the summit 

* For Garde-Meuble, »oe page !J7a. 



PLAGE LOUIS XV. SaS 

of the roof a telegraph has been erected to corre- 
spond with Brest. The building on the opposite 
side of the rue Royale is inhabited by private 
families. 

The equestrian statue of Louis XV, which was 
cast in bronze by Gor, after a model by Bouchar- 
don, was destroyed on the 12th of August, 1792.* 
At that period the Place was called place de In 
Revolution, In 1800, upon a decree being issued 
for the erection of a departmental column in the 
centre, it assumed the name of place de Id Con- 
corde. In 1814, the name Place Louis XV was 
restored. On the loth of January, 1816, Louis 
XVIII issued an ordinance for re-erecting the sta- 
tue of Louis XV. 

The events that have rendered this spot famous 
are so identified with its history, that we present 
them to our readers in the following chronologi- 
cal order . 

3Iaf 3o, 1770. — Dining the rejoicings at the raaniage 
of llie Diiiipliin (atlerwaids Lonis XVI), a fatal acci- 
dent occimcd, ^vllicll caused tlic death of three thou- 
sand persons, who, after a discliarge of fire-works, 
ruslied towards the rne Royale, wlierc, iinforlnnalelv, 

* (considerable diflicnlly Avas fonnd in forcing tliis 
statue from llie pedestal; a foot of tlic horse still re- 
mained in the socket, npon which a wit observed, 
" Hitynlty has yet one foot in the stirrup." Ihis 
statue was succeeded by a monstrous hgtire of Libcriv, 
in plaster. At its feet were murdered, from tli(.' 21st of 
January, 179^, to the 3rd of May, 1795, more than two 
thousand eight hundred peisons of both sexes aud all 
ages. Kvery party and every faction, by turns, con- 
.Incted others and were themselves conducted \a the 
^ralVold erected on this Place. 



324 PLACE LOUIS XV. 

an opeuing had been made in the ground, and the ma- 
terials for several nnfinished houses lay scattered in the 
street. 

July 12, 1789. — Prince Lambesc, who was stationed 
here with his regiment to prevent the assembly of the 
mob, was pursuing an individual near the gate of the 
Tuilerics, when the latter was thrown down by the 
Princess horse. This spread alarm throughout all Faris^ 
and was the signal for the attack upon the Ba&tiie. 

July i3. — The garde-meuble was broken open, and 
two pieces of cannon, many muskets, ancient armour, 
and other valuable articles^ carried o£ 

j4ug, g, 1733. — A patrole, called the royalists, was 
unexpectedly attacked here in the night.. The Abb^ 
Bonnyn dc Boven, who was at their bead, escaped into 
a neighbouring house; but, seeing his comrades en- 
gaged, precipitated himself from the first floor upon die 
bayonets of the -assassins, who cut off his head on a post, 
the famous Mademoiselle Throuenne holding his legs. 
M. Lulan, journalist, met with the same fate» 

Sept, 17. — A great number of articles were stolen from 
the garde-meuble. 

The National Convention celebrated a ^<fe upon this 
place for tlie liberty of Savoy. 

Jan. 31, 1793. — Louis XVI suffered death on this 
place, where the following persons also subsequently 
perished by the guillotine : — July 17. Charlotte Corday. 
— Oct. 2. The deputy Brissot and twenty of his col- 
leagues. — Oct. 16. Marie Antoinette, contort of Louis 
XVI. — JVw. 1 4- Louis Philippe Joseph, Duke of Or- 
leans. — March 25, 1794* ^^^ faction called the He- 
beriists, Maratisis, and Orleanists, to ihe number of 
nineteen, including Hebert. — u4pril 8. The faction call- 
ed the Dantonists, including Dan ton, Camille-Desmoa- 
lios, Heraut de Se'cjtieUes, Fabre d'£glantine, ete.— 
April 16. The faction called the Atheists, compoeed 
of Bishop Gobel, Chanmette {procureur of the Com- 
mune), Anacharsis-Qootz (a Prossian and deputy), the 



PLACE. DD CHATBLET. 



To ihe shame of ihe French people, i monnment, 
ailed a motUagae, wis laUed ou ihe Place Louii XV, 
,n honour of Marat. 

April lo. 1814.— The Russian. Prussian, »nd Anslriao 
armies were leviened, aod Te Dcum, according lo iho 
Greek ritual, nat sung, for the Criunph of the Alliet 
anil the restoration of the Bourbons, at an altar raised 
in the middle of the Place, while > saluu of ODe han- 
drcd gum Was fired. The PariiiiD Nndoaal Guards 

Place tfn Palais Royal. 

SceiiaRe 1G4. 

Place dii Chntelet, 

Ai the fool of the Pnnl au Change. 
Upon ihe site of llils Place, which is a square of 
one hundred and twenty feet, stood an ancient 
building called the Chatclet, consisting of a court 
of juilice and a prison. Tlie court was suppressed 
at the revolution, and the building was taken down 
in 1802. Previous to this period, llierueSt. Denis 
was approached from the quay by a dark narrow 
passage, above which were some old towers. Tins 
demolition was of great advantage lo tlic neij;h 
Imurhood, as, instead of narrow unwlioles.nno 



3a6 PLACE DAUPHINE. 

alleys, an open airy place has been formed, to 
which the name of the old building has been 
given. In the centre is an elegant fountain, called 
la Fontaine du Palmier, or la Colonne du Chatelef, 
erected in 1808, after the designs of M. Brklle. It 
consists of a circular basin twenty feet in dia- 
meter, with a pedestal and column in the centre, 
fifty-eight feet in elevation. The shaf^ of the lat- 
ter represents the trunk of a palm-tree, and the 
capital the branches. Upon the pedestal are four 
fine statues, by Boizot, representing Justice, 
Strength, Prudence and Vigilance, which join 
hands and encircle the column. The shaft is di- 
vided by bands of brqnze gilt, bearing the names 
of the principal victories gained by Napoleon. At 
the angles of the pedestal are cornucopias termi- 
nated by fishes heads, from which the water 
issues. Two sides of the pedestal are ornamented 
with eagles encircled by large crowns of laurel in 
relief. Above the capital are heads representing 
the Winds, and in the centre a globe, which sup- 
ports a gilt statue of Victory holding forth a crown 
of laurel in each hand. Thexhamber of Notaries 
occupy the house N® i, upon the Place duCMtelet, 
where houses and other real property are sold 
by auction. Goods seized by warrants issued by 
magistrates are sold by auction in the opfen Place, 
on Wednesdays and Saturdays. 



Place Dauphine. 

This Place, which opens upon the Pont Neuf, 
was formed in 1608, and received its name in 
honour of the birth of the Dauphin, aflterwards 



his last wo^s, but which w^re npt .ntlered b; 
him, as h^ never spoke after he received the fattl 
shot: — jtllez dire aa premier consul que je meura 
uvec le regret ile n'avoir.jias assez fait pout vivre 
duns la posterite." 

A tiiilitai'y trophy is placed behind the pedestal, 
and upon its base are Iwo inscriptions, besides a 
list ol' the names of more tban six hundred per- 
sons who suhseribod for liie erection of the mo- 
nuiticnt. Un ticcount of the continunl splasliing 
of the water ihe names are already nearly illegible. 
The water flows into n circular basin from lour 
lions' heads, in bronze, fixed in the pedestal. 

Place de Gieve. 



328 PLACE ST. SULPICE. 

I The Place de Gr^ve has long been the spot whe 

' criminals are executed. The puuishinent of dea 

! is rare in Paris, and the only mode of inflicting 

now allowed by the laws of France, is by t 
I guillotine. During the revolutiou hundreds 

innocent victims were sacrificed, here. At th 

period the guillotine was erected in the centre 
I the Place j it is now put up near the foot-pa 

which extends along the parapet of the quay. ^ 
I lusion is made to this celebrated spot in Prio 

, humorous song of the thief and cordelier, wni 

begins — 

Who has e'er been at Paris must needs know the Gri 
The fatal retreat of the unfortunate brave. 

Persons desirous of seeing the guillotine withe 
witnessing an execution, may do so by writing 
M. Henri, No. 5i, rue des Marais, stating wl 
day and hour will be agrdQ^ble to them. M. He 
will then give orders for the fatal instrument 
be put up in one of the courts of a house, N° 
rue du Pont aux Choux. The fee required is twe 
franCs, but the party may consist of any numj 
of persons. 

Place du Palais de Justice, 

8ee page at 3. 



. Place St. Sulpice. 

When Servandoni constructed the portico of 
church of St. Sulpice, it was his intention to O] 
an area or place in its front, and to construct t 
fountains upon the same axis as the towers of 



IS originally caWed/onlainf de la Paix, fi-om 
been beciin at the lime of the conclusion oi' 
s lately been removed 
um iiiiiiii, and It is intcuded lo 
t a grander one upon its site. 

Place de la BasliUa, 
Boulevard St. Antoiiie. 
be Baslile, so celebrated iu llie history of 
Lce, was attacked and caplured by a I'uiolit- 
.17 mol> ,m llie i4tii of July, 17S1). Iu May 
June of lliu ti)l[owiiig yaar it was dcinuliahed, 



33o PLACE nE l'jecole. 

in pursuance of a decree of the National As- 
sembly ; and part of the materials were employed 
in tlie construction of the Pont Louis XYI. Its 
site now forms the Place de la Bastille, and the 
moat is converted into a basin for boats passing 
through the new canal. In the centre of the Place, 
the construction of a fountain was begun by order 
of Bonaparte, the preparatory works of which 
faaye been continued since the restoration, but it 
is not certain whether the original plan will be 
adhered to. According to the design presented to 
Bonaparte, by Denon, a semicircular arch over 
the canal St. Martin was to bear a bronze elephant 
more than seventy-two feet high, including the 
tower or throne supported by the anihial. The 
water was to iaeue from the trunk of this colossal 
figure ; each of whose leg^ was to measure six feet 
in diameter, and in one of them was to be a wind* 
ing staircase leading to the tower. A full-sized 
plaster-model of this stupendous animal, as well 
as of twenty-four bas-reliefs intended to adorn 
the pedestal, may be seen in a shed near the spot. 
Tickets of admission are obtained by applying 
personally of the Direction des Travaux des Mo^ 
numens publics ^ No 29, rue de T University, or by 
letter addressed to M. le Directeur. 



Place de VEcole^ 

Northern extremity of the Pont Neuf. 

A celebrated school attached to the church of 
St. Germain TAuxerrois existed on or near this 
spot at a very remote period. The school was in 
a flourishing state under Charlemagne, but the 



PLACE BEAUVEAU. 33r 

d it occupied haying become necessary as a 
quai de I'Ecale) for unloading boats, and the 
"sity being established upon the montagneSt. 
i^ye, studies were discontinued at St. Ger- 
I'Auxerrois. This Place, which opens upon 
lai de I'Ecole, seems to have been formed 
1607, in which year the chapter of St. Gcr- 
PAuxerrois ceded part of the ground upotn 

the school stood for the construction of a 
u The only ornament of the place de TJEIcojIfs 
)untain built in 1806. It presents a circular 
with a square pedestal, surmounted by fi 

ornamented vase rising out of the cei^r^v 
; basement of the pedestal are four lioii|^^ 

in bronze, from which the water issueis. 
ise is ornamented with bas-reliefs^ represent- 
i one side two sea-gods, and on the other a 
. The handles are terminated by panthers* 



lacCy or Pajvid\, de Notre Dame^ 

See page 70. 



Place Beauveaii, 

5 Place f'ornis a semicircle, the diameter of 
I is in a line with the rue du faubourg St. 
-e. The central building of the Place is the 
Bcauveau, in front of which the Avenue de 
ny extends to the Champs Elysees. The 
buildings are handsome private houses. 



332 PORTE ST. DENIS. 

TRIUMPHAL ARCHES 



Porte St. Denis. ''^ 

This triumphal arch, which stands upon the 
site of the Porte St. Denis built under Charles 
IX, was erected by the city of Paris in 1672, after 
the designs of Blondel, to perpetuate the rapid 
victories of Louis XTV, who, in the space of two 
months, subjected forty towns and three provinces 
to his dominion. It stands upon the boulevard^ 
at the extremity of the rue St. Denis. It is seventy- 
two feet in- height j the principal arch is twenty- 
live feet wide, and forty-three in height, and in 
the piedroits are two arches, five feet in v^dth 
by ten in height. Over the lateral arches arc 
pyramids in relief, which rise to the entablature, 
and are surmounted by globes bearing fleiirs de lu 
and crowns. 

Towards the city, one bas-relief represents Hol- 
land, under the colossal figure of a terrified wo- 
man, sitting upon, a dead lion, who holds in one 
paw a broken sword, and in the other an inverted 
quiver of broken arrows. On the other appears 
the Rhine^ in the person of a vigorous man, smit- 
ten with astonishment, leaning upon a rudder 
and holding a cornucopia. On the side towards 

''^ At a very early period Paris became a fortiBed town, 
and continued to be bO till ihe reign of Louis XIV, when 
the walls and gates were demolished. Upon that mo- 
narch erecting triumphal arches on or near ihc spot 
where some of the gates stood, the name porie (gate) was 
retained. 



PORTE ST. DENIS. 333 

the fauboargy the pyramids rest upon lions cou^ 
chans. The military ti ophies which ornament the 
four pyramids are of exquisite workmanship. 
Above the arch is a bas-relief, representing Louis 
XIV on horseback, crossing the Rhine ^ on the 
frieze, in bronze letters, is LddovicoMagno.* The 
bas-relief of the opposite side represents the tak- 
ing of Maestricht. In the spandrils of the arch 
are figures of Fame. Upon tablets placed under 
the pedestals of the pyramids are four inscriptions 
by Blondel, which show that he was a classical 
scholar as well as a skilful architect.f Girardon 
was at first charged with the sculpture, but being 
called to Yersailles, it was executed by Michael 
Anguier. This monument, which is considered 
one of the finest works of the age of Louis XIY, 
both for the harmony of its proportions and the 
admirable execution of its parts, was in such a 
state of decay at the beginning of tlie present 
century, as to threaten total ruin. Its repair was 
undertaken, and ably executed by Cellerler, in 
1807. 

The kings and queens of France always make 
their public entry into Paris by the Forte St. 
Denis. 

The first woman hung in France v/as executed 
at the ancient gate. 

■^ It is wortliy of remark tliat this inscription, wliich 
\vi;t, cllaced at llic revolution, was restored by oidcr ot 
Bonaparte a sliort lime befoie his fali. 

•f Tlicse inscriptions were effaced rlnring the revolu- 
tion, in consequence of their being insulting to Holland , 
but were restored in 1807, when the arch was repaired. 



334 PORTE ST. MAKTIN. 

Porte St. Martin. 

This triumphal arch was built in 16741 afler 
the designs of Pierre fiullet, a pupil of Blpndel, 
architect of the Porte St. Denis. It is fifty-four 
feet wide, by au elevation of fifty-four feet, in- 
cluding the attic, the height of which is eleven 
feet. It is pierced by three arches.^ that in the 
centre is fifteen feet wide by thirty in elevation ; 
the lateral arches are eight in width by sixteen 
in height. The edifice is wrought in vermiculated 
rustics, as high as the entablature, which is sur- 
mounted by an attic bearing an inscription on 
each side. In the spaces between the imposts 
and the entablature are bas-reliefs, by Desjardins^ 
Mai'sy, le Hongre, and Legros, relating to the 
conquests of Louis XIV. Those towards the city 
represent the taking of Besancon and the triple 
alliance ; those towards the faubourg are the 
taking of Limbourg and the defeat of the Ger- 
mans. Between the consoles of the entablature 
are various attributes of the military art j and 
in the centre is the sun, which Louis XIV took 
for his emblem. Though the Porte St. Martin is 
inferior in richness to that of St. Denis, it does 
not yield to it in harmony of proportions or 
purity of execution. The entablature is justly 
admired j in 1819 and 1820 this arch was re- 
paired. 

j4rc dc TriomphCy Place dii Carrousel^ 

Sec page 137. 



336 COURTS. 

iTinjestic ornaments of Paris. The arch itself will 
Lc more gigantic than any one of the kind hitherto 
erected, and nothing can be more commanding 
than the situation in which it is placed, or more 
magnificent than the view of which it forms a 
part. 

Upon the entry of the £mprcss Maria Louisa 
into Paris, on the first of April 1810, an immense 
frame was constructed and covered with painted 
canvass, to represent the arch in its full dimensions 
and splendour. 

COURTS. 

The number of courts in Paris is considerable, 
but there are few whose past or present state en- 
titles them to notice. 

The Cour cles Miracles, which has its entrance 
in the rue Neuve St. Sauveur, was celebrated in 
the seventeenth century, in consequence of being 
the receptacle of beggars and thieves, who upon 
returning to this haunt, laid aside the costume 
of the part which they played in public. The 
blind received their sight, the lame walked, and 
ihe maimed were made whole. 

The Cour Batape, No. 24, rue St. Denis, was so 
called, because it was erected by a company of 
Dutch merchants in 17919 upon the site of a 
church dedicated to St. Sepulchre, and some other 
buildings. The principal court, which has the 
form of a parallelogram, was formerly surrounded 
with porticoes and a covered gallery bordered 
with shops. The front, towards the rue St. Denis, 



338 PASSAGES. 

Those most entitled to Dotice are the Passage Ti-* 
vienne, the Passage de Choiseul, the Galene Foy, 
the Passage Vero-Dodat, the Passage Violet, the 
Passage Mazarin, the Passage des Petits Champs, 
the Passage du Commerce, the Passage du Troca- 
dero, the Passage des Panoramas, the Passage De- 
lorme, the Passage d*Artois, the two Passages de 
rOpera, the Passage Feydeau, the Passage du Caire, 
the Passage Dauphine, the Passage du Pont Neuf, 
and the Passage Montesquieu. In most of them 
the shops contain an assortment of fashiooable 
and elegant articles. 



CHAPTER XII. 



n 1 


m w h [l notice tlie 


pn g 1 


n 1 J- 1 ell has not 


be n n d d 


]• m than thirty 


■3 b Wl hi 


1 f he most ini- 


p rt n b h f 


1 n 1 dnslrj. Tlic 


p bl In 


f 1 nnal si.pply 


f w n y ( 11 


p d f tton thread 


f h nuf 


f 1 dl nted calicos 


dl y 1 n 


thread exist 


in .ill parts of Frani 


.e, and iSo.ooo worltmen arc 


said to be employed i 


n this trade. 


There ai-e in Pans 


fonr Royal maniiractoiics,' 


■ For Koyiil-MaiuiLig 


Imy ni PorccUin Bl Sevres, mi 


F...i.:„.S.JP,„i,. 





34o MANUFACTURE ROYALE DES GOBELINS. ' 

one of tapestry, another of carpets, a third of 
looking-glasses, and a fourth of snuff. The pro- 
ductions of the three former were originally des- 
tined exclusively for the royal palaces. These es- 
tablishments present nothing remarkable in point 
of architecture, as they merely consist of work- 
shops built at different periods, without any fixed 
plan, but which nevertheless contain every thing 
required for utility and convenience. Paris, never 
having been a manufacturing city, contains but 
few private manufactories upon a large scale. 
After the royal manufactories, however, we shall 
point out such as seem entitled to notice. 



Manufacture Rojale des Gobelins 
( Tapestry-Manufactory) , 

Hue Moiiffelard, near the Jardin des Planies, 
From the fourteenth century dyers of wool 
have been established in the faubourg St. Marcel, 
upon the Bievre, the water of that river being 
accounted favourable to the process of dyeing. 
One of them, named Jean Gobelin, who lived in 
i45o, amassed considerable wealthy and possessed 
much property upon the banks of that stream. 
His descendants continued to labour with success \ 
but having become very rich, renounced the pro- 
fession of dyers, and filled various offices in the 
magistracy, the treasury and the army. To the 
Gobelin family succeeded Messrs. Canaye, who 
did not confine themselves to the dyeing of wool, 
but began to manufacture tapestry, which until 
that period had been confined to Flanders. About 
1 655 they were succeeded by a Dutchman named 



the basse lisse* Uie loom is placed horiionlally 
like thai of the weaver \ in llie haule li.:\e the 
warp is vertical atid the vvorknian has his frame 
before him. Being placed behind the canvass on 
which he is employed, his back is turntd towarila 
the model, to which he occasionally refers, in 
order to compare the colour of his vam with that 
part of the picture lie is copying. The reputation 
of tiiis mnnulactory is Spread over all Europe. By 
ingenious processes, the workmen express, with 
ihe greatest Irulh, not only ihe design of the most 
celebrated pictures, but also the brightness of their 
colours, and the regular gradation of their shades, 

' Tlio btiase lisse is now abandoned. 



342 MANUFACTURE ROYALE DE LA SAVONNERIE. 

SO that the tapestry has the efTect of the most 
finished painting. It requires occasionally the la- 
hour of from two to six years to finish a single 
piece of tapestry, the cost of which often amounts 
to 18,000 francs, and even at this rate the work- 
men, who are about one hundred in number, are 
very inadequately paid. The price of the different 
articles is regulated less by the size than the beauty 
or difficulty of the work. 

The manufactory being supported at the ex- 
pense of the government, no article can be pur- 
chased here without a royal order. 

Connected with the manufactory is an estab* 
lishment for dyeing wool, directed by an able 
chemist, where an infinite number* of shades, 
mostly unknown in trade, are dyed for the tapes- 
try. • Wool is exclusively used, to render the co- 
lours more permanent. There is also a drawing- 
school, in vfhich the principles of the art are 
taught, and an annual course of lectures is deli- 
vered upon chemistry as applicable to dyeing. 

At Beauvais there is a rival establishment of 
tapestry which has acquired a considerable repu- 
tation. 

On the octave of the F^te Dieu the galleries and 
court of the manufactory are hung with tapestry, 
and the public are admitted from noon till six 
o'clock. 

To this establishment has been annexed the ce- 
lebrated carpet manufactory, which was created a 
royal establishment in i6o4» by Marie de Medicis, 
in favour of Pierre Oupont, who invented the pro- 
cess f(>r finishing the carpets, and who was placed 
at iu head with the title of director. The work- 



dt basse litse. The carpets of lliis manufactoTy 
are, in correctaess and elt^ancc of design, and in 
the brightness of their colours, iniicli supeiior lo 
those brought Troin the East, and, from a different 
method or working, possess a Heller velvet gloss 
and brij^hler and more durable hues, particularly 
in flowers, than the productions in lapeslry can 
boast. It is impossible lo set any price upon 
them, as none are allowed lo be sold; and there 
are small carpets of which the manufaclurirg costs 
4o,i)00 francs. The largest carpet ever made is 
probably that manufactured aila Savonmrie, for 
the gallery of the Louvre: it consists of seventy- 
two pieces, forming altogether a length of more 
than thirteen hundred feet. 



344 MANUFACTURE ROYALE DES GLACES. 

For admission, strangers must apply by letter, 
post paid, to M. le Vicomte de la Rochefoucauld, 
directeurdes Beaux Arts, Wo. 121, rue de Grenelle, 
faubourg St. Germain. 



Manufacture Roy ale des Glaces 
(Plate-Glass-Manufactory), 

TVo. a I, rue de Reu'dly, Faubourg St, Antoine, 

The art of manufacturing mirrors was intro- 
duced into France by Eustache Grandmont and 
Jean Antoine d^Anthonneuil, to whom a patent 
was granted, dated Aug. i, i654- In March 1640, 
the patent was ceded to Raphael de la Plancfae, 
treasurer-general of the royal edifices. The under- 
taking being merely a financial speculation, con- 
tinued in a languishing state till 1666, when Col- 
bert created it a royal manufactory, and erected 
the spacious premises which it at present occupies. 
Previous to the formation of this establishment^ 
the finest mirrors possessed by France were 
brought from Venice ; but in a short time the 
glasses of Paris greatly excelled those of Venetian 
manufacture in size and beauty. All the glass 
employed in the formation of mirrors was blown 
until iSSg, when a Frenchman, named Thevart, 
discovered the art ofcastingit'y which process was 
carried to a high degree of perfection in 1688 by 
M. Lucas de Nehon. The art of polishing the glass 
was invented by Riviere Dufresn^, to whom, as a 
reward for his discovery, a patent was granted, 
which he afterwards sold to the manufactory. 



Berry al Hns„y, It was one liuiiclred and 
rtecn iiiclics in height hy eighty in lireadlli, 
d cost [6,000 francs. A list of the price of the 
isses of ililfu'ent dimciisioiis may be bought for 
rancs of the Concierge, iit the munu factory, 
rliis est.iblishincnt niny be visited every dav, 
cepl Suiidnys and festivals. 

- SuangL-rs nlin visii tl.c- mauuf^fuy :>t St. Gobi.i 
ly Eev a voppi^r (able wiri^hii];; 33 ooo llis,, umvtil 
ot, cM-hoa ivlic<'l>. Upon l1ii> lahtv the gltiisc. ax: 
ii. Tlic q'linilcr, hy nliicli <licy :ir<; siuoollicd, is aUo 
corjier, »!«i vvi.i(;li5 i,n:n Ilia. 



346 PRIVATE MANUFACTORIES. 

Manufacture Royale des Tabacs^ 

JYo. 39, quai des Inualides, 

The French government have the exclusive right 
of manufacturing snuff for a fixed term of years. 
The law which gives them this privilege would 
have expired in 1826, but in the session of 1834 ^^ 
was extended to i83o. The number of workmen 
employed is about five hundred. The snuff is 
sold in Paris at two hundred and forty shops 
called bureaux. 



PRIVATE MANUFACTORIES. 

Manufacture des Tapis veloutes d^ Auhusson (Vel- 
veted carpets), 3, rue des Vieilles Haudriettes. — 
These carpets are at a moderate price, and in 
quality nearly equal those of the Savonnerie. 

Manufacture de Porcelaine of Pierre Tharaud, 
under the protection of His Royal Highness Mon- 
sieur. Although this manufactory is at Limoges, 
we give it a place here because an extensive depot 
is established at Paris, No. 19, rue Berg^re, fau- 
bourg Montmartre, and the porcelain sold here 
has seldom been equalled in colour and trans- 
parency. Services are made to order in any form, 
and ornamented with armorial bearings, crests, 
etc., etc. 

Manufacture de Porcelaine of Messrs. Dill and 
Guerard, iSy, ruedu Temple. — This manufactory 
may be reckoned among the first in Paris, and 
closely rivals that at Sevres. It is well worth 
visiting. 

Manufacture de Porcelaine of Messrs. Darle, 



PRIVATE MANUFACTORIES. 347 

ra6 d^ 111 B«iE|U«tt6, titid d6p6t in the IMm Royal, 
Nos. 11, as. This ts also one of the iirst in 
Paris. 

Manufacture d6 Faience of Husson (successor 
of Olivier), 39, rue de la Roquette, faubourg 
St. Antoine.-^This manufactory may be ranked 
amongst the firM; of the kind in Paris, and is 
worth visiting. Every kind of pottery is niade 
here, and the proprietor is very successful in his 
imitatioo of Etruscan vases, bo^ in the substance 
and colouring. He prepares also a Composition 
which nearly approaches basalt in colour, Weight, 
solidity, and sound 4 He also produces small 
cariatides of the same composition. Mr. H. js 
the manufacturer of a white cement ubed for 
houses and for the purpose of restoring mutilated 
statues, etc. ^ he has also invented a yellow colour, 
for painting in general, which never changes. Mr. 
H. has formed a handsome cabinet of minerals, 
which is shown lo strangers. 

Manufacture cles Crist aux du Mont Cenis, depot, 
iVo. 1 1, boulevard Polssonniere. 

Manufacture des Papiers Feints (painted hang- 
ing-paper), of Simon Junior, corner of rue Louis 
le Grand and the Boulevard des Italiehs. It con- 
stantly employs two hundred journeymen and ap- 
prentices, who execute in paper, in the greatest 
perfection, all the ornaments of painting, sculpture, 
and architecture. This house undertakes the de- 
coration of theatres and other public buildings, 
and exports a great quantity of paper to foreign 
countries, and particularly to England. Strangers 
arc allowed to visit the manufactory. 

Stereotype Manufactory of Didoty rue du Pont 



348 MARKETS. 

de Lorli, and rue Jacob. This invention is a great 
improvement where large editions arc wanted. • 

Gas Manufactories. See page 67). 



MARKETS. 

If temples and palaces, public squares and gar- 
dens, triumphal arches and monumental columns, 
contribute to the beauty of a city, there are other 
buildings which, although of a more humble archi- 
tectural character, are among the most necessary 
and useful structures. In this class may be placed 
markets, public slaughter-houses and store-houses. 
For edifices of this description Paris is unequalled 
by any capital in Europe. 

The first market- house in Paris was situated in 
the cite, near the street still called rue du Marche 
Palud, A market, called marche de I'jipport, was 
afterwards held near the extremity of the rue 
St. Denis, till the reign of Louis VI, who trans- 
ferred it to a piece of ground near the cemetery 
des Innocens, named Champeaux or Petits Champs. 
Philip Augustus established two other markets 
near the same spot, and they took the name of 
halles. Each class of dealers and every neigh- 
bouring town had its particular halle, Francis I 
caused all the halles to be rebuilt with pillars of 
stone opening into dirty galleries and obstructed 
with irregular stalls. The inconvenience of these 
places began to be felt in the last century, and 
within twenty years more than fifty millions of 
francs have been expended to construct in every 
part of Paris, and for every sort of provisions, 
commodious markets worthy of the capital. 

In these various halles and markets the traveller 



MARKETS. 349 

joly become acquainted with the produce 
.ountry but also with the manners' of the 
lasses in Poris : it is interesting too to 
he appearance of the peasants who come 
crowds to dispose of their coramodilies. 
Uume and looks of the female peasants, 
leir sunburnt complexions — their snow 
ad loosely flowing caps — and the tasteful 
ment of their dress, added to the spright- 
f their motions and gay contentment of 
oks, form a pleasing tout ensemble^ 



Marche des Innocens^ 

; the rue de la Feronnerie and the rue aux Fer^* 

le spot where this market is held stood t 
built at a remote period as a defence 
the attacks of the Normans. This tower 

:)een demolished in the tenth century, the 
was attached to the chinch des Iniiocens 
letery, and continued the principal bnrlal- 
ot' Paris till 1784, when the remains were 
red to thecatacomhs,-j-and it was converted 
iarkct-phice. The soil was completely re- 
tlie ground paved, and, in i8i3, a wooden 
ivas erected. 

centre of" this market is a beautiful foun- 
ilch stood orijj;Inally at the angle formed 
ue St. Denis and the rue aux Fers. It w'as 

Fi<MU'!i have U\'o words lor a niaikcl, namely, 
n\ iMarchc. Tlio I'ornier is properly a place 
nimoditics are sold by wholesale, and the lalier 
n retail market fur die necessaries of life. 
Calacovihs, 
r 1. -^o 



35o MARKETS. 

erected in i55i, under the direction of Pierre Les- 
cot, abbot of Gluny : the exquisite sculpture was 
by Jean Goujon. The decoration was divided into 
three parts, each composed of an arcade, accom- 
panied by Corinthian pilasters surmounted by a 
pediment, and adorned with bas-reliefs represent- 
ing Naiades. Two arcades were towards the rue 
aux Fers and one towards the rue St. Denis. Dif- 
ficulties presented themselves in the formation of 
this fountain into a detached monument, as it re- 
quired a fourth side to correspond with those 
wrought by the matchless hand of Goujon. The 
project to add a fourth front, proposed by M. Six, 
was entrusted for execution to Messrs. Poyet, Le- 
grand and Molinos; and M. Pajou was charged 
with the bas-reliefs and figures. The lions of the 
basement and the other ornaments were executed 
jointly by Messrs. FHuillier, IVIezi^res and Daujon. 
This quadrilateral monument is crowned by a cu- 
pola, covered with copper, representing the scales 
of fish. The entire height is forty-two feet and 
a half. On each of the four sides is the inscrip- 
tion— Fontium Nymphis. The following distich, 
by Santeuil, placed upon the original fountain, 
was effaced at its removal, but restored in 1819: 

QUOS DURO CERNIS SIMULATOS MARMORE FLUCTOS, 
HUJUS NYMPHA LOCI CREDIDIT ESSE 6VOS. 

1689. 

The Marche des Innocens is the largest market in 
Paris, and is generally called la Halle, by way of 
pre-eminence. 

While silence reigns in other parts of Paris, and 
the artisah is stUl in the arms of sleep, six thou- 
sand peasants arrive at the halle every morning. 



;ues round, when the wholeMla m*r- 
ui contiuues till nine or ten oUod. 
it Qonducted with (h« greatest oader. 
ur the retail market for fruit, flowera 
les, compaences. Midnight or four 
e moniing is the best hour far seeing 
spectacle tbia market anbrds. The 
I rue de la Tonnellerie are occupied 
The house in this street marked 
it in which Holiire was bom ; hie 
'de-chambre and upholsterer lo Loais 
«d the «hop which is now occupied 
1. la the Trotit is a bust of thai cetft- 
r, with the following inscription : 
e Poci|neliii de Molifre eit n^ dani cette 

' this market-place having been once 
'ebiated burial-ground in Parii, the 
ipropriatc inscription was proposed 



a, iuptciniini bcd mcditaic rlicm. 

cli oncu wiili luatliMinic fiiaics ivas spica 

Mieislilxxirhm..) ill ibiJy bread ; 

hm\ lliy slimt-llv^i) <li.>i niav crave. 

simt]ioln>.'vlLa!,le;:ravc. 

u Bcuirc, iiu3c OEufs, et c 

/•'iWIUI g{', 
Halk->, b.-tw,-cn tlw rue d^ la Tnnnelle 
Ihc Pilics <ks I'ouers -retain. 
try people wlio lu-int; bullci', cjiee 



352 MARKiiTS. 

and eggs, to Paris, being without a covered mar- 
ket-house, the attention of the government was 
exciied, and a structure has recently been erected 
for their accommodation. It is of a triangular 
form, and built in the same manner as the other 
markets, except that the walls are carried to the 
roof. The entrances are formed by several iron 
gates, and the roof is supported by plain columns 
in the interior. On the longest side of the tii- 
angle is a cupola, beneath which is the bureau de 
vente. The interior of the cupola is ornamented 
with plaster busts of Henry IV, Louis XVIII, and 
the count d'Artois. This market opens daily at 
noon. The sales are as follows : Mondays j pound- 
butter of the environs, and eggs. Tuesdays j cheese. 
Wednesdays} butter of Issigny. Thursdays; butter 
of Gournay. Other days j butter of the environs, 
and eggs. 



Marche au Poisson^ 

Carrean des Halles, between the rue de la TotmelUrie 
and the PUiers des Pollers d'Eta'uu 

Previous to the construction of this market, 
which is quite new, the venders of fish presented 
a disgusting appearance. They sat in the open 
area beneath immense red umbrellas, which in 
summer screened them from the sun and in the 
winter sheltered them from the cold. The mar- 
ket-house is in the form of a parallelogram, and 
differs from the other markets in being open, to 
allow a free circulation of air. The building con- 
sists of an elegant roof supported by twenty-eight 
oolumus about eleven feet in height. It contains 



RKETS. 

hundred v -se^ 

«niity is a n 

I supply' of water. s< v 

, by auction, from four o cu e^ 

'ningi to the retail fishmongers, \ 
ds ofjfer it for sale daily upon the p< 



Ifalle au Ble (Corn- Market). 

be site of the Halle au BU was formerly occii-* 

by the Hotel de Soissons, built by J. BuUant, 
Catherine de Medicis, in 1673. The hotel was 
olished in 174B, and the ground being pur* 
«d by the city of Paris in 1765, a resolutioa 
formed to erect this edilice. It was begun in 
I, after the designs of Le Camus de Mezi^res, 

was finished in three years. Formed of a 
circular portico surrounding a court one hun- 

and twenty feet in diameter, it is the only 
Jing of llie kind in Paris, and may serve to 

an idea of the anipliitheatres of the ancients, 
:li, althout^h differing in form, presented tfie 
3 general appearance. It is perfectly detached, 
its simple decoration well answers tlie object 
vhicli it is appropriated. It is pierced by 
Jty-five areades, ten and a lialf" feet wide, of 
•h six serve as passages. No wood was em- 
ed in the building, and the wliole is vaidted. 
he ground-floor round the spacious court are 
lud vaults, which rest on columns of thcTus- 

orrler. Above are granaries, vaulted with 
e and brick, the cominiinicalion wilfi whlcii 
f two very singular staircases^ that towards 
rue (lu Four has four turnings as high as the 

.'>o. 



354 MARKETS. 

first landing place, and from thence to the top 
of the building, has only two flights which cross 
each other in a parallel direction; the other, si- 
tuated towards Uie rue de Crenelle, has onlv two 
turnings. 

The immense court was leflt open at the time 
of its construction, but the surrounding gallery 
being found insufficient for the quantity of com 
brought to market, in 1782 it was determined to 
roof it. Two projects were presented to M. Lenoir, 
lieutenant of police. In one, Belanger, an archi- 
tect, and Deumier, a locksmith, proposed to crown 
the halle yriih a cupola entirely of iron and copper; 
in the other, Legrand and Molinos, architects, and 
Roubo, a skilful joiner, offered to construct a 
similar cupola, of light wood- work, and accord- 
ing to the ingenious system which Philibert De- 
lorme had proposed for covering a spacious circu- 
lar cloister in the abbey of Montmartre. The latter 
was preferred, probably from economy, and was 
immediately executed. This cupola produced the 
greatest effect, and appeared prodigiously light. 
Unfortunately, by the negligence of a plumber, it 
was consumed in a few hours, in 180a. To pre- 
vent the recurrence of a similar accident it was 
rebuilt with ribs of iron covered with copper. 
This work was commenced in July 181 1, by Be- 
langer, and completed in July of the following 
year. The Halle au Ble is the first monument 
in Parb that was covered solely with iron and 
copper. As this cupola is, in many respects, a 
very curious work, we conceive that the reader 
will not peruse without interest some details upon 
its construction. It 15 composed of fifty-one curves. 



circular ^ r, v 

circumference hju < < 

f'vvtiich is directed tonai me i 
It. The result of tfaiss' i 

lei^en hundred and g y-nvc causons, 
g progressively, and producing • pleas- 
All the pieces, in number one thou- 
seventj-one, are connected together 
and screws of hammered iron. The 



of sheet copper tini 
■;— (he number of shi 




isand five hundred ai 




;ht a9,oS6 kilograms: 
go kilograms. The ni 
is one hundred and 




being only thirteen 1 
theoo at Rome. Lig 




lliirtv-ou(t feet in dii 
It. Tlic ■whole cxpen 
to 83H,ooci IViii.cs. li 


sc of the cupola 
1 Ihe interior iU-c 


■ble Tin:.l,ill;ons of Lou 


Is XV ;.i.d Louis 


lolkud. In the centre 


of the Jialle is .-. 



d to ihu outer wnll is a column erected, 
y Calherinc de Hcdicis, in the court ol 
dc Soijsons, and is the sole relic of that 
ullding. It is of the Ooric order, and 
vation of nlncty-fivc feet. It is said to 
hiiilt for astrological ohser^ 



rcprescntinf; trophies, crowns, the letters 
ulerhiced, broken mirrors, etc- emblems 
lowhood of that princess. A very in- 



356 MARKETS. 

genious sun dial has been placed on its shaft, and 
from the pedestal a fountain now sends forth its 
waters. 

Halle aux Vins (Wine- Market), 

Qtiai St. Bernard. 
The Halle aux Vins, established in i656, beyond 
the Porte St. Bernard, had Jong been found in- 
sufficient for tJie commerce of the capital, when 
Bonaparte ordered the construction of one much 
more extensive, upon the site of the celebrated 
abbey of St. Victor. The first stone was laid on 
the 1 5th of August, i8i3. The works, begun under 
the direction of Gaucher, were carried on at first 
with great activity, relaxed during i8i5 and the 
two following years, but they have since noade 
rapid progress, and the edifice will shortly be 
finished. The ground on which the Halle aux 
yins is constructed has a superficies of about two 
hundred and sixty thousand metres. It is en- 
closed with walls on three sides, and towards the 
quay is fenced by an iron railing nearly eight 
hundred metres in length. This magnificent mar^ 
ket, which when completed will be the finest in 
Europe, is divided into streets- called after different 
kinds of wine, as follows : — Rue de Champagne, 
rue de Bourgogne, rue de Bordeaux, rue de Langue^ 
doc, and rue de la Cote d^Or, The last street is the 
finest, extending the whole breadth of the market, 
and separating the piles of building in front from 
those which are behind. The latter are orna- 
mented with a magnificent terrace. On the side 
next the quay are six ofhces for those who are 
charged to superintend the entrance and depar- 



MARKETS. 367 

the yfinti The piles of building Itre tovMi 
her, four in front and three in the back 
Of those in front, two in the centre 
3r a market, and are each divided into 
>nipartments j the two others contain to- 
)rtj-nine cellars, vaulted with hewn stone. 
3le will contain together about four hun- 
>usand casks. But this calculation having 
ide on the supposition that there , would 
one row of casks above the ground-floor» 
It is that this vast magazine might contain, 
ary, double that quantity. In the back 
is a noble pile appropriated to brandies, 
nstruction there is neither wood nor iron ; 
.one for the roof would have been found 
y, a new kind of hollow brick about six 
)ng was invented. On the right and, left 

otiier buildings. ' In the halle there is 
trcau (Id depotcii^e containing measures of 
:asks ol'tlic different parts of France 5 and 
;liasei' imagines that a cask which he has 
s not full measure, he can require it to 
ired. Like other edifices of the kind that 
cly been erected in Paris, we observe a 
r oi" simplicity, with that natural rich- 
icli is owing merely to the beauty of the 
5 and llie neatness of the execution. The 
of the Halle aux r ins is calculated at ten 
of francs. Every cask that enters, pays 
t I franc to the government. The num- 

enter daily is frequently one thousand 
I red . 

arket is open in summer from six in the 
till six in the evening, and in winter from 



358 MARKETS. 

seven till five. Strangers are admitted at anj hour 
of the day, but it is forbidden to enter on horse- 
back or in carriages. 



Marche St. Germain^ 

Rue de Bussy, 

This market occupies part of the spot originally 
devoted to the ancient Foire St, Germain. The 
fair was suppressed in 1789, but the booths were 
not entirely demolished till 181 1, when the mar- 
ket, which is one of the finest, the most spacious 
and the most commodious in Parb, or eveA in 
France, was commenced, under the direction of 
Blondel. Its architecture is plain and substantial, 
and its plan is such as to afford every possible 
advantage of light and air. The plan of the Marche 
St. Germain is a parallelogram ninety-two metres 
in length by seventy-five in breadth. The two 
longest sides open into the court by twenty- two 
arcades, and the two shortest by seventeen. Each 
of the four fronts has five entrances, closed by 
iron gates. In es^ch front three entrances are 
reserved for the passage of carriages entering the 
court. In the gallenes, are nearly four hundred 
stalls, arranged in four rows with a free and 
commodious circulation on every side. Blinds 
are fixed in the arcades. A sort of irregular 
window has been left over each arcade, and the 
roof is covered with tiles. To the south of* the 
principal structure, a building appropriated to 
butchers is in the same style, except that some 
of the arcades are filled up. To render this part 
more airy, it is raised a few steps, and there are 



MARKETS. 3$9 

s underneath, the di visions ^fwhidi^twenty- 
in number, correspond with those above, 
entrance to this building is by three iron 
IS. At the bottom of the vestibule, which di- 
ss it into two equal parts, is a niche with a 
ue of Abundance, by Milhomme. This colossal 
re is in a very good style; it is raised on a socle 
omed with a lion's head, from which water 
alls into a basin of Chateau- Laudon stone.. A 
guardf house, bureaus for the inspector, and other 
dependencies have been constructed upon some 
irregular parts of the ground. The erection of a 
fountain in the centre, is a part of the plan not 
yet carried into execution. The regularity and 
beauty of this market presents a pleasing appear- 
ance, particularly since a row of new houses have 
been built along the rue Neuve de Seine, but no- 
thing can be more disgusting than the court, as it 
is constantly obstructed by dealers in old clothes 
and rags. 

Marche St, Martin. 

A market, dependent upon the abbey of St. Mar- 
tin, constructed in 1765, upon a spot near that 
where the present one stands, being found much 
too small for the population of" the quarter, the 
Ih'st stone of a new market was laid on the i5th 
of August, i8i3, in the enclosure of the ancient 
priory, and the works were finished in 181 7, after 
the designs of Petit-Radel. An iron railing sepa- 
rates it from the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers. 
This market presents a parallelogram one hundred 
metres in length by sixty in breadth, and is com- 
posed of two vast porticoes, each of which has 



36o MARKETS. 

nine compartments in its length and three in its 
breadth. Kach compartment has three arcades, 
one of which serves as an entrance. The entrance 
is closed by iron gates. The roof is supported by 
sixteen pillars. The middle compartment, more 
elevated than those on the sides and at the ex- 
tremities, favours the introduction of light and the 
circulation of air. This market contains three 
hundred and ninety-tviro stalls. Two small build- 
ings of analogous decoration have been con- 
structed on the side of the rue de la Croix; one 
serves as a guard-house, and in the other are the 
bureaus of the inspector of police. In the centre 
of the market is a fountain, after the designs of 
Gois junior. It presents a shell from which the 
water falls in a sheet into a basin. The shell is 
supported by three allegorical figures in bronze, 
representing the Genii of hunting, fishing and 
agriculture, the produce of which supplies the 
market j they are grouped round rushes and other 
marshy plants. Two smaller fountains have been 
constructed near the Conservatoire des Arts et 
Metiers. 

Halle aux Draps (Cloth-Market), 

Rue de la Poterie. 
This building was constructed in 1786, aflerthe 
designs of Legrand and Molinos, upon the site 
of a halle aux draps which had existed upon the 
spot for centuries. A staircase with a double flight 
of steps leads to the interior, where there are vast 
rooms lighted by fifty windows. It is divided 
into two parts, of which one is devoted, to the 
sale of linen, and the other of woollen cloth. lis 



362 MARKETS 

conseil, in which the Confreres de la Passion gave 
dramatic representations at a very remote period. 
It is open every day. 

* 

Marche des Augustins, or d la J^o- 
laille (Poultry-Market), 

Quai des Augustins. 

This market, one of the handsomest in Paris, 
.also called La Vallee, was erected in 181 o, alYer 
the designs of Happe, upon the site of the bhurfch 
of the convent of the Grands August ins. It is 
built of hewn stone, covered with slates, and 
presents, between four walls pierced with arcades, 
three parallel galleries, of which the middle one is 
broader and higher than the others. The entire 
length i9 one hundred and ninety feet, and the 
breadth one huiidred and forty-one. The arcades 
are closed with iron rails, and the galleries are 
very airy, clean and commodious. The poultry 
arrives here on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays 
and Saturdays, but nevertheless it is open daily : 
game is also sold in this market. The fountain 
which formerly stood in the Cour Batavehsis been 
transferred here. 



Marche des Blancs ManteauaCy 

Opposite la rue des Blancs Manteaux. 

This small market, situated upon the site gf the 
convent des Filles Hospitali^res de St. Gervais, 
was begun in 181 1, and opened in 1819. It occii- 
pies a space of about eighty square feet, and con* 
sists of a structure which presents six arcades in 



MAB&ETS. 363 

gt. A separate building Tor bntehen is open 
'^tdaeadaji and Saturdays. On etch' side of 
entrance is the bead of an ox, in broaie, 
m which water flow) into a basin. 

farche du Vieux Linge (Market for 
Old Clothes), 



Rotonde, or Poriiques du Temple. 

Behind iJic market jusl tiescribcd, on part ol' 
the ancient enclosure of the Temple, stands a de- 
tached buUding two hundred and iwenly-twu foet 
in length, terminated at llic extremities by two 
circular parts; in the centre is a court one huii- 
dred and nincty-ei^Iit feel in lenglh by ihirty-sii 
in brcadtli. The building is divided into lliree 
parts; one fi)rms a gallery of jorly-four arcades, 
supported by Tuscan columns^ the others consist 
of twenty-eight shops, above whicli rise an t'«- 
tresol, two Stories and an attic; the whole is dis- 
tributed into small apartments. This edifice, wliith 
bears a character of simplicity not devoid ol tli.'- 



364 MARKETS. 

gance, was built on speculation, when the Temple 
was an asylum for debtors. It was begun in 
1788, after the designs of Perard de Montreuil j 
but the revolution, when privileges were abolish- 
ed, rendered the speculation abortive. 



Marche des Cannes, 

Rue des IVoyers. 

This market, ^tablished upon the site of the 
convent des Carmes, replaces the inconvenient 
one in the Place Maubert, to which it is adjacent. 
Its plan resembles that of the Marche St. Germain, 
but it is less spacious and commodious. The 
meat market is held in a detached building. The 
beauty of this market is much augmented by a 
fountain, consisting of a square column ten feet 
in height surmounted by two heads, one repre- 
senting Plenty, and the other Commerce. The 
column is ornamented with emblems of Com- 
merce, and upon the summit is a basket of flowers 
and fruit. The basin as well as the column are 
of fine Chateau Landon stone. 



Marche St. Joseph, 

Rue Montmartre, 

This market, begun in i8i3 and completed in 
the following year, stands on the site of a chapel 
dedicated to St. Joseph. This market is open 
daily for poultry and game. Meat is also sold 
OD Wednesdays and Saturdays. 



MARKETS. 

le a la Viande ( , 

Rue des Prouuaires, 

project was formed by Bonaparte for 
the principal halles of Pans in a square 
undred acres, extending from the rue 
and taking in the cour Batave and the 
BU, The marche a la Viandcy which 
Tt of this plan, was commenced in i8i5, 
ents of 18 14 suspended the works. They 
wards continued upon a different plan, 
narket was opened in 181 8. It is sur- 
by posts, from six of which water is 
Pork is also sold here. The days of 
ednesdays and Saturdays. 



Marche St. Jean^ 

Iliie de la P^crrcrie. 
ot is no longer used as a market. An 
In and a giianl-liouse sllll. exist upon it. 



iSliuclic BcdiLvcau^ 

l'\inhi)in s^ <Si, yfntoi/ie. 
rkct was built in 1779, after the d<\si«i;n5 
Ic Roniain. Jn the centre is a fountain, 
from eight lid noon in winter, and 
iU noon in sununer. 



' anx' Flciirs ct au.T ./trhiisies 
'1(3 wer and Shni!)-Markel). 

arket was cstah-Iislied in 1807- It is 



366 MARKETS. 

planted with four rows of trees, and embellished 
with two fountains. On Wednesdays and Satur- 
days the rose, the pink, the narcissus, the jessa- 
mine, and in short every flower remarkable for its 
odour or beauty, is here displayed in the greatest 
profusion, and presents an assortment infinitely 
superior to that of Covent Garden in May and June. 
During four months of the year, beginning at the 
i5th of October, shrubs and trees are here exposed 
for sale on Wednesdays and Saturdays. 



Marche aux Fruits (Fruit-Market), 

Quai de la Tournelle. 

This market is held on xheport aux Tuiles (tile* 
wharf) and is called le Mail, Fruit may be bought 
here at a very cheap rate. 



Marches auoc Fourrages (Forage- 
Markets). 

These markets are held at the extremity of the 
faubourg St. Martin, in the rue St. Antoine, at 
Marche le Noir, and at the barriere d'Enfcr. The 
police keep a strict eye on the weight of the com- 
modities. 

Marche aux Chevaux (Horse-Market), 

Boulevard de VHopital. 
This market was transferred here in 164^ from 
the boulevard des Capucines, to which it had 
been removed from the court of the Palais des 
Toumelles, by Henry IV in 1604. At one of the 
extremities a building was erected in 1760, to serve 



I 36; 

ling and of! ^f the inspector of the 

1818 the ground was levelled, and 

I so as to form avenues for exercising 

Between these avenues, at the ex^ 

the market, two square fountains^ 

height, have been constructed. Tbeyi 

rnament, except lions* heads in bronze^ 

, through which the water flows into 

i form of anc\ent baths. The foun-r 

nounted by irons bearing lamp> The 

sld on Wednesdays and Saturdays, 

till four o^clock in winter, and from . 

in summer. It is necessary to be 

in the purchase of horses, as the 

warrant them for nine days. It it 

r to discover any vices in the animal^ 

ittend very strictly to prevent gro8» 



dcs Ilcrboristcs (Market for 
I\Ic(li('al Herbs), 

Rue <1c la Poit'ie. 
3t is held on AVednesdavs «ind Satiu 



iix Poninics dc Terre (Pota- 
toe-jMarkol), 

ilc Frljfcrit', near l/ie Ilalle au.r />/w/'.s, 



Maiclic St. IJoiioi'e, 

\iic till A/dtrhc iSl. Jlonorc. 

ol was begun in 1809, upon the site 



368 MARKETS. 

of the convent des Jacobins, so celebrated during 
the revolution. The buildings are neat and Com- 
modious. In the central alley from east to west 
two circular buildings have been erected. That 
to the right on entering from the rue St. Honor^, 
forms a guard-house and receiver's ofHce. That 
on the left is a Cabinet d^Aisance. In front of 
each is a portico adorned with bas-reliefs from 
which a fountain flows. 



Depdt des Laines et L avoir Public^ 

JVo, 35, quai de VHopitaL 

This establishment was created in i8i3. Its 
object is to perfect the dressing of wool, and to 
promote commerce in that staple article. The 
market is held daily. 

Foire aux Jambons (Ham-Fair). 

This fair is held yearly, in Holy Week, on the 
quai des uiugustins. 

Grenierde Reserve ou d'Abondance 
(Granary of Plenty). 

This immense storehouse, of which a fine view 
is obtained from the Pont du Jardin des Plantes, 
borders and decorates the boulevard Bourdon. It 
is 1077 feet in length, and was begun in 1807, after 
the designs of de Lannoy, in order to form a 
public deposit for corn and flour. The first stone 
was laid by M. Cretet, Minister of the Idterior, 
on the 26th of December. According to the ori- 
ginal plan it was to have been five stories high, 



y necessary. 

lilding was recommenced in 1816, on a 
)nomical plan, it having been decided 
oiild only be elevated to a first floor bc- 
i roof, and that its timber work and rOof 
; like those of the markets of Paris, 
iisbing of these works was entrusted to 
with orders to complete them as soon as 
This was done by crowning it with a 
•of. 

iqueducts beneatli the cellars were also 
,ed, the project being to establish in this 
ling flour mills, and machinery to raise 
to ihe different stories, 
esent edifice will contain thirty thousand 
of corn. Its expense is estimated at 
> francs, and it is capable of containi 
imption of Paris for two months. Its £ 
; the garden of the Arsenal. Not 
that this granary is full of grain, it 



370 SLAUGHTEK-HOUSES. 

Grenier a Sel (Granary of Salt), 

IVo. 42, Rue St. Germain V Auxerrois. 

This building was the ancient excise-office. A 
new granary for salt is now constructing upon 
the site of the garden of the H6tel Beaumarchais. 



ABATTOIRS (SLAUGHTER-HOUSES). 

Previous to the formation of these establish- 
ments for the slaughter of cattle, the butchers 
were accustomed to drive the oxen which th«y 
purchased at the markets of Sceaux and Poissy, 
through the streets of Paris, to the great danger 
of the inhabitants. Besides, these animals con- 
tributed in a great degree to render the streets of 
the capital more dirty, while the slaughtei'-houses 
impregnated the atmosphere with a noxious efHu- 
Tia. A remedy for these nuisances had long been 
desired, when, in i8og, Bonaparte ordained the 
construction of five public abattoirs at the extremi- 
ties of the city, and the suppression of the slaugh- 
ter-houses in the central parts of Paris. Of these 
establishments, three are to the north of the city ; 
viz. the Abattoirs du Roule, de Montmartre^ and 
de Popincourt, and two to the south, viz. those 
of Ivry and de Vaugirard. The five abattoirs 
being finished in 181 8 at an expense of 1 6,5 18,000 
francs, a police ordinance was issued which fixed 
the 1 5th of September for their opening, and pro- 
hibited from that day cattle being driven to pri- 
vate stables or slaughter-houses. 

Houses for melting the tallow and drying the 
skins are attached to each of these establishments. 



2^L.ACiOU liLA-'flUtJdbd. 



"n 



d upon the animals slaughtered, in 
proportion, viz. an ox, 6fr. ; a cow, 
fr., and a sheep, lo sous, producing 
luding a duty on the tallow (i fr. 
[oo pounds) 5oo,ooo fr. which is ap- 
the expense of keeping up the build- 
3g the persons employed. Strangers 
2se establishments by applying for 

porter's lodge, to whom a small fee 
thout a guide they cannot enter. 
ttoirs are 'all projected on the sa^M 
and differ but little except in extefit^ 

give minute details of one of them. 



attoir de Popincourt. 

iter-house is situated on a sloping 
iind, between the rue St. Ambroise 
ies Amandiers, which contributes to 

of the eslabllshment and the general 
: l)uildii)L;s. It was begun in 1810 
rectiou of iMcssrs. Ilappo and Vau- 
liolc space comprised between the 
vhich surround it is a trapezoid in 
ribed a parallelogram of two hundred 
netres by one bundred and ninety • 

having wisely neglected some irrc- 
Icb may easily be concealed by plan- 
scfql buildings. A railing of one hun- 
nnected widi two pavilions, in which 
aux ol" tbe administration, forms the 
trance of this edifice. In front of it 

with two rows of trees has been 
cb adds greallv to tbe beauty of the 



}*i 



m. 



S-ya SLAUGHTER-HOUSES. 

building. It opens to a court, from the centre of 
which may be seen the whole of the piles of build- 
ing, twenty-three in number, which compose the 
abattoir. 

To the right and left of the court, which is one 
hundred and forty-six metres in length by ninety- 
seven in breadth, are four buildings, separated by 
a road which traverses the ground in its whole 
breadth. These are the slaughter-houses : they 
are each forty-seven metres long by thirly-lwo 
broad; a flagged court s^arates them into two 
piles, each of which contains eight slaughter- 
houses for the use of the butchers who keep the keys 
of those respectively belonging to them. £ach 
slaughter-house receives air and light from arcades 
in the front walls. Above are spacious attics for 
drying the skins and depositing the tallow, and, 
that they may be always cool, a considerable pro- 
iection has been given to the roofs. Behind these 
slaughter-houses are two sheep-folds, and at their 
extremities two stables: each of these buildings 
contains its loft for forage, and completes on the 
sides of the court the principal masses of build- 
ing whiclrform the establishment. At the bottom 
of the court, in which there is a commodious 
watering-place, and folds for the cattle, are two 
detached buildings destined for melting the tallow> 
They are traversed in their length by a broad 
corridor, which gives access to four separate melt- 
ing-houses, below which are vaulted cellars, con- 
taining the coolers. Beyond these, on a line pa- 
rallel to the outer wall, are two buildings raised 
on cellars, in which the undressed leather will be 
kept' the upper part is destined for the skins of 



SL s. 3^3 

ad sbeep In the rt of the 
in front of the ent ;e, t a< le re- 
in masonry, rest ; on vj , 
re stands for carria] ; the wa is rai5en 
J a steam-engine p t between V 
^hich, together, ar : se^ f- 



abattoir de Monimartre. 

tructure is situated between the rues tlo-- 
lart, de la Tour d^Auvergne, and des Mar- 
id the walls of Paris. Tlie architect was 
evin, under whose direction it was begun 
. It occupies a spot three huhdred and 
line yards in length by one hundred and 
breadth. 



Abattoir dii Boulc. 

iitunllon of lliis l)uil{ling Is in the plain de 
u, at t!ie cxtremlly of tlic rue Miromesnil. 
begun In iSio, niter the designs and under 
ection of" 31. Petit Radel. It occupies a 
)f two liundred and twenty-two yards in 
by one hundred and tblrty-one in breadth. 



Abattoir iVh'vy. 

establishment, situated near tlie barrlcre 
, was begun in 1810, after the designs of" 
)ir. Allliough less extensive than the fore- 
it covers a considerable space. 
irr I. y^ 



374 SLAUGHTER-HOUSES. 

Abattoir de P^augirard. 

Like the other edifices, tliis abattoir consists of 
several courts and piles of building. It is situated 
near the Place de Breteuil, and was begun in 1811, 
after the designs of M. Gisors. 



These magnificent establishments deserve the 
traveller's notice. The English tourist will return 
with a wish to reform those nuisances, and abodes 
of cruelty, filth and pestilence, which disgust bim 
in the capital of his own^ountry. 

We annex the following as a sort of general sum- 
mary. T}ie number of butchers in Paris is nearly 
four hundred, of which one hundred and tbirteen 
of the first class, find security for 5ooofr.^ one 
hundred and eighty of the second class for aooofr. ; 
and one hundred of the third class for looofr. 
They occupy four hundred stalls and one hun- 
dred and twelve slaughter-houses. The tv^enty- 
eight melting-houses in the five abattoirs have 
been placed at the disposal of persons called fun- 
dears (melters), who must not be chandlers. Tbere 
are eight at Popincourt, eight at Montmartre, four 
at the Roule, four at Vaugirard, and four at Ivry. 
The abattoirs of Popincourt and Montmartre bave 
each sixty- four slaughter-houses, that of Vaugi- 
rard forty-eight, and the two others thirty-two 
each. Country butchers are allowed to bring 
meat to the markets of Paris upon paying a duty 
of 12 cents, per pound.* 

^ For consumption of cattle at Paris, see page 16. 



BBIDGES. 375 



CHAPTER XIII. 
BRIDGES AND QUAYS. 



BRroOES. 

i bridges at Paris, owing to the elevation of 
^uays above the river, have very liltle ascent, 
L are therefore extremely convenient; they are, 
pvever, with the exception of the Pont Neuf, far 
erior to the bridges of Rome or Florepce, and 
magnitude and grandeur they sink into insig- 
icance, when compared with the stupendous 
iSses of Waterloo, Blackfriars, or Westminster, 
heir number over the Seine, between the barriers 
of Paris, is sixteen. Of these, one is formed of 
wood, one of iron and wood, two of stone and 
iron, and twelve of stone. Several of these bridges 
had formerly houses on ihem^ but ihey liave suc- 
cessively been removed, and the centre of the capi- 
tal is now thrown open to a free circulation of 
air, whilst the view of the numerous line buildings 
which skirt the banks of the river for more than 
a league is now uninterrupteil. In describing the 
bridges we shall take them in the order in whicb 
they stand, following tlie course of the river. 



Pont (hi Jardiii des Pinnies^ 

CoinniwiLcalui^ jioin the. Jardiii des Piantcs to the 

^J racnal. 

The ^vorks of ibis bridge were begun in iSo!. 



376 BRIDGES. 

after the designs of M. Becquay Beaupr^, and 
under the direction of M. Lamande. On January i^ 
1806, it was opened for foot passengers, and on 
Mafch 5, of the year following, for carriages. It 
received the name of u4usterlitZy in memory of the 
victory gained by the French, December a, i8o5» 
over the Russians and Austrians. Upon the se- 
cond entrance of the allied armies, the name was « 
changed to Pont du Rot, and since to Pont du 
Jardin des Plantes. Its length between the abut- 
ments is three hundred and ninety-nine feet, and 
its breadth thirty-seven^ the piles and abutments 
are of hewn stone founded upon piles, and its 
five arches, composed of segments of circles, are of 
cast iron. Except masks of iron at the extremities 
of the joists it presents no ornament. Its con- 
struction cost three millions of francs to a com- 
pany, who were to receive, for thirty years, a toll 
of one sou for foot passengers, three sous for a ca- 
briolet, and five for a coach. This is the second 
bridge built of iron in Paris. Its construction is 
curious ; and such is its solidity that the heaviest 
vehicles pass over \i, although a sensible jarring 
snay be felt at the moment. 



Pont de Grammojit. 

This, the only wooden bridge in Paris, was re* 
built in 1824, and forms a communication between 
the quai des Celestins and the ile Louviers. It 
consists of five arches, and is about one hundred 
and forty feet in length. * 



BRIDGES. 377 

Pont Marie. 

jridge communicates from the quai des 

to the ile St. Louis. It was built by Marie, 

ntendent-general of the bridges in France, 

ue of a contract made with him in i6i4i for 

ection of houses upon the tie St. Louis. Two 

} of it were carried away by a flood in i658i, 

twenty-two out of fifty houses which stood 

The remainder were removed a short time 

re the revolution. The Pont Marie is seventy- 

nt feet and a half in breadth; and its length 

tween the abutments is three hundred and 

rteen. 

Pont de la Tournelle^ 

JBeiwe^en the quai St, Bernard and the He St* Louis, 

This bridge was also built by Marie, in i6qo. 

It derived its name from an old tower near it, 
erected by Pliilip Augustus. It was twice carried 
away, and rebuilt about tlie year i656, at the ex- 
pense of the city. It is bordered with cause- 
ways, consists of six semicircular arches, and is 
three hundred and eighty feet in Jenglli between 
the abutments. 

Po/it de la Cite. 

Tlie project to erect a biidge between the ile de 
la Cite and the ile St. Louis was formed in i(ii4, 
and executed a few years afterwards. Tiiis IniJgc 
was rebuilt in T717, for loot passengers onlv, wlu* 
paid a toll. In tlie reign of Bonaparte iL w;i^ 
(letennliiccl to rebuild this bridge. 1"he worl.^ 
were completed in iSo/j, under the direction ol 

yi. 



3^8 BRIDGES. 

M. Ganthey. It was built by a company, and con- 
sisted of two wooden arches supported by abut- 
ments and a pier of masonry. The wood-work 
was covered with tin painted stone colour ^ but 
being extremely light it was violently shaken by 
the passage of carriages and troops at the time 
of Bonaparte^s coronation, and, in 1819, it was 
found necessary to renew the arches. They are 
now formed of solid oak bound witH iron braces. 
Its breadth is thirty- four feet, and its total length 
two hundred and sixteen. It is confined to foot 
passengers, who pay a toll of one sou each. 



Pont au Double. 



This bridge was constructed in i634, by the 
administrators of the H6tel Dieii j and part of its 
breadth is occupied by the buildings of that hos* 
pital. It is for foot passengers only, and com- 
munieates from the rue de la Buch^rie to the rue 
de I'Eveque. A double was paid' as a toll till the 
year 1789, when that coin was withdrawn from 
circulation. At present no toll is paid. This 
bridge is closed every night at eleven o^clock. 



Pont St. Charles. 

This bridge is private and serves only for a com- 
munication between the buildings of the H6tel 
Dieu. It was constructed in 1606, and took its 
name from a ward called salle St. Charles, In 
order that the patients may walk in winter, or 
when it rains, this bridge has been covered in and 
glazed in an elegant manner. On each side of the 



BHIDCES. 3^9 

t ind tubs containiDg shrubs and 



■nt Notre Dame. 

vhicli is the oldest in Paris, leads 
} la Lantuine Co the rue Planche 



im the Poi-te St. Jacques to the 
I. A bridge, of which Charles VI 
leoD the 5rst of May i4i^i having 

i499i the present one was begun 
; year, al\er the designs of Jean 
irmiiiKted In 1507. It consists of 
■ arches which are admired for the 
: architecture. In 1660, the Pont 

5 richly ornamented with statues 

of the kings of France, but thue 
>yed. Several houses were at first 
on this linil-o; Iml alicrwiuds, 
;rc ri>riiica, scvfrnl of them were 
avlri;; oidy llilltv en one side. ;md 

(! othor. Ill T78fi, the 



lollshedj lh<-- lirii1^'t-»- 



s'sa' 






lid produces llll 



r 



3^8o BRIDGES. 

Petit Pont. 

The existence of a bridge at this spot, which 
was formerly the only communication between 
the lie de la Cite and the southern bank of the 
Seine, goes back to a very remote historical period. 
It was carried away by the tide twelve times be- 
tween the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries, and 
rebuilt of wood with houses upon the sides in 
iGSg. At length, in 1718, it was burned down 
by two boats laden with hay, which having acci- 
dentally taken fire, and being obstructed in their 
course by the bridge, communicated the flames to 
the woodwork, from whence they mounted to 
the houses with itresistible rapidity. It was then 
Inbuilt in stoue as it now appears, and causeways 
were substituted for the houses. The Petit Pont 
consists of three irregular arches. 



Pont au Change^ 

Communicating from the place du ChdleleL to the 

Palais de Justice. 

Upon this spot [stood the Grand Pont, which 
originally formed the only communication be- 
tween the isle de la Cite and the northern bank 
of the Seine. Upon this bridge, which was of 
wood, Louis VII, in ii^i, fixed the residence of 
money-changers, and prohibited them from dwell- 
ing elsewhere. From this circumstance it derives 
its name. After being several times destroyed 
and rebuilt, it was burned down in i6ai. The 
reconstruction of the bridge was begun in 1639, 
and finished in i647i it was built- of stone, and 
had houses on each side. In 1788, Louis XVI 



BRIDGES. 3&t 

chased the houses upoo the bridge for the sum 
1,200,000 livres, and they were taken down. 
i Pont an Change consists of seven semicircular 
lies of a substantial but inelegant construction, 
length between the abutments is four hundred 
t twelve feet, and its breadth seventy-eight. 



Pont St. Michel. 

lie precise date of the first construction of this 
Ige is unknown. As early as 14^4 it was called 
zt St, Michel, a name derived from a small 
irch dedicated to St. Michael, which stood near 
After being several times rebuilt and repaired, 
sU down in 16 16. It was then rebuilt of stone 
h houses on the sides, by a company who re- 
red the rents. It was ornamented with a bold 
nice, several niches, and, on each side, a^ bas- 
lef of Louis XIII on horseback. This sculpture 
s destroyed at the revolution, but its traces may 
1 be seen on the side towards the Pont jVeuf. 
royal edict, issued in September 1786, ordained 
t the houses upon all the Ijridges in Paris should 
taken down. With regard to the Pont St. Mi- 
1, this edict was not carried into execution till 
»4, upon l!je occasion of Bonaparte's coronation. 
e houses were then demolished, tlie carriage- 
d widened, and its steepness considerably di- 
ilslied. Causewr.ys were raised, and some 
ises at the two extremities were removed. This 
dge is formed of four semicircular arches ; its 
gth between the abutments is one hundred and 
ety feet and a half, and its breadlh eighty- 
ee. 



382 BRIDGES. 

Pont NeuJ\ 

This bridge was begun by Jacques Androuel 
Ducerceau, under the reign of Henry III, who laid 
the first stone on the 5ist of May, 1678. The works 
were for some time discontinued, t)ie trophies of 
the ligue having forced the architect to retire into 
another country, and were not recommenced till 
after the accession of Henry lY, who continued 
it at his own expense, under the direction of Mar- 
chand. It was finished in the year i6o4* 

This bridge consists of two unequal parts, which 
unite at the extremity of the tie de la Citi: the 
first (to the north), has seven semicircular arches 
without archivolt; the second has five. The entabla- 
ture is very rich, presenting along the whole length 
of the bridge consoles adorned with masks of Satyrs, 
Fauns, and Dryads. Its total length is seven hxxnr 
dred and sixty-seven feet, and its breadth seventy- 
seven. Upon the piers are established semicircular 
shops. The Pont Neuf is divided into a carriage- 
road and two causeways. Considerable repairs 
have been made to it at various periods, and in 
1 82 1 it was new paved, and the causeways were 
elevated nearly three feet. 

After the death of Henry IV, Mary de Medicis, 
his widow and Queen-regent of the kingdom, 
wislied to erect a monument in honour of her, 
'husband. Her father, Cosmo II, Grand Duke of 
Tuscany, having sent her a bronze horse, she 
ordered Dupre to cast a figure of the King, and 
when the group was finished, it was placed on 
the Pont Neuf, opposite the place Dauphine, in 
the small square area which took the name of 



BRIDGES. 383 

place Henri IV, i«ouis XIII laid the first stone 
of tbe pedestal on the i3th of August i6i4» hut 
the orBam^ts and bas-reliefs were not finished 
till idSSy under the administration of Cardinal. 
Richelieu. The statue of Henry lY was the first 
public monument of this kind erected in Paris. 

In the night of August o.^'^^ i7^7y ^^ ^^ lime 
of the refusal of tbe parUment to enregister the 
stamp duty and land tax, the partisans of the 
parUment assembled on this bridge and obliged 
the passengers to salute the statue of Henry lY. 

On the nth of August, 1793, the statue was 
thrown down by the party who had forced the 
passengers to salute it in 1787. 

In ^e same yeai;, the famous alarm-gun was 
placed on the Pont Neuf. 

On the 3rd of May i8i4> the day when Louis 
XV III, after more than twenty years exile, re- 
turned to his capital, a plaster statue of Henry 
IV was put upon the Pont Neuf, with tliis in- 
scription : 

Liulovico reduce, Henrico rcdlvlvo, 

A voluntary subscription soon after took place 
throughout France, for re-erecting the statue of 
Henry IV< Lemot was charged with its execution. 
Towards the end of September 1817, lie had finished 
the models while Pigglani, a skilful founder, had 
formed the mould for the statue and horse. On 
the 5rd of October forty thousand pounds of 
bronze were melted. The metal having then been 
let into the mould, and the operation crowned 
with success, cries o{ vive le Roi, joined with the 
sounds of martial music, re-echoed on all sides, 



384 BRIDGES. 

and fire-works announced the event to tie Capital 
During this time the reconstruction of the espla 
nade on the Pont Neuf went on rapidly, and th 
king, in presence of the royal family, laid th 
first stone of the pedestal on the 28th of Octohei 
1 8 1 7. Medals, engraved by Andrieux, were place 
in the stone, bearing this inscription : 

Ludovicus XVIIl lapidem auspicalcm posuic. Di 
XXVIIl men. Oct. anno M.D.CCC.XVII. Regni XXUl 

On the reverse, 

Henrico Magno. 
On the exergue: 

Pictas Civium reslituit M.D.CCC.XVII. 

Ten months were employed By Lemot ia finisii 
ing and polishing the statue. Its total height is ibai 
teen feet, and its weight thirty thousand pound: 
The upper tablet of the pedestal consists of 
single block, pierced with mortises to let in tl: 
two feet of the horse, on which the whole stati 
rests. On the 14th of August, 1818, forty oxe 
were employed to transport the statue from tl: 
workshop of the artist in the faubourg du Rou 
to the Pont Neuf j the distance was above tw 
miles; the equipage employed in the transporti 
tion weighed twenty thousand pounds, whicl 
added to the weight of the statue, formed a ma: 
of fifty thousand pounds. The eflbrts of the oxe 
only succeeded in drawing it as far as the entrant 
of the avenue de Marigny, where it went off il 
pavement and was completely stopped. Thoi 
sands of the Parisians hastened to surmount th 
obstacle, and their zeal was crowned with succcs! 



hat and bowed to the staliic of 

Bai'b« niarbois, presideiU of tlic ,_ _. 

scribers, delivered an eloquent address lo liis Ma- 
jesty on the glorious aelions of Henry IV. to which 
the King answered in these [criiis : "I receive 
with pleasure the present wliicli ihc French peo- 
ple make nie. 1 sec in it the offering; of the rich, 
and the mile of the poor and the widow, lo raise 
again a statue which I contemplate with joj'. I 
see in it a pledge of the linppincss of France. Al 
the sight of this image the French will recollect 
the afiectiou which Henry IV entertained for them. 
anil will deserve to be loved by his deseendanis." 
On ihe monument is this inscription, by ihc iXea- 
deray of Relics Utlres: 



386 BRIDGES. 

Henrici Magni 

Paterno in populum animo 

Notissimi Principis 

Sacram effigiem 

Civiles inter tumaltus 

Gallid indignante 

Dejectam 

Post optatum Ludoyici XVIIl reditnm 

Ex omnibas ordinibus cives 

AEre collato 

Kestitaerunt. 

Necnon et elogiam 

quod 

Cum effigie simal abolitum 

Lapidi rursus inscribi 

Guraverunt. 

On the opposite end is the following inscription, 
copied from the pedestal of the former statue : 

Errico IV, 
Galliarum Imperatori Navar R. 

Ludovicus XIII Filius eius 

Opus inchoatum et intermissam 

Pro dignitate pietatis et imperii 

Plenus et amplius absolvit 

Emin D . G. Richelius 

Gommune votum populi promovit 

Super illustr. viri 

De Bullion, Boutillier aeraru F. 
Faciendum Guraverunt. 
M.D.G.XXXV. . 

• 

Bas-reliefs adorn the sides of the pedestal. I 
one, Henry IV is 'seen commanding food to b 
distributed to the inhabitants of Paris, who, dor 
ing the siege of the capital, had taken refuge i 
his campj and in the other, the king, havin 
entered as a conqueror into his' capital, stops i 



. BRIDGES. 387 

the Parvis de I^otre Dame, and^^ves orders to the 
prevot of Palis to bear to the inhal)itaiits of the 
city the language of peace^and invite them to re- 
sume their accustomed occupations. 

This monument cost 557,860 francs. A mag- 
nificent copy of Voltaire's Henriade «was deposited 
in its base. 

Bonaparte intended to have erected a granite 
obelbk on the spot now occupied by the statue 
of Henry lY, and several millions of francs were 
appropriated for that purpose. The elevation, it 
is said, would have been upwards of two hundred 
feet* Standing open to the full and immediate 
view of the Seine, it must be owned that it would 
have formed a most magnificent ornament to the 
metropolis. 

The concourse of passengers on the Pont* Neuf 
is incessant, and the scenes constantly exhibited 
on it are amusing, it being crowded with itine- 
rants of every class. The atteulion is continually 
arrested by the puffers of their respective articles. 
In the vicinity of a book-stall, where the works 
of Voltaire and Rousseau are promiscuously min- 
gled with the rubbish of the press, a vender of fried 
sausages and fish proclaims, with stentorial lungs, 
food suited to grosser tastes. The cake merchant 
and the print merchant j the dealer in blacking 
and delicate preserves ; the ballad singer and haw- 
ker of dying speeches 5 the clipper of dogs and 
of the French tongue, form a curious medley, 
which will be sure to keep one on the qui viva. 
The following inscriptions on the sign boards ol 
the dog and cat dressers, we give as singular speci- 
mens o^ grammatical erudition. 



3B8 BRtOGfiS. 

ha Rose fond les chiens et sa femme^ proprementy 
«f vat en vlUe, VessS voire adrece dans la Bouate. 
Another Coupe chiens, chats, et les oreilles des 
carlins, des Messieurs et des Dames qui lui feront 
■thonneuT de lui accorder leur conjiancey etc., etc. 



Pont des Arts. 

This elegant bridge, for foot-passengers only, is 
situated between the Louvre and the Institute, 
and takes its name from the former, which at the 
time when the bridge was constructed, was called 
Palais des Arts, It rests upon very narrow pien, 
and is composed of nine arches, each formed of 
five secondary ones, which are bound together 
by small cross arches, the whole of cast iron. The 
floor,' formed of wood, is elevated several feet 
above the level of the street, and extends in a 
straight line from one bank of the river to the 
other. At regular distances are small pillars of 
cast iron, supporting lamps. This bridge, the 
first built of iron in Paris, was erected at the ex- 
pense of a company, who are to derive a toll of 
•one sou each person, for a certain number oi 
years. The chord of (he arches is fifty-six feett 
and the total length between the abutments is 
five hundred and fifty-five. It was built by MM. 
De Cessac and Dillon, and finished in i8o4- It 
cost 900,000 fr., and for some time after it was 
opened, formed a fashionable evening promenade. 
Being lighted up with additional lamps, and fur- 
nished with chairs, it was then what the boulevard 
des Italiens is now: the night breeze from the 
river being found injurious to the health of the 
ladies caused it to be des'erted. 



ras very difHcult, in conscrjuence of the rapidity 
f the river, but tlie obstacles were surmounted 
ly an Italian Dominican friar, named frirs Ro- 
tain, who laid the foundations, and erected the 
rches. The designs were by Gabriel, andJules 
Iflrdouin Mansart. It consists of five seroicircu- 
ir arches, and is four hundred and thirty-two 
eet in length by about fifty in breadth. Thb psrt 
f the river was formerly crossed by a ferry-boat. 
iac), from wbich the rue du Bac derives its aame. 
'he expense of constructing this bridge, whidi 
Dmmeiris a fine view, was 74^, '7' francs. 0pon 
ne of tlic piers Is a sea!.; divided Into melres an.I 
eclmetres, to sliow tbc licislit of tlie river. It 
i-as upon tills bridge lliat a piece of caunon was 
laced on llic lulli of August 1791, to fire upon 
■e palace of tlic Tuilc-rics. The iiiaik of a hall 



■indows of the I'avillon de Flor 



11 tivoof.tl.« 



Ponl Louis A Fl. 

From the jcnr \-,->:>., the city ol Parl^ Had \n:v.n 
iilhorised, bv letters patent, to raise a loan fui 
le erection of a bridge in front of the place Louii 
V, and the gradual augmentation of the numlx'r 
r bouses in tlic faubourg St. Germain, and lli.' 
luljourg Si. Houorc, rendered its ii^^ecssity nioic 



jrjl QUAYS. 

iQ memory of the famous battle gained orer the 
Prussians, oa the ijth of October. 1806. When 
the Prussians came to Paris ia 1S14, their leader 
Blucher would have biowa up the Pont (fjtma, 
a ad some attempts were made without success. 
A aegociatioa was entered into with him, wlieii 
it was agreed that the bridge shouhi be prcaemd 
but that Its name should be changed. By a roTai 
ordinance of July, 1^14. it was named Poat des 
Invalides.^ 



QUAYS. 

The banks of the Seine, from the Pont du Jar- 
din des Piantes to the Pont des lavaiideSy ue 
skirted with spacious quays, which, although dtf* 
tinguished by dilTerent names, form in reality only 
two Lines of road. It was in i3i5, that Philippe 
le Bel ordered the prsvot des marckands to con- 
struct the quai dds JtiizustiTZj. In 1069 was formed 
the quai da la Mdgij^erzii. About i64'i. the Mar* 
quisdeGevres obtained permission to build houses 
between the por:t >otre Djme and the pont ah 
Chan:;e, on condition that they should be erected 
on a vault pierced with arches, which whilst they 
contined the river in ordinary times, would allow 
It to spread out in Uoods. Under Louis XIII and 
Louis XIV some progress was made in the con- 

'^ It havinc been decided ibat a bridi;c shiill be boflt 
'1 front of die dotel des lavalidtis, betiveen the quai 
• '.'Orvty and die quui de la Coufercacc, it is probable 
tbaL the Punt des Invalides will be c;dled Pont dc Vte/coU 
Militaire, and i(& procot name bo givcu to the 
bridgr. 



QUAYS. 3g3 

niciibn of quajrs, paitScfila>Iy in the fie ^e h 
M and the tie St. Louis, which are now entirely 
irronnded by them, except that portion of the 
(Fm^r^'upon which part of the H6te] Dieu stands, 
nee- 1708 the construction of the qua! d'Qrsay 
id 'Iteen begun and abandoned several times ; 
aguificent hotels had been erected on the pro- 
iseof its speedy construction; but down to 1801 
still remained a muddy strand intersected' by 
rains and open sewers. Bonaparte particularly 
rected his attention to the improvement of Paris 
f the construction and repair of quays, and his 
[ans have recently been completed. The banks 
r the Seine now display a line of quays unequalled 
f any ^ity in Europe. Their number is thirty 
tree, viz. fourteen upon the right bank of the 
iine j eleven upon the lefl; bank ; four in the ile 
! la Cite, and four in the ile St. Louis. Their 
»tal length Is nearly fifteen English miles. The 
hole are executed in slone with a parapet. The 
tnstrucllon of quays during the reign of Bona- 
irte cost upwards of r;>,ooo,ooo fr. The Seine, 
hich is a running nnd not a tide river, has no 
mmerce but what Is carried on hy boats. The 
lays being merely stone embankments, without 
anes for raising goods, or warehouses lor receiv- 
g them, ibrm streets with liouses on one side, 
id the river on the other. At various places 
ere are stone stairs and Inclined ways to de- 
3nd, and the sewers fall into the river through 
ches under the quays. No river, like theThame^, 
?€re the commerce is extensive, can be laid out 
so agreeable a manner. Goods are landed ai 



3g4 QUAYS. 

different parts of the river at wharfs, t 
ports. 

When it is considered that the waters 
river rise in winter about ten or twelve feet 
than in summer, the necessity for stone en 
ments will be apparent, and the whole is i 
executed, that some of them afford the plea 
walks in Paris, except the boulevards and 
gardens. 



AQOEDUCTS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

JEDUCTS, HYDRAULIC MACHINES, 
FOUNTAINS, BATHS, etc. 

neans employed from the earliest period 
re to large towns a plentiful supply of 
nay be reduced to the following: aque- 
;anals, cisterns, reservoirs, and hydraulic 
;s. The ancients generally employed the 
mer. Although well acquainted with me 
it does not appear that they used machines 
te the water of rivers above their level, and 
rds distrlbiUe ihcm on lower grounds. 
cr tlic Pionians established their dominion 
nslnictcd aqueducts, and the remains of 
e slill to be svcn without the walls of se- 
lies in It;ilv and ancient Gaul, cxtendini^ 

the adjacent country. It appears that in 
the only water used was obtained from cis 
)untains, and wells within iheir walls ; and 
raveller to that classic land still iinds the 
"aqueducts, they most probably date from 
iod when the Greeks became confounded 
ic Iiomans, for all these remains arc or 

to be of Roman construction. In the 
n provinces of Italy, and in Greece, where 
sammer the rivers are dry, fountains and 
.erns arc indispensably necessary to prevent 
il\ in the sidtrv season. Thus in those 



.^igG AQUEDUCTS. 

countries we find grand and numerous remains of 
spacious reservoirs, whilst as we retrograde to- 
wards the north, they are more rare because less 
necessary. The various means employed by tbe 
ancients to convey water have been adopted by 
the moderns with greater or less success. If the 
aqueducts of the latter are less substantial and nu- 
merous, it is because they have machiojes to elevate 
the water of rivers which dispense with the neces- 
sity of seeking it at so great a distance. Bat it 
cannot be denied that aqueducts seem the most 
simple and easy. In Pans, aqueducts and hy- 
draulic machines are employed conjointly to sup- 
ply the fountains; and the canal de FOurcq pro- 
mises to afford tenfold the quantity of water 
previously possessed. 



AQUEDUCTS. 

The aqueducts which supply water to Paris are 
three in number, viz. the Aqueduc dArcueil^ the 
jiqueduc de Belleville, and the jiqueduc de St. 
Gervais. 

uiqueduc d*jircueiL Over a valley to the south 
of Paris, formed by the course of the fii^vre, the 
Romans erected an aqueduct for the conveyance 
of water to the Palais des Thermes, from Arcueil, 
a village at two leagues distance, which evidently 
derived its name from the arches that supported 
the aqueduct. Part of this ancient construction, 
consisting of two arches substantially built, still 
exists near the modem aqueduct. One of these 
arches is particularly worthy of attention. It serves 
'js an entrance to a fine estate. Its architecture is 



AQDEMlCtS. SiSff 

iut noble. The cornice is supported by 
Liitides, one in the costume of a Rotnan 
; the other is a female with her arms 
npon.her breast. The scarcity of water 
oathem part of Paris was more particu- 
t after Mary de Medicis built the palace of 
embourg, and the population increased in 
arter. A project formed by Henry IV of 
Ibhing the Roman aqueduct to convey the 
>f Rungis to Paris, was therefore renewed. 
7th of July, 161 3, Louis,Xniand the queen 
his mother, in great pomp, laid the first 
* Ae aqueduct, which was built after the 
of Desbrosses, and finished in 1624. This 
;t, which extends across the valley of Ar- 
)on twenty-five arches, seventy-two feet 
it by one thousand two hundred in length, 
I a magnificent mass of building. Its total' 
From Arcueil to the Chateau d'Eau, near 
ervatory, is thirteen thousand two hun- 
irds. ]\inc of the arches only are open 
passage of the river, which, however, ge- 
flows through two in the centre. In four 
are small houses which it is intended to 
h. In the interior of the aqueduct on 
le is a parapet wlilch forms a walk. On 
Iside along the whole hue arc various 
••s, called regards. The water of this aque- 
distributed from the Chateau d'Eau by 
of leaden pipes ^ but it deposits a caica- 
ediment which frequently obstructs them, 
rtunately happened that part of the aque- 
as built over quarries long before aban- 
and forgotten. For more than a century 
\T I. >\ 



SgS AQUEDUCTS. 

no inconvenience was experienced, but, in 1777, 
the percolation of water was so great that the 
fountains it supplied became dry. The aqueduct 
was then thoroughly repaired at an immense ex- 
pense. To visit the aqueduct application must 
he made to M. Beurier, No. i25, rue des Arcs, at 
Arcueil. 

u4queduc de Belleville. A considerable quantity 
of water is supplied to Paris from a hill abounding 
in springs, situated at a short distance to the north, 
and upon which the village of Belleville has beeo 
built. The aqueduct by which it is conveyed is 
one of the most ancieut in the vicinity, having 
been built in the reign of Philip Augustus. As 
early as 1:244 ^^ supplied water to the abbey of 
St. Martin des Champs. This aqueduct was sub- 
stantially built of stone, but having fallen into 
decay, it was repaired in 14^7, by order of the 
prevot des marchands, as appears by an inscrip- 
tion over one of the openings. In i6oa the Aqui* 
due de Bellevillewsi^ thoroughly repaired by order 
of Henry IV, and the expense defrayed by an ad- 
ditional duty upon the wine which entered Paris. 

The first reservoir is situated upon the most 
elevated point of the village of Belleville. It con- 
sbts of a substantial freestone building, fifty feet 
in circumference, but not lofty, on account of the 
height of the mountain and the depth of the 
springs. It is covered with a dome surmounted 
by an open lantern through which light is ad- 
mitted. Two staircases lead down to the bottom 
of the reservoir and the entrance of the aqueduct. 
In the centre b a basin which, as the water rises, 
empties itself into the aqueduct. At the barrier 



CAfTAL DC l'oURCQ. ' 3^9 

de Meniimontant is another reservoir, from whtoce 
the water is distributed to that quarter of Parish 
where it is situated. The opening, over v^hich is 
the inscription, is in thegardenofa house, No. igr, 
rue de Paris. To visit this aqueduct permission 
should be obtained at the Prefecture j nevertheless 
the proprietor of the house allows strangers to 
descend by the opening. Great care should be 
taken not to descend when very warm, as the cold 
is intense. 

jiqueduc de St, Gervais or de Romainville, By 
this aqueduct the water from the heights of Ro- 
mainville, Bruyeres, and Meniimontant flows into 
a reservoir in the village of Pr6 St. Gervais, from, 
whence it is conveyed to Paris by leaden pipes. 
The period of its construction is unknown, but it 
certainly existed as early as the thirteenth cen- 
tury, since, in i9-65, St. Louis granted to the Filles 
Dieu of tlic rue St. Denis pari of llic water which 
it supplied to the fouulaiu St. Lnzare. This aque- 
duct was repaired l)v coniuiaud of Henry IV, at 
the same lime as lliat of l)elJeville. It supplies 
about six hundred and lorlv six hogsheads of water 
in Iwenly-four houis. \\\c reservoir was rebuilt 
in the reign of Louis XIV, as appears by an in- 
scription in letters olgold upon a tablet of black 
marble. Il is about twelve feet in length by ten 
in breadth. In the front is a niche wilh a foun- 
^^in in the centre. 



Canal de VOiucq, 

The difficult y of supplying the public foun- 
^ins by machines requiring frequent repair gave 



400 CANAL DE l'oURGQ. 

birth, at different periods, to proposals for oii- 
taining water by means more simple and oMural. 
Many projects were proposed and rejected prerious 
to the suggestion of Messrs Solage and Bossu, in 
1799, of opening a communication between tlie 
Seine and the Oiircq. They calculated that by 
prolonging the latter river to Paris, they could 
supply to the capital forty-four thousand hogs- 
heads of water in twenty-four hours. The pro- 
posal, however, was rejected as impracticable. On 
the 29th Floreal An X (May 19, 1802), a decree 
was issued, which set forth: — '' // sera ouP€rt iwi 
canal de dSrivation de la riviere cPOurcq, qui ame* 
nera cette riviere dans un bassin pris de la Vil" 
letie^ On the aSlh Thermidor following another 
decree appeared, which fixed the ist Yend^miaife, 
An XI (September, 1802), for its commencement, 
assigned the necessary funds out of the receipts 
at the barriers of Paris, and charged the prefect 
of the department with the chief direction^ and 
the engineers des Fonts et Chauss4es with its exe- 
cution. After the commencement of the canal, 
several delays took place at different periods, and 
in i8i4 the works were entirely suspended. In 
1818, the municipal body of Paris were authorised 
by a special law to borrow seven millions of francs 
to finish the canal, the completion of which was 
undertaken by Messrs St. Didier and Vassal. 
Since that period the works have rapidly ad- 
vanced. The objects for which this. canal has 
been opened are to convey to a spacious basin 
water for the supply of the inhabitants of the 
capital, and the fountains which embellish itj 
to establish a communication between the river 



CANAL D£ l'oUJICQ. 4^1 

ur^ and Parian to form on the north of the 

jy 9 qnnal composed of two navigable branehts, 

) one extendiDg from the Seine at St. Dens to 

i basin, and the other from the basin to the 

Ine at the Arsenal j and lastly, to furnish a snp- 

f of water to the manufactories of the capital. 

le various branches or ramifications of this 

dai are known by the names of the Canai de 

\urcq, the Bassin de la Vilhttty the jiquiduc de 

jinturey the Canal de St, Martin^ the Gore de 

jir^enalf and the Canal de St. Denis. 

The Canal de fOurcq receives the water of the 

^nreq beyond the mill of Mareuil, about twenty- 

mr leagues from Paris, and after collecting the 

reams of the Collinance, the Gergogne, the 

herouenne, and the Beuvronne, falls into the 

assin de la Yillette. Its volume, according to an 

ccurate calculation, is eight thousand fiVe hun- 

red and ten inches during six weeks of the year, 

nd twelve thousand six hundred and thirty-seven 

iches during the remaining forty-six. 

The Bassin de la Villette, situated without the 

arrier de Pantin, between the Flanders and Ger- 

lan roads, was begun in 1806, and finished in 

^09. It forms a parallelogram of eight hundred 

id eighty-nine yaids by eighty-nine, and is built 

f substantial masonry. The waters oi tlie Canal 

i COurcq are received at the northern extremity. 

he axis ol the liasiii is the same as that of an 

egant rotunda winch Ibrms barracks for gend- 

mes, and its banks are planted with four rows 

I trees. At tlie two angles of the southern ex- 

emity arc openings, which supply water to the 

U/ueduc dr (.'eirifure and ihc Canal de St. Marliii 



4o2 CANAL DE l'oURCQ. 

The jiqueduc de Ceinture extends from the west-* 
ern angle of the basin as far as Mouceaux, en- 
circling Paris on the north. Its length is four 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-three yards, 
and it is intended to supply the fountains of the 
capital on the right bank of the Seine. This aque- 
duct sends out two branches, called Galerie de 
St. Laurent, and Galerie des Martyrs, from which 
the water is conveyed to numerous points by 
smaller ramifications and cast-iron pipes. 

The Canal de St. Martin, at first called Canal 
de Navigation, communicates between the eastern 
angle of the basin and the Gare de V Arsenal, fot*m- 
ing a course thirty-five thousand five hundred- 
and fifty-six yards in length. It is constructed 
of solid masonry, and the sides are skirted with 
haling ways and trees. This canal passes between 
the boulevard and the hospital St. Louis, and, after 
traversing the faubourg du Temple, the rue Menil- 
montant, and the rue du. Chemin Vert, falls into 
the Gare in the Place de la Bastille. The bridges 
aver the canal in the faubourgs and streets are 
elegantly built of stone. Those already erected 
are at the barrier de Pantin, the rue de la Boy- 
auterie, the rue Grange aux Belles, and between 
the faubourg St. Anloine and the Gare, Several 
others are to be built. The Canal de St. Martin 
with that of St. Denis, forms a communication 
from the Seine to the Seine. 

The Gare de ^j4rsenal, formed of the moat 9f 
the Bastile cleared of its rubbish and old oon- 
structioDS^ is six hundred and fifty-one yardfr in 
length by about sixty-four in breadth. On the 
right leading down to the river is a haling way 



i^ feet wid 

oats, leavi lor a 

ridge has been erecu lov rr 

le sluice where the y s oi i uare 
le Seine. 

The Canal de St. Denis begins near the town 
'om which its name is derived, at the spot where 
le small river Rouillon empties itself* into the 
eine, and terminates at the Canal de VOurcq in 

small semicircular sheet of water, about nine 
undred yards beyond the bassin de la Yillette. 
iter encircling the town of St. Denis on the Paris 
de, this canal extends in a straight line to the 
anal de TOurcq. Its length is seven thousand 
iree hundred and thirty-three yards, and in its* 
3urse there are twelve sluices. Two bridges have 
een constructed over it between Paris and St. 
eols, and a third at the tiorlhern extremity of 
16 village of" la \ illcltc. Fioin the point where 
bis canal coiiimcnccs, boats can reach llie Bassin 
e la I'llUtte in ciu,lu or ten lionrs^ whereas, by 
le Seine, on account of its nuniorous windings, 
irce days are rtquired to arrive at Paris. Tliis 
ast and eminently uselid undertaking is nearly 
aijipleted. 

HYDPvALLIC' IMACIIINES. 

The insufficiency ollhc quantity of water supplied 
y the aqueducts oi Belleville and St. Gervais, 
ras much felt uniler the reign of Henry IV (llie 
ew aqueduct d'x\rcueil not being then co!istructed), 
nd the scarcity at the palaces led to the cslablisli- 
leiit, upon the second arch of the Pont JNcuf, of 
n bydiaulic machine, which took the name of 



4o4 UVOHAUUC MACHINES. 

Fompe de la Samaritaine, from its being oma-* 
mented with a group in gilt lead, representing 
Christ and the woman of Samaria at Jacob's well* 
This machine was demolished in i8i3. 

Pompe du Pont Notre Dame, The utility of the 
Pompe de la Samaritaine suggested the idea of con- 
structing a similar machine upon the Pont Notre 
Dame, which was carried into execution in 1670. 
It consists merely of a square tower, containing a 
reservoir, into which the water is elevated by 
machinery set in motion by the current of the 
river. 

Pompe a Feu de Chaillot. In the year i^SSt 
two foreigners made proposals to elevate the 
water of the Seine by means of steam engines, 
and distribute it to die houses of Paris 9 but the 
project being little understood, their proposals 
were rejected. In 1778, Messrs Perier were autho- 
rised to erect a steam engine upon the quai de 
Billy, below the village of Chaillot, at the a- 
pense of a company. The building containing the 
engine, which was made by Boulton and VVott, 
is a square pavilion of an elegant form. A qandf 
seven feet wide, constructed under the Versailles 
road, extends to the middle of the river, where 
it receives the water, and conveys it into a large 
free-stone basin, from whence it is elevated by 
the steam engine into reservoirs built upon the 
heights of Chaillot, at one hundred and ten feet 
above the level of the Seine. From these reser- 
voirs, wiiich receive four hundred thousand cubic 
feet of water in twenty-four hours, communi- 
cations, by means of pipes, are formed with the 
houses and several fountains on the northern bank 



HYDRMJMC MACHINES. '40D 

vvr. The first triai of tkis engine, the 
bat appeared in France, was made on tlie 
iiigust, 1 78 1, in the presence of the lieu^ 
* poUce. But such was the ignorance 6f 
ciple of the machine, that for several 
er it was erected, the smallest deninge*- 
ised a stoppage in the works, until a per- 
atched to Birmingham, returned with the 
repairing theml The works of this ma- 
y be visited by strangers', who give a 
to the workman that conducts them. 
a Feu du Gros Caillou, After the estaB* 
of their hydraulic machine below Chail- 
rs. Perier erected another on the quai 4es 
, to supply the houses and fountains om. 
bank of the Seine. The first stone was 
he prevSt des marchands on the 24^^ ^^ 
6. This building also presents an elegant 
but as the Gros Caillou is destitute of 
t was necessary lo add a tower nearly 
eel in elevation, to contain the reser- ^4 

?lie works of this machine may also be i 

\ -^ 

I 

c; 
building, destined for a steam engine, { :. 

tructed upon the same bank of the river || 

barrier dc la Gare j but it has never been ^| 

is of an elegant form, and has a lofty fc| 

^ver like thai of the Gros Caillou. O 

hese engines water is gratuitously sup- 

ase of fire, and, to that effect, reservoirs, 

Lantly full, have been built in different 

f the capital. 

Is the end of 1788, more than four -fifths 

res of the company to whom these ma- 



.fl 






4o6 rOUNTAINS. 

chines originally belonged, had been transferred 
to the royal treasury in exchange for otber securi- 
ties, so that the crown had become nearly the sole 
proprietor of the steam engines and their de- 
pendencies, which, since that period, have been 
considered public property, and are superintended 
by persons appointed by the government. 



FOUNTAINS. 

It has been ascertained, by exact calculations, 
that the immense volume of six thousand nine 
hundred and forly-four inches of water was sup- 
plied by aqueducts to ancient Rome, and one inch, 
flowing with mean rapidity, affords seventj-two 
hogsheads in twenty-four hours. Modern Ronae 
still enjoys one thousand five hundred inches of 
water, which is distributed by numerous magni- 
ficent fountains. In 1764, Paris did not possess 
more than two hundred inches of water. Since 
that period the quantity has been greatly increased, 
and when the canal de TOurcq is finished, the 
French capital will be better supplied than any 
other city in the world. 

Under Philip Augustus there were only three 
public fountains in Paris. In the interval between 
the reigns of that prince and Louis XIF, thirteen 
others were constructed, of which four were with- 
out the city, till the erection of new walls by 
Charles V, when three of them were enclosed 
within its bounds. These fountains, all in the 
northern part of the capital, were supplied by the 
aqueduct of Belleville and that of St. Gervais. 
When these aqueducts were repaired by command 



FOUNTAINS. ^Orj 

iry IV, that monarch decreed also that two 
buntains should be erected. Upon the re- 
action of the aqueduct oi' Arcueil, in the 
of Louis XIII, fourteen new fountains were 
and supplied from that source. - In the fol- 
r reigrt, the Pompe du pont Notre Dame 
y been established, Louis XIV issued an order 
Dcil for new fountains to be constructed iti 
rls of the city. Under Louis XV several 
erected, some of which are remarkable for 
*auty of their ornaments; but the supply of 
was very scanty till the steam engines at 
lot and the Gros Caillou were established. 
' the government of Napoleon the number 
^lic fountains was greatly augmented. Seven* 
were constructed between i8o4 and 181Q. 
sive of those of the palaces and royal gar- 
there are now within the cily bounds one 
red and Iwoiitv-srven founlniiis. 
c plan ol conveying water by pipes to private 
3S has been only parlially adopted- l3ut it is 
from dooi' to dooi' at iIk* rate of one sou per 
by water carriers \\ lio obtain it at the foim- 
Allliongli most of tin.' necessaries of lUe 
•icaper in i'aiis ihan in London, tlie essential 
esol llrini,^ and \vater are considerably dearer, 
latter too is licfpientlv o])lal!icd willi incon- 
ncc, Irreifularitv and lr(nd)le. 
2 shall now describe sncb of the fountains as 
nlitled to notice, ofwbicli the number is small 
>arcd with those which are merely streams 
ig from uninteresting orifices or lionsMieads, 
alls or posts in different places. 



4o8 FOUNTAINS. 

Fontaine de St. Awjre, 

Rue St. Afoye, 
This fountain, erected in 1687, is divided into 
two stories.' In the centre of the lower one is a 
niche, ornamented with a sea-shell and congela- 
tions. The upper story is adorned with pilasters, 
surmounted by a semicircular pediment between 
two dolphins supporting an escutcheon. 



Fontaine de Bacchus^ 

At the corner of the rue Censier, 

This fountain, by Bralle andValois, has been 
much admired, but certainly is not very classical. 
There is a moral fable in the decoration: a satyr, 
surrounded by Bacchanalian attributes, offers 
water to those around him, who without doobt 
are friends to stronger beverage. The irony in- 
tended is that water becomes more necessary as 
our wants multiply. 



Fontaine de Birague^ 

Rue St. Antoine. 
The name of this fountain is derived from car- 
dinal Ren^ de Birague, chancellor of France, by 
whose munificence it was erected, in iSyg. Ib 
1707 it was rebuilt. Its plan is a pentagonal 
tower surmounted by a dome terminated by a 
lantern. The sides are similar, consbting of a 
niche between Doric pilasters supporting a pedi- 
ment, above which rises an attic adomol with a- 
Naiad and rivew. On each side was formerly a 



FOUNTAINS. 4<>9 

let with ftD inscription. The following is the 
y one that now remains : 

RiBTOR ET AEdILES FonTEM HUNC POSUERC, BkA.TI 
CEPTRUM^ 81 LODOTIL, OCM PLUET Ulf DA, REGAT. 



idteau d'Eau du Boulesfard de Bondj. 

lliis magnificent and picturesque fouotain, exe- 
ed in i8i i, after the designs of Girard, is very 
)pily pkced on a piece of elevated ^i d. for- 
rly a bastion, betwee Po i i 

; rue du faubourg du . iie, and to a 
nd reservoir which receives v oi 

lal de rOurcq and distributes it to tne 
lis in the vicinity. It is for \ reai I 

is called chateau d'eau. It c oi 

icentric basins placed one above am tne 

gest of which is ninety feel in rliameter. rrom 
3 centre of tlie uppermost rises a shaft, orna- 
;nted with leaves, supporting two patera? of 
Terent dimensions, from whence the water falls 
a fine cascade from basin to basin. At a level 
th the upper basin, four square pedestals sup- 
rt each two antique lions, which spout forth 
iter into one of the basins. The lions, shaft and 
^ercPj are of cast iron, and the basins are of 
^teau Landon, stone highly polished. In the 
11 towards the rue de Bondy, two niches are 
^trived, from which water issues through lions' 
cds for the supply of the neighbourhood. A 
^y'ecx was formed for embellishing the whole 
r^iV of the boulevards with similar monuments, 
' distance to distance. This fountain cost 

-«^RT I. . X? 



4lO FOUNTAINS. 

180,000 francs, and affords two hundred and ten 
inches of water. 



Fontaine des CapucinSy 

Rue St. Honore, at the corner of the rue Castiglione^ 
This fountain was formerly surrounded hj the 
buildings of five or six convents, which have been 
demolished or converted to other purposes. This 
circumstance is alluded to in the following in- 
scription by Santeuil, which it still bears : 

Tot loca sacra inter, pura est, qujs labitur uvdi; 
Hang non impuro, quisquis es, ore bibas. 

The Fontaine des Capucins was erected in 167 1, 
and rebuilt in 17 18. It is adorned with orna- 
mental joints, and consists of a niche surmounted 
by a pediment, above which is a second story 
with a window. 



Fontaine St. Catherine^ 

Rue du Faubourg St. Antoine. 
This fountain consists of a projection, deco- 
rated with twp pilasters of the Tuscan order, sur- 
mounted by a pediment, the whole enriched with 
congelations, shells, and other ornaments. It was 
erected in 1783 after the designs of Caron. 



Fontaine de la Croix du Tiroir^ 

Corner of the rue de VArbre Sec and the rue Su 

Honore, 

This fountain derives its name from a croflo^ 
called Croix du Tiroir^ near which it was silualccL 



FOUNTAINS. 4"' 

It was' rebailt by Soufllot, in 1775, and adorned 
with sculpture by Boizot. Each front presents 
a basement adorned with vermiculated rustics, 
which supports pilasters, wrought in stalactites, 
with capitals ornamented in shells. The three 
stories, of which it consists, are surmounted by a 
balustrade^ supported by trusses adorned with the 
heads of marine diviaities. The front towards the 
rue St. Honors is the widest, it haying two win- 
dows at each story, whereas the other has but 
one. Between those of the first story is a nymph 
pouring water into a basin. 



Fontaine Desaix^ 

See Place Dauphine, page 826. 



Fontaine du Diable^ 

At the corner of rue ilc V llclielle and rue St. Louis. 

The origin of this fountain, as well as of iu 
name, is quite unknown. It was rebuilt in 1 jSc), 
and consists of a lofty obelisk, upon a pedestal, 
the torus of which is sculptured in oak- leaves. 
At the upper angles of a tablet are two Tritons 
supporting the prow of a ship. The scul[)ture, 
whicliis in good taste, was executed by Doro. 



Fontaine de VKchaudCy 

f'^ieillc rue flu 1 cinple. 
This building bears some resemblance to the 
monument known by the name of Demosthenes^ 
lantern. It is of an octagonal forni and divided 



4i2 FOUNTAINS. 

into compartments decorated with mouldings, 
and crowned by a cupola similar to those of the 
Turkish mosques, terminated by a small vase or- 
namented with congelations- 



Fontaine de I' £ cole de MedecinSj or 

d'Esculape^ 

Place de PEcole de Medecine. 

This magnificent fountain was erected in 18069 
after the designs of Gondouin, and presents four 
fluted columns of the Doric order which support 
an entablature. Above them is an attic in which 
is a reservoir, from whence a vast sheet of water 
falls twenty-four feet into a semicircular basin 
behind the columns. The design of this building 
is simple and grand. The effect of the water, on 
account of the height from which it falls, is vciy 
striking when there is a sufficient supply. 



Fontaine £lgjptiennej 

Rue de Sei^res. 
This beautiful fountain was constructed in 1806. 
It presents the gate of a temple, the opening of 
which forms a niche, for a copy of the E^fp* 
tian Antinous, holding in each hand a vase, from 
whence water fails into a semicircular basin, and 
issues thence by the head of a sphynx in bronze. 
In an entablature which crowns the building an 
eagle is displayed. 

Fontaine de V Elephant, 

See Place de la hastille, page 3^. 



FOUNTAttfS. 4>3 

Fontaine de Grenelle^ 

JVo, 57, rue de Grenelle St, Germain. 

This fouQtam, although much extolled, is in a 
very bad style. It is built on ground which for- 
merly belonged tQ a convent of nuns. Bouchard on, 
who furnished the designs, executed all the figures 
and bas-reliefs, and even some of the ornaments 
with which it is decorated. It was begun in 1759 
and finished in 1745* The building is of a semi- 
circular form, ninety feet in length by thirty- six 
in elevation. In the centre is a projecting mass, 
from which two wings extend to the contiguous 
houses. It consists of a basement, above which 
rises an upper story, presenting iu the centre a 
kind of portico, and in the wings niches and win- 
dows between small pilasters without bases or 
capitals. The whole is surmounted by an attic 
extending the length of the building. In front of 
the portico is a group in white marble, represent- 
ing tiie city of Paris sitting upon the prow of a 
ship_, and legarding with complacency the Seine 
and the Marne, which are recumbent at her feet. 
The portico^ consisting of four Doric columns sup- 
porting a pediment, forms a back ground, and 
places the city of Paris as at the entrance of a 
temple dedicated to her honour. In the lateral 
niches are allegorical statues of the seasons, each 
of whicii with its characteristic attributes is ex- 
plained by a bas-relief beneath it. The niches are 
separated by ornaments in relief with the city 
arms iu the centre. Between the columns is a 
marble tablet, with the following inscription by 



.Y^). 



4l4 FOUNTAINS. 

cardinal Fleury, effaced at the revolution, 
since restored : 

Ddm Luvodtcus XV. 

Popnli amor et Parens optimns, 

Publicae tranquiliuiis assertor, 

Gallici Imperii tinibus, 

Innocue propagatis ; 

Pace Germanos Russosque 

Inter et Otlomanos 

Feliciler conciliate, 

Gloriose' simul et pacilice 

Regnabat, 

Fontcm hunc civium atilitati, 

Urbisque ornumento. 

Consecrarunt 

Praefectus et AEdiles, 

Anno Domini 

M.DCC.XXX.IX. 

The water bsues through broDze heads it 
basement. This fountain wa$ certainly desi 
more for ornament than use, as the water i 
fords bears no proportion to the dimensions o 
building. 

Fontaine des Innocens^ 

See Marche des InnocenSy page 349. 



Fontaine des Invalides^ 

See page 336. 



FOUNTAIN^. 4' 5 

Fontaine de Leda^ or de la rue P'au^ 

girardy 

At tlie comer of the rue du Hegard. 

This fountain, erected by Bralle, at Bonaparte's 
ommand, presents the form of a tomb. It is 
»raamented with a large bas-relief, by Vallois^ 
epresenting Leda on the banks of the Eurolas» 
dressing Jupiter, under the form of a swan. At 
he feet of Leda, Cupid is seen drawing an arrow 
rom his quiver. The water flows into a basin 
rom the beak of the swan. At the angles are 
wo pilasters, adorned with Dolphins, one encir- 
ling a trident and the other a rudder. AbovQ 
be pilasters is a pediment. 



Fontaine de Louis le Grand y 

It the aiii;lc jormcd by the rue tic la IMichodicic ami 
the rue du Port Mahon, 

The front presents a recess l)Ct\vccn two Doric 
olumns supporting a pediment. Above rises a 
jcoiid story decorated will) two Composite pllas- 
?rs, and a taljlcl wliieh is surmounted Ijv an attic, 
he lower slory is rusticated, and llie upper one 
rnamcnted with canteilevers, swaggs, etc. The 
cess is adorned by a shell. On the tablet is the 
Uowlng inscription, l)y an unknown author: 

\eX LOQCITUn, (JADIT I". SAXO FONS, OMEN AMEMUS^ 
IasTAK AOU.r, n ciVEs! OMMA sPOiNTE FLUENl. 

7>Ve erection of this fountain was decreed in 
^ 3 but was not executed till I'jvi. 



/ti6 



FOUNTAINS. 



Fontaine de St. Louis y 

Rue St, Louis. 
This fountain consists of a pedestal, surmounted 
by a niche between two pilasters ; the latter sup- 
port a pediment, behind which rises a small dome 
terminated by a lantern. The niche is filled by 
a vase upon a pedestal, having Tritons seated 
upon Dolphins on each side. 



Fontaine^ or Grotte du Luxembourg, 

See page 189. 



Fontaine de Mars, or du Gros Caillouy 

Hue St. Dominique^ opposite the Military Hospital. 

This fountain was erected in 2809. It presents 
a square mass of building ornamented with eiglit 
Doric pilasters, and an entablature. In the f^^ont 
is a bas-relief representing Hygeia, the goddess of 
health, administering a draught to an exhausted 
soldier. The figure of the soldier is naked except 
his head, which is covered with a helmet, and ne 
leans on a shield. On the sides are vases, sur- 
rounded by the Esculapian serpent, and adorned 
with bas-reliefs. The angles of the front and two 
sides are ornamented with sea-monsters. 



Fontaine St. Martin, 

Rue St. Martin. 
This fountain consists of a basement and two 
pilasters, surmounted by a pedestal, ornamented 



7 
with ssk da 

The pilas 

tics and congeiauuu m tne ;re is a taDlet, 
and above it a pan ng a in relief. 

It is built against th wau the ai nt convent 
of St. Martin des Cn; Part oi tne wall and 

a small tower still ex 



Fontaine Maubuee^ 

At tkt angle of rue Mauhuce and rue St. Martin. 
This fountain is one of the most ancient in Paris, 
having existed early in the fourteenth century. In 
1755 it was rebuilt. It consists merely of a pro- 
jecting mass in the form of a pedestal. Upon each 
front is a vessel of rushes, with a sea-shell iu the 
centre, and above it a tablet for an inscription. 
The front towards the rue Maubu^e is surmounted 
by a ship, emblematical of the city of Paris. 



Fontaine de la rue Moiitmartrc. 

This fountain forms a house, four stories high, 
and consists of" imposts ornamented with conge- 
lations, and surmounted by a pediment. The 
centre is divided into three tablets. Beneath the 
balcony of the second story are three bas-reliefs, 
representing coats oi mall, helmets, shields, quivers, 
etc. 

Fontaine de la Naiade^ or des llau- 

driciteSy 

Rue dci> f^ Lcilles Jlauiiiietla. 
'J'his Ibunlaln was built in 1775, yftcr llic de 



4 1 8 FOUNTAINS. 

signs of Moreau. The bas-relief of a Naiad deep« 
in^ among rushes, is by Mignot. 



Fontaine du Palmier^ 

See Place du Chdtelet, page 3a5. 



Fontaine du Parvis Notre Dame, 

See page 47a. 



Fontaine des Petits Peres, 

Hue Notre Dame des P^ictoires, 
This fountain was constructed in 1671, and 
consists of a basement which supports two pilas- 
ters surmounted by a pediment. The followiog 
inscription, by Santeuil, was oblh,erated at the 
revolution, but has since been restored : 

Qd^ DAT AQUAS, SAXO LATET HOSPltA NTMPHA SUB IMO j 

Sic tu, cum dederts dona, latere velis. 



Fontaine de la Place de VEcole, 

See Place de VEcoUy page 33o. 



Fontaine de la Place St. Michel, 

At tJie top of the rue de la Harpe. 
Upon the site of this fountain there forraeriy 
stood a gate flanked with towers, called Porte St. 
Michel, which was demolished in i684i by order 
of Louis XIV. The construction of the fountain 
was begun in 1687, after the designs of Bullet. It 
consists of a vast niche, ornamented with Doric 



F. 419 

mhs, sup] a ; a construction 

liniy too ] avy mere thread of water 

;h issues from it. m the iollowing inscrip- 
, by Sanleuil, allusioa is made to the uni- 
ity, most of the colleges being situated near 
\>untain: 

OC SUB MONTE SDOS BESERAT SAPIENTIA PONTES 
E TAMES HAlfC PURI RESPUE PONTIS AQUAM. 



Fontaine J or Chateau d'Eau de la 
Place du Palais Rojal^ 

See Place du Palais Rojralf page 164. 



Fontaine de St. Sulpice^ 

See Place St. Sulpice, page 3a8. 



Fontaine de Popincourl , 

line de Popincnnrt. 
ills fountain ^va.s constructed in j8o6, by 
le, and is one oi liis best compositions. Its 
1 is a cippus tcrminatcti hv a scroll pediment, 
le tympanum of wliicli is a pelican feeding 
young. The front presents a Ijas-rclief of 
rity, by Forliii. Two line poplars planted 
:ach side of this fountain add to its effect. 



Fontaine de Bic/ielieUj, 

i-e angle of rue de Jiichelieu and rue Trauersiere. 
lis fountain, erected in 167 1, derives its name 
- Cardinal Richelieu, Jt is remarkably plain. 



420 FOUNTAINS. 

but bears a tablet with the following inseriptioD; 
by Santeuil, in which he alludes to the cardinal's 
office of grand master and superintendent general 
of navigation : 

Qui quondam magnum tevuit modcramxit aquaruw 

RiCHELIUS, FOWTI PLAUDERET IPSE HOTtf. • 



Fontaine St. Severing 

m 

At the angle of the rue St, Set^erin and the rue 

St, Jacques. 

This fountain was erected in i6a4> and is re- 
markable for a dome surmounted by a lantern. 
Upon a tablet of white marble is the following in- 
scription, by Santeuil, which alludes to its being 
placed at the foot of a mountain: 

DUM SCANDUNT JUGA MONTIS ANHELO PECTOrE NTMPHJB, 

Htc una e sociis yallis, a more, sedet. 



Fontaine de Tantale^ or de la Points 

St. Eustache. 

This fountain, situated at the angle formed by 
the rue Montmartre and the rue Montorgueil, was 
built in 1806. It presents an elliptical niche be* 
tween two rusticated imposts surmounted by t 
pediment, in the tympanum of which is an eagle* 
In the niche is a head of Tantalus, above a shell 
from which the water flows into a rich vase. The 
expression of the head is eagerness to drink. 
From the vase the water descends into a semi- 
circular basin. Upon the vase is a bas-relief, re- 
presenting a Nymph, holding a vessel for Cupid 
to drink. 



w: d to I '.lent wall 
ana ( ' from the 
[ido , woo f K <^ prior of 
France, at the time oi c< n. It is sur- 
mounted by a cap i i pediment is 



Venddme. It is i i a i a military 

Fontaine St. F'ictor, 

Hub St. f'ictor. 

This fountain wds built in 1671, after the de- 
signs of Bernini, and was called Fontaine ^Alex- 
andre or de la Broste, because, upon its site, there 
had previously existed a tower of that name. It 
afterwards was called Fontaine St. Victor, from 
the celebrated abiiey near wliich it was silualed. 
Tile building presents a narrow lofty front orna- 
mented with a vase and festoons, above wliicli arc; 
the city arms. 

The following lines by Santeuil, in wliich illu- 
sion is made to the valuable library of St. Victor. 
were effaced at the revolution: 

fi^TABLlSHMEKT Ol- CLARIFIKD AMI 
PURIFIED WATER Ol- THE SIilM:. 

iVo, i'i,quaides Ctfeilim. 
"The water of die Seine, altliougli the iiiirt-^i in 



4?. 2 BATHS. 

Paris, is much improved by the process which 
undergoes in this establishment,. and is no dear 
than the common watcrj but it can only be hi 
by subscription. The public are admitted to vie 
this institution, which the allied sovereigns visit 
in i8j4* 

The following lines on the Seine, are by t 
celebrated Latin poet, Santeuil, a canon of t 
abbey of St. Victor: 

Sequana, ciim primiim Reginae allabitur Urbi 
Tardat praecipites ambitiosas aquas ^ 

Captus amore loci, cursum obliviscitur anccps 
Quo fludt, et dulces nectit in Urbe moras. 

Hinc Tarios implens fluctu subeunte canales, 
Fons fieri gaudet, qui mod6 flumen erat. 

When to the queen of cities comes the Seine, 
His rapid waters hurrying to the main, 
He checks his course, and now, forgetful, seems 
Doubtful which way to guide his wandering streams 
Struck with affection for the spot, he plays 
With lingering fondness through its streets and waj 
W^hile, with refreshing tides each part snpplied. 
He sports a fountain who a stream did glide. 



BATHS. 

Balnea, vina, Venus, corrumpunt corpora nostra, 
At vitam faciunt balnea, vina, Venus. 

Wine, women, baths, our vigour undermine, 
But life's not life without baihs, women, wine. 

In the middle ages public baths, called 4iup» 
were so common in Paris, that six streets or alle 
derive their names from them. It appears al 
that in the houses of the wealthy, there were bat 



BATHS. 4^3 

tich at grand entertainments it was custo- 
for the guests to bathe. The ceremony of 
ath was very strictly observed at the recep- 
>f a knight. In the thirteenth century the 
Its of the public baths traversed the streets 
morning and gave notice, in the following 
, that the baths were prepared : 

Seignor, car vous allcz baingnier 

Kt esluvez jans deJaier, 

Li baing sont cliaut, cVst sans menlir. 

ise establishments maintained their reputa-^ 
or a long period, and their proprietors, called 
irs-etuvistes^ formed a corporate body. Under 
XIII and Louis XIV they became places of 
ire and debauchery, to which cause may be 
uted their decline. At present the baths in 
are numerous, and afford every kind of ac- 
jodallon al a inodcralc rljanrc. The warm 
is rc■^ar(Ie(l Ijy llic J^'rciicli, ajid particularly 
c Parisians, as essential to the prescrvallon 
Ulli. Tiie balhliig cslalilislniienls art; formed 
ngcs of small rooms, fLiriiislicd vvilli every 
;ai V appendage. The temperature oF the 
may be regidated at pleasure by two pipes, 
3r iiot and the otlu'r for cold water. Bathers 
>e accommodated with a sliglit repast and the 
al of the dally papers. Tlie usual charge for 
1 is twcniv-live or thirty sous, exclusive of 
; but by taking six tickets an allowance Is 
For a towel is paid two sous, a peignoir 
sous, ami a dressing-gown six sous, 
leral and sulphur l)aths arc also common in 
and very reasonable. 



424 fiATHS. 

Bains Vigier. 

In the year 1760, M. Poitevin established on the 
river warm baths, coDstructed on boats, and the 
speculation proved successful. Of this kind four 
are now kept by Vigier. They are staticmed near 
the Pont Marie, the Pont Neuf, and above and 
below the Pont RoyaL That above the Pont 
Royal, opposite the palace of the Tuileries, is the 
most spacious and elegant. It was construeted 
by Bellanger in 4o days, in 1801, on a boat as long 
as the largest vessels. It is two stories high, and 
the galleries are adorned with pillars, pilasters, 
and handsome ceilings. It contains one hundred 
and sixty baths, which in summer are generally 
occupied from day-break till eleven at night. In 
winter the establishment closes at ten o^clock. The 
entrance is adorned with flowers and shrubs^ and 
a flower-garden is laid out on the bank of the 
Seine. This establishment is remaikably clean and 
well attended. 

Bains ChinoiSj 

JVo, a5. Boulevard des Italiens^ 
This construction presents masses of artificial 
rock, surmounted by Chinese buildings and em- 
blems, designed by Lenoir le Romain. This esta- 
blishment unites a restaurant and a cafe with com- 
modious and agreeable baths. ' 

Bains Montesquieu^ 

Hue Montesquieu. 
This establishment, situated in the most fre- 



] 

quarter of 

ice. Not ^ C( 

listribiition. Two co ns deci 
wliich leads to a beauuiul stain 



Bains TutcSy 

No. 94> rue du Temple, 

Long established baths are elegant and 
ous. In front is a pretty garden, which 
eatly diminished by the construction of 
shops, surmounted by a first floor, and 
extending the whole length. 



Bains St. Sauveur^ 

2Yo. 277, rue St, Denis, 

chitecture of this establishment is simple 

istribulion convenient. 



Baijis de Tivoli^ 

No. 88, rue St. Lazare. 

fine establishment are baths of factitious 
rvaters of every kind, with commodious 
for invalids, and a fine garden, besides 
lege of walking in the Jardin de Tivoli. 



Bains de GalleSj, 

JVn. I, rue de Crammont. 

stabilshment is kepi by Dr. Galles, and 
ligh reputation for mineral and sulphure- 

s. 

36. 



4^6 BATHS. 

Besides the above, there are, in every quarter of 
the capital, other baths of less note, but very 
couvenient and comfortable. 

Bains de la Roionde^ 

Palais Royal, opposite the rue P'iuienne. 
This establishment is conducted with the utmost 
cleanliness, and fitted up in a style of elegant sim- 
plicity, which, with very moderate charges, are 
calculated to insure the sanction of the public. 



Bains Chantereine, 

JVo. 36, rue Chantereine. ■ 

This is one of the best bathing establishments in 
the capital. 

E coles de Natation (Swimming 

Schools). 

There are three swimming schools in Paris, 
which in the summer season are much frequented 
by the young Parisians. The principal one con- 
sists of seven large boats connected together so 
as to form a parallelogram, which bounds an 
open space for swimming. It is stationed at the 
quai d^Orsay, at a short distance from the shore. 
The side boats are covered with more than one 
hundred and sixty 'small dressing rooms. The end 
boats support various offices belonging to the 
establishment. A bridge with platforms, from 
whence the divers plunge, is thrown across the 
centre. This open space being from eight to 
twelve feet deep, none but expert swimmers, or 



BATHS. 4^7 

learners attended by their master, are allowed to 
enter it. The lessons are given in a private room, 
where the learner is suspended on shingles in the 
swimming attitude, and the master directs his 
limbs into the various motions of the art; he then 
goes into the water, being held in a shingle by the 
master, and repeats the motions till he can per- 
form them without assistance. The next step is 
to swim under the inspection of the master, who 
holds before the learner a pole, which he can 
grasp in case of need. A youth seldom requires 
more than twenty lessons to become sufQciently 
expert to perfect himself without aid by daily 
exercise. This is one of the most useful establish- 
ments in France. Every possible precaution is 
taken to prevent accidents, .and regulations, en- 
forced by the police, for maintaining propriety and 
decency, are stricllv adhered to. The school 
opens on the ist of iMav, uud closes on the ist of 
October. The cliai-ge, including drcssini:j gown 
and drawers, is, (or achiiittance to the open s[)ace 
1 franc 5 sous ; for tlie lesson 5 francs 8 sous. 
VVJien a party is formed lo swim outside the 
school, ])oats and ro\vers are in close attendance, 
for wliich a small extra chartre is marie. 

A sinallcr school, on a similar plan, is stationed 
^^-tow the fjuai de Belhune, near the ile Louviers, 
^^ Jere the water is shallow, and there is in some 
^ Tts a good sandy bottom. 

^ third school is at the Pompe a Fen at Ghaillot. 

^;5 is intended principally lor the w inter season, 
t/f^2 water is in a tepid state, being warmed 

•^'^ ^2am. It Is questionaljle wJielher the water 
' -^jc changed here suiiicientlv often to be as 



428 COMMON SEWERS. 

clean as bathers desire. The charge for a bi 
I franc 5 sous. When a lesson is taken, the 
charge is 2 francs to sous. 



COMMON SEWERS. 

The Seine and tbe Bieyre in the southern 
of Paris, and tbe Seine and the rivulet of h 
montant in the northern part, were formerl 
only receptacles for rain-water, etc. When di 
were opened round the city, walls, these ser\ 
sewers, and some parts of tbem, now arched 
are still devoted to that purpose. About the 
1370, under the privStS of Hugues Aubriot 
grand egoui was formed, by lining with mas 
the sides of tbe bed of the Hvulet of Menilmon 
which had become dry. This sewer extent 
the north of Paris, and falls into the Seine h 
Chaiilot. At the same time several smaller sc 
were opened, which emptied themselves int 
grand Sgout. These sewers becoming grad 
choked up, and not being covered, were insi 
able nuisances wherever they passed, and se 
times threatened to generate contagious dis 
by the exhalations which they sent forth, 
evil had become so great in 1671, that it wa 
termined that several of the sewers sboul 
vaulted, and the prevot des marchands and Sch 
were enjoined to inspect them annually. A 
same time was fopmed the Sgout de i'Hdte 
Invalides, which traverses the esplanade and 
into the Seine. In I'jbi^y the lower part o 
egoui Montmartre was vaulted $ in 1740 the^ 
egoui was covered in^ and in 1754/ three 



a 4«9 

^ere built ylx. that of th< ole Miiitairey 
averses U Champ de and tho se o f 

St. Florentin and tne riace Louis XV. 
ers which surround the Palais Royal were 
yhen that edifice was built, and empty 
es into that of the Place du Carrousel, 
sewers in the interior of Paris are now 
over, except part of the ^gout du Ponceau 
ubourg St. Denis. Those of the southern 
the capital, of the Cite and the tie St. 
re much less considerable than those of 
bem part, as will appear by the following 

Yards, 
of Sewers on the nortbem side . . • . a3,39S 
'— OD the'oalbem side .... 5,93r 

— in the isles de la Cite' and 

St. Louis 3i3 



i'oTAL . . 'i8,900 



43o HOSPITALS. 



CHAPTER XV. 
CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS AND PRISONS. 



HOSPITALS. 

Establishments for affording relief to* the sick, 
shelter to foundlings, and succour to the aged, in- 
firm, and unfortunate, existed in Paris at a very 
early period ; but being exclusively under the di- 
rection of interested ecclesiastics, the object of their 
founders was grossly perverted, and their reve- 
nues directed to improper objects. From the time 
of Philip Augustus to the period of the revolution, 
nothing could exceed the wretchedness which pre- 
vailed in these abodes of human suffering. Their 
mal-administration, joined to the want of air and 
beds, caused a dreadful mortality among the pa- 
tients and inmates, and every successive inquiry 
brought to light the most appalling facts, without 
giving birth to any eflicieut measures for their 
amelioration. In the year 1786, a pamphlet ap- 
peared, which demonstrated the urgent necessity 
of removing the patients from the Hotel Dieu, 
and distributing them in different houses. It also 
proposed the demolition of the H6tel Dieu and 
the erection of four hospitals without the bar- 
riers. This pamphlet called forth an answer from 



HOSPITALS. 43 1 

superintendents of the hospital, who oppdsed 

measure. Another pamphlet appeared in re- 
', which contained the most convincing argU' 
nls. This controversy haviug interested the 
blic mind in favour of a change, Louis XVI com- 
oded the Academy of the Sciences to make in- 
Iry into the state of the Hotel Dieu. Tlieir 
>ort showed the state of that hospital to be 
»st deplorable. The construction of the four 
spitals was therefore ordained by the king, 
10, in a prospectus, invited tbe inhabitants of 
ris and of France to concur with him by dona- 
ns and subscriptions in this work of benefi- 
ice. All classes seemed eager to contHbtlte 
vards carrying the project into execution, and 
3siderable sums were raised j but the profligacy 

the minister Calonne, the low state of the 
ances, and the events which preceded the revo- 
Ion, caused several millions of llvres oflhe hos- 
al fund to be dissipaled. Tiie revolution break- 
; out shortly afterwards, the hospitals of Paris 
nained ^vllhout improvement. Tlie project, 
wever, of dividing the Hotel Dieu, and esta- 
sblng four hospitals at PiUMS, was not forgotten. 

a decree of the Convention, dated July i6th, 
95, the admlnlslrallon of the department was 
inniandcd to transfer, wllbout delay, part oflhe 
tients of the hospitals of Paris Into convents or 
her structures which had become national pro- 
rty. By another decree, of August 24th, 1794, 
e superintendence of the liospitals of Paris was 
sted in sixteen members of the National Con- 
ntion. By a subsequent decree, two new hos- 
tals were established, and the number of beds 



432 HOSPITALS. 

in thos6 already existing considerably augmented 
At various successive periods the state of the hSpi 
taux and hospices* of Paris has been ameliorated 
particularly since they have been placed under th 
direction of a general administration. This ad 
ministration, which was created in February, 1801 
consists of a general council and an adrainistratif 
committee. All the civil hospitals, as well as th 
various institutions dependent on them, are unde 
their superintendence. The military hospitak ar 
under the government of the etat major of th 
garrison of Paris. The general council, formed 
Die principal magistrates, and individuals distin 
guished by their probity, talents, and philao 
thropy, decide all general administrative measuies 
and superintend the property, accounts, and otbe 
affairs of the hSpitaux and hospices. This counci 
assembles every Wednesday at the Hdtel de Yille 
The prefect of the department is its president 
The administrative committee regulates the dif 
ferent branches of management, and for that pur 
pose have agents attached to each establishment 
For the more prompt and regular performance o 
the duties of the administrative committee, thai 
fi!lnctions are divided into five branches, as follows 
I. The hospices. 1. The hopitaux, general bake 
house, and pharmacie cent rale, 3. The domains 
4. Secours a domicile. 5. The accounts. The oi 
fice of the general administration is in the Plarvi 

* In France a diitinction is made between M6pitM 
and Hospice; the former being generally applied b 
establishments for the relief of the sick or wouncbd 
and the latter to those in which are received the age< 
and infirm, or foimdlings. 



HOSPITALS. 4^3 

Dam^, where all the archives and other 
I of the hospitals are deposited. In addition 
hospitals, tne superintendence of the general 
istration extends to charily schools and va- 
)ther benevolent institutions. 
the public places of amusement, except the 
b Opera, pay a tax of ten per cent on their 
is towards the support of the hospitals. 
f a fourth of the entrance duties collected at 
friers is devoted to the same object. A heavy 
r their support is also levied on every piece 
)und purchased for the purpose of burial in 
fineterics. 

\ general administration form a board, which 
;nded daily by medical men to examine the 
Its who apply for admission.^ By means of 
rrangement the physician of any hospital, 
; attention is directed to a particular disease, 
ss of diseases, may send any patient to the 
lal to wliich he is attached, 
course ol lectures on pharmaceutical clie- 
y is delivered every winter, 
general, the hospitals ot" Paris arc clean and 
managed, for which they are not a little in- 
d to the Sceurs de la CJiantc, and other lemale 
3US orders, who devote themselves to the 
)f the sick, and, at the same lime, watch over 
teresls of the hospital, and even perform the 
menial ofiices. These women are parlicu- 
clean and neatly dressed. 
3 physicians and surgeons visit the patients of 
rincipal hospitals, at seven in the morning, 

ccidenls and iii^oiu cnsos arc received withoiu 

•rm. 

AhT I. ~'l 



434 HOSPITALS. 

and deliver clinical lectures at nine, on the most 
interesting cases, a system admirably adapted to 
instruct students in the nature, progress, and cure 
of the various diseases. 

The number of beds established in the h6pijtau» 
and hospices is more than fifteen thousand, and 
their revenues amount to more than nine miiiioos 
and a half of francs. The expenditure difTcrs but 
little from the receipts. In 1819 thirty-seven thou- 
sand nine hundred and seven patients were treated 
in the hospitals of Paris. The mean number of 
beds occupied in the hopitaux is three thousand 
eight hundred and sixty, and the mean annual 
expense of each bed is 6o5 francs. The mean 
mortality is about a seventh. The mean expense 
of the hospices is 3,968,825 francs j and their ordi- 
nary population is nine thousand live hundred ■ 
persons, each of v^hom costs 18 sous a day. These 
are exclusive of the Enfans-Trouves (the Found- 
ling Hospital ) which, in 1816, cost T,a46ja4^fr. 
In the same year the sum of 1,460,496 fr. was dis- 
tributed to eighty-four thousand poor at their 
own houses. 

Hotel Dieu^ 

Parvis JVotre Dame, 

This is the most ancient hospital in Paris. Its 
foundation is attributed to Saint Landri, bishop 
of Paris, in the seventh century. Philip Augustuf 
is the first king known to have been a benefactor 
to this establishment, and by him it was first 
styled Maison de Dieu. St. Louis enlarged tht 
buildings of this hospital, exempted it from taxes 
and duties, and assigned it an annual revenue. 



435 

In i6oa r come 

necessai - iV causea iwo wa lo be 

added, i^everal private individuals have also been 
considerable benefactors. In the night of Au- 
^st ist, 1737, a dreadful fire broke out at the 
H6tel Dieu, which burnt for four days and did 
great damage. Two thousand five hundred pa- 
tients Were transpor to the cathedral of Notre 
Danle and the arcl op's palace. By another 
fire, December 29th, 1772, several hundred of the 
pidtiefiits perished in the flames, and by the falling 
0^ the buildings. 

5*be H6tel Dieu consists of several piles of build- 
ing irregularly disposed, and is divided into twenty- 
three wards, of which eleven are for men and 
twelve for women. The wards are well ventilated, 
and each patient has a separate bed. The front 
was erected in i8o4, after the designs of Clava- 
reau. It is a projecting Doric vestibule. At the 
revolution tliis cstaljlislnncnt was called Hospice 
(VHumanite, but lias since resumed its former title 
oi Hotel Dieu. Tiic present number of beds is one 
thousand two hundred and sixty-two. The reli^ 
gieuscs of the order of St. Augustine attend upon 
the patients. 

In this house are received the wounded and 
sick, with the exception of children, incurable 
and insane persons, lying-iu-womcn, and persons 
having chronical or venereal diseases. The public 
are admitted to visit the patients or inspect the 
establishment on Wednesdays, Fridays and Sun- 
days, from one o'clock till three. To enter on 
other days application must be made to the yJge/U 
de surveillance. 



4 36 HOSPITAL*. 

Hopital de la Pitie\ 

No. I, rue Copeau. 

This hospital was founded in 1612, for the re^ 
ception of paupers, and is so called because its 
chapel was dedicated to Notre Dame de la FitU, 
In 1657, it was appropriated as an asylum for the 
children of beggars. It afterwards was opened 
for the reception of orphans and foundlings, who, 
during the revolution, were called Sieves de la 
patrie. In 1809, these children were removed to 
the asylum in the rue St. Antoine, and the H6pital 
de la Piti^ was annexed to the H6tel Dieu. This 
hospital contains six hundred beds distributed in 
twenty-three wards. The dames religieuses de St. 
Thomas de Villeneuve attend upon the patients. 
It may be visited by applying to the Agent de 9ur^ 
veillance. 

Hdpital de la Chantey 

Rue Jacob. 
This hospital was founded, in i6i3, by Mary de 
Medicis, for a religious community called Frires de 
la Charite, who were all surgeons or apothecaries, 
and not only afforded corporeal relief to the sick| 
but assisted them in their spiritual duties. A new 
ward and portico were erected in 17845 the lat- 
ter serves as an entrance to the hospital, and is 
adorned with columns of the order of Pestum. 
The public are allowed to visit the hospital.. 
During the revolution, this establishment took the 
title of Hospice de VUnite, but about fifteen years 
after it resumed its former name of HSpital de la 
CharitS. It contains about three hundred beds* 



B06PITAL5. 4^7 

Hie same lUseues are treated here asat the UAtel 
Dieu and Uie Hdpital de la Pitii. He jccutj d» 
SI. Vatcent de Foul attend upon the patients. 

H6pital Si. Antoine, 

Jfo. 3o6, rue da faubourg Si. Antoine. 

established in the ancient 
by a decree of the Conven- 
.AnllllJaDuary \-]\}>, 1795). 
structcd in 1799. The num* 
undred and siitj-two. The 
:h as are afTectcd with acute 
attended by the saeurs de St. 
are admitted on Sundays and 
< o'clock till four. 

H6pital Cochin. 

JYo. i5,nte,hifai,tourf;St. Jiuques. 

This building was oriijinally called Ilotpice <!<■ St - 

Jacques dii llaut Pax. Its construction, which is 

due to the beneficence of itl. Cochin, curaic of St. 
Jacqucs(IuIIautPa5,was begun in 1780 and linishcd 
in 1 785, after the designs of Viel. Tivo aged persons, 
a man and a vvoman, llic most I'espcctable among 
the poor of tlie parisli, laid the first courses of tlu' 
columns of the portico. Foi- this ceremony, tlic 
tools wliich Louis XIV used when a child, In la vini; 
the first stone of the Val de GrSce, were broui;h't 
from that monastery- This building is one Imii- 
dred and forly-rour feet in length, and forty-tvio 
in breadlli. The l^llclieii, dispensarv, haliis anil 



<-■ groi 



nd-flonr 



438 HOSPITALS. 

floor is a chapel terminated by a capola ; it serves 
as a vestibule to two spacious rooms which ex- 
tend on each side ; two smaller rooms are placed 
in the pavilions. The distribution of the second 
floor is similar, with the exception of the chapel/ 
which rises to the height of both stories. There 
are five staircases for the service of this house ; 
the first is in the central projection which forms 
a portico to the hospital ; two are in the gallery, 
parallel to the rooms, and two others in the pa- 
vilions. Several galleries, contrived in the differ- 
ent stories, form a covered communication be- 
tween all the parts of the building, the plan of 
which is happy. M. Cochin intended this hospital 
merely for his own parishioners, but patients are 
now received into it from all parts of the capital. 
The diseases treated here are the same as those at 
the Hotel Dieu. The number of beds is one hun- 
dred and twenty. The Soeurs de St. Marthe de 
Paris attend upon the patients. This establish- 
ment may be visited by strangers upon producing 
a passport. 

Hopital de Madame Necker, 

JVo, 5, rue de Sevres* 

This hospital was founded, in 1779, by the wife- 
of the celebrated Nccker, upon the site of an 
ancient convent of Benedictine nuns. Louis XVI 
contributed to this useful establishment, which 
at first took the name of Hospice de St. Sulpieeei 
du Gros Caillou. Duriug the revolution, this house 
was called Hospice de VOuest, and within a few 
years it has borne the name of its foundress. The- 



IS «clinitte< ie 

he H^tel ] moer 

drcd and twenty- two. ro< 

irs de 8i, Vincent de Paui^ wno at 
efBls, is a portrait of Mada 
ium is given to visit this hi 



Hopital Beaujoriy 

JYo, 54, rue du Faubourg du Route. 
his hospital was founded in 1 784, by ^'icholas 
ujon, receiver-general of the Finances,* for 
nty-four orphans of the parish du Roule, 
Ive boys and twelve girls, for whose support 
endowed it with an annuity of 20,000 francs. 
a decree of the convention, dated January 17, 
S, this orphan asylum was converted into an 
pital for the sick, and took the name of Hopi- 
du Roiilc. The council-general of hospitals 
e restored it to its Ibrnier name, liiit not to 
primitive destination. The Hopital Beaujou 
; built after the designs of Girardin. The 
erent parts arc well distributed, solidly l)uilt, 
tastefully decorated. The building is ninety- 
feet in length, by one hundred and forty-four 
lepth, without including the garden. It con- 
j of a ground-dooi", two stories above, and a 
d in the roof- and contains one liundrcd and 
y beds ibr the sick of bolb sexes. The ground- 
Near ihe spot •\\!;crG lliis liospital stands, a cli.ipel 
built by M. Bcaujon, nfier the de^ii,'ns of Giraidin, 
place of sepullnie for liiirisclf and family. It ii in 
I taste and generally admired, hut the exterior pit- 
s signs of abandon men I and drrav. 



44o HOSPITALS. 

floor is devoted to convalescents, the kitchen, 
refectories, baths^ and offices. The upper stories 
are divided into wards for the sick. The front 
presents no decoration except an entablature. The 
entrance is formed by an arcade. This hospital 
is coniined between private houses, and the 
different stories have not sufBcient elevation. The 
patients are of the same class as those at the Hdtcl 
Dieu, and are attended by the Sceurs de St, Mori he. 
The days for admilting the public are Sundays, 
Tuesdays and Thursdays, but strangers may visit 
it every day. 

Hopital des Enfans^ 

JVb. 3, rue de Skures. 

Upon this spot there existed a charity school, 
called Maison de VBnfant Jesus^ which was pur- 
chased, in 1732, by Languet de Gcrgy, rector of 
St. Sulpice, and opened for the reception of poor 
girls and sick women of his parish. It was after- 
wards converted into a school for the daughters of 
poor noblemen. In 1802, this house was formed 
into an hospital for sick children, and took the 
title oi Hopital des Enfans. The salubrity of the 
air and the extensive walks contribute greatly to 
the speedy convalescence of the young patients. 
It contains four hundred beds. Gratuitous advice 
IS also given to sick children in the neighbour- 
hood. The dames de St. Thomas de FilhneuPt 
attend upon the patients. Strangers may visit 
this hospital without difficulty. 



HOSPITALS. 44' 

IVo, 3, rue ot. JL le. 

The plague or S( otl conti is < 
prevailed at Paris i 1606, and at tn; loa iDe 

H^tel Diea was so i ous n; d 

&at k served rath< to pro* te t < jn 

tlia'n to arrest its pn '. 6 au a r die 

represented to pres i t ces- 

sity of a separate kospitai lor coi ) ase5' 

Henry IV, in 1607, assigned funiid lor con- 
struction and support of a new hospital, which 
took the title of HSpital St. Louis, and on July 
i3th, in the same year, the king laid the first stone 
of the chapel. The edifice was finished in four 
years, hut was not opened for patients till the 
year 16 ig. At the time of the construction of 
this hospital, it was at a distance from any popu- 
lous quarter of the capital, and to prevent more 
effectually the communicalion of contagious dis- 
eases, the architect surrounded it with a court 
one hundred feet wide, enclosed within lofly 
double walls. The hospital forms a parallelogram 
of three hundred and sixty yards by two hundred 
and forty, and thus has a superficies of one hun- 
dred and twenty-nine thousand six hundred feet. 
Round a court more than three hundred feet 
square, serving as a walk for the patients, are four 
large piles of building, containing, on the ground- 
floor, eight rooms and eight pavilions. The rooms 
are each one hundred and forty-four feet in length 
by twenty-four in breadth and eleven in height ; 
they are divided into two parts by a range of" 
pillars which support the ceilings. T))e eight pa- 



44^ HOSPITALS. 

Tilions are in the middle and at the extremity of 
the fronts^ they are each about thirty- three feet 
square, and are vaulted at the same height as the 
rooms. Two of these pavilions contain staircases; 
tyro contain chapels; two are warming-rooins ; 
and two serve as vestibules. The first story has 
the same extent as the ground-floor^ but it is 
much higher. The garrets are left empty> and 
the upper part of the pavilions has open laDteros 
for the purposes of ventilation. Hie court be- 
tween the double walls is planted with trees, and 
connected with buildings which contain the apart- 
ments of the persons attached to the bospitali 
the depots, and magazines. Near them are puropsi 
cisterns, and various dependencies. A great space 
is ej[nployed iu gardens and courts with the kitch- 
ens and^bakehouse, and lodgings for the persons 
employed in ihem. Victuals brought to tht pa- 
tients by their friends is not allowed to be carried 
within the court, but is conveyed to them by 
means of a tower placed in a pavilion constracted 
for that purpose. In one of the courts is a bust 
of Henry IV. On the side of the principal front 
is an orchard and a botanical garden, separated 
by a court which leads to the church. The churdi 
is so disposed, that strangers may enter the nave, 
and the patients the choir, without communicat- 
ing with each other. These regulations respect- 
ing the non-communication of persons with the 
inmates of the hospital are, however, only acted 
upon in case of violent contagious diseases. 

An important part of this establishment are tiie 
baths, which are on a large scale. The common 
Ijaths, and tliose for the application of alkaline 



443 

and ott I 1 ' » 

are disj; s« tu roums. 

vapour bath consist a small ro< mg < 

one side a flight of St pi tiiepati ,o sit upon. 
The Tapour rises througn an openii floor. 

From twenty to thirty patients may tl )ath 

at the same time. On each side is a ai room 

in a proper state of temperature. In fining 

rooRi are a shower bath, a single ' bath, 

and n partial vapour bath ; the vapoui ip- 

plied by means of a tube, the orifice oi w t 
may be diminished or enlarged at pleasure, 
another part of this hospital is the sulphuraiea 
vapour bath, which can contain twelve patients 
at once* There is also a single bath of this kind, 
and another for partial fumigations, by which 
the fumes of mercury or other substances may 
be applied to the face or other parts, without 
being inhaled. Tlicsc baths aie appropriated to 
the use of the male and female patients on al- 
ternate days J and may be renewed as many times 
in the day as ciicumstances require. This lios- 
pilal has ever retained its original destination, and 
generally contains a great number of persons at- 
fected with cutaneous diseases. The success ob- 
tained in their treatment, liowever, by the means 
adopted in this hospital, does not appear grc.'ater 
than elsewhere. At the revolution it was named 
Hospice du 'Sorely but it has since resumed the 
name of St. Louis. There are eiglit hundred and 
nine beds in this hospital. At night it is lighted 
up with gas. The dames de St. August ui attend 
the patients. Strangers may visit the hospilnl 
by applying to the porter. 



-444 HOSPITALS. 

Infirmerie de Marie Therese^ 

No. 86, rue d'^Enfer, 

This small hospital, which contains only fifteen 
beds, was established by the duchess of Angou- 
leme, for the reception of sick or aged priests, and 
such sick persons as bave been reduced to poverty 
by the revolution. It is governed by a council of 
twelve members. The institution is supported by 
voluntary contributions, and in proportion as its 
funds increase, the number of beds wiU be aug- 
mented. 

Hospice des VenerieJiSy 

No. Sg, rue des Capucins, faubourg St. Jaa/uet. 

This hospital, for venereal cases, is established in 
the ancient convents of the Capucins, which was 
suppressed in 1 78 1 . Id 1 784, the buildings were con- 
verted into the HSpital des Veniriens. It contains 
five hundred and. fifty beds. Persons of both sexes 
are treated in this hospital, as well as infants who 
derive this dreadful disease from their parents. 
Gratuitous advice and medicines are afforded to 
patients who prefer remaining at their own houses. 
To visit this establishment, it is indispensable to 
produce a passport. 



Maisoji de Sante^ 

No. 17, rue du faubourg St, Jacques* 

This house was opened in 1809, ^^^ ^^^ reception 
of men afflicted with the venereal disease, who 
pay daily for their board and treatment, in sum* 
mer from a fr. So cents, to 5 fr. 5 and in winter 



1 LS. 

^m 3 fr. tc tj 

e directioi oi a < ai [o 

e inapection of the u nr de surve ce 

« €conome of ibe H6p %. des Y* 



Maison Rojrale de Sante^ 

JN'o, xia, rue du faubourg St. Denis^ 

This house was opened in 1 8oa, by the Adminia^ 
ation des Hopitaux et des Hospices^ for the re- 
ption of invalids in middling circumstances, who 
ly a daily sum according to the accommodation 
ley receive, as follows : viz. In rooms contain- 
Lg twelve or fourteen beds, i fr. 5o cents; in 
lose with two or three beds, 5 fr. 5o cents. A 
>oin for a woman, 5 fr. A room for a man, 6 fr. 
I this charge every thing, even vapour baths, 
lineral waters, etc., is included. 



Maison d' Accouchement^ 

]\o. Z, rue de la Bniube. 

This hospital, which occupies the buildings of 
16 abbey of Port Royal, was converted into a 
mndling hospital shortly after the dissolution of 
16 monasteries at the revolution. Poor pregnant 
omen were also admitted here to lie-in, as well 
) into tlie Hospice des Enfans-Trouves, in the 
16 d'Enfer. This hospital then bore the name of 
^ospice de la MaternitL In i8i4. the hospital in 
16 rue d'Enfer was devoted to foundlings exclu- 
vely, and that in the rue de la Bourbc became 
lying-in hospital. Any pregnant woman in dis- 
ess is admitted into the latter, where she is rare- 

PART I. ><^ 



446 HOSPITALS. 

fully attended to and delivered by wofnai. The 
church, which is that of the ancient abbey, was 
built in 1646, after the designs of An tony LePlautre, 
and is much admired. Linen, and even garments, 
if necessary, are furnished to the patients, wbo 
leave the hospital at the end of eight days, unless 
ordered to the contrary by the medical attendants. 
In this hospital there is a school cTaccouchementf 
to afford instruction in midwifery to women wbo 
come from the departments. The prefects are re- 
quired to send annually one or more pupils^ for 
each of whom 600 fr. is paid to the institution. 
The pupils are lodged and boarded, and each re- 
ceives a sum suHicient to buy such books as are 
necessary. At the end of the year, the pupils are 
examined by a commission of physicians atid sar- 
geons, who distribute gold medals, silver medals, 
and books to the pupils, according to tbeir at* 
tainments. This establishment may be visited by 
strangers upon producing their passport. 

Hopital de la Salpetriere^ 

Boule^fard de V Hopital. 

The civil war which prevailed during the raino^ 
rity of Louis XIV had drawn to Paris so great a 
number of beggars, that some historians carry it 
to forty thousand. By an edict of April 27, i656, 
the establishment of a general hospital for their 
confinement was ordained. An extensive saltpetre 
manufactory was granted for that purpose, and 
Liberal Bruant was charged to make the necessary 
alterations. ^ 

The hospital de la Salpetri^re is one thousand 



HOSPITALS. 44? 

iiaiidred and eighty feet in length, and one 
>uMiid one hundred and sixty-four in hreadth ; 
superficies is fifty-four thousand three hundred 
qI twenty toises ^ and all its arrangements arc on 
[rand scale. The principal front to the north- 
ist is ahove six hundred feet in length, and is 
aated at the bottom of a court which serves for 
iromenade. A vestibule; formed of three arches, 
corated with four Ionic columns, and sur- 
>unted by an attic, leads to the church on the 
le open to the public. To the right and left, 
ir pavilions terminate the wings, in which are 
rmilories ; three rowS of windows form the sole 
coration of these buildings, which are pierced 
the middle by an arch surmounted in a project- 
g body. The building to the east is the most 
icient; it was constructed at the expense of Car- 
nal Mazarin, whose arms, supported by Hope and 
larity, were placed above the entrance. The 
ro figures still remain. Behind these buildings, 
the distance of two hundred and twenty-t^vo 
ct, were to have been two similar ones, but one 
ily has yet been constructed. The church is in 
e centre of this space, whicli it divides into two 
arts. The ])lari oi the church is circular, it is 
ity ieet in diameter, and is surmounted by au 
Jtagonal dome. The interior is pierced with eiglit 
ches, which communicate to four naves, eacii 
Kty feet in lengtli, and to four chapels. These 
ives and chapels, disposed in radii, open into the 
:ntre of the church where the high altar is placed, 
he whole is covered with a w ainscotting. 
The hospital was opened in iGSy, and tl 
amber of paupers admitted was very groat. 1 



1.1 



448 HOSPITALS. 

1662 it amounted to nine or ten thousand, and 
as a great multitude of paupers came from the 
provinces to Paris to beg, orders were giyen for 
them to he distributed in the houses dependent 
upon the Hi^pi^tal de la Salpetri^re. These houses 
were those de la Piti^, de Scipion, etc. Since that 
time the number of beggars has sometimes been 
eight thousand. This immense establishment is 
now exclusively devoted to females; — the de- 
ranged, the epileptic, the aged, and the infirm. 

The part allotted to the deranged does not 
seem to have been built on a regular plan, but at 
different periods as occasion required. The cells 
are badly ventilated. To obviate this evil, in some 
degree, the upper parts of the walls between the 
cells have been replaced by gratings. By this 
means, however, the noisy patient tn one cell may 
disturb many of her more peaceable neighbours. 
The whole number of insane^ in this hospital, 
amounted, in 1820, to nine hundred, besides two 
hundred idiots. The greatest mildness is adopted 
in the treatment of the patients, and whoever has 
inspected this establishment, cannot fail to be 
pleased with the manner in which it is conducted, 
and the attention which is paid to the patients. 
As a proof of this attention, during eleven years 
only two suicides have been committed. Those 
who manifest a propensity to self-destruction, are 
placed in the infirmary, where they are more im- 
mediately under the eyes of the attendants. There 
are no chains nor whips to be met vnth: ''La 
France,'* says a gentleman, '' donne au monde civ^ 
lis^ Tezemple de plus de mille ali^n^ de tout ftge, 
de tout sexe, de tout ^tat, de tout caractire, 



k 



diriges, < 

chaines. « 

Strangers desirouf of v 
should go there befc r o ck, as e' 

is then in order. V att; to 

will conduct them to ine dif lor 

a small fee is given. 



kat 



Hopital de BicStre. 

This hospital is situated at the distance of half a 
league from the harri^re dltalie, on the west of 
the high road from Paris to Fontainebleau.^ An 
ancient estate^ called ia Grange aux Queux or aux 
Cuisiniers', was purchased by John, bbhop of 
Winchester, who built there, iu i2o4, a chateau, 
which was named Chdteau de ff^incesire, from 
whence came Bichestrey Bicestre, BicSfre. Philip 
le Bel confiscated this estate in 1294, and several 
of his successors licld possession ot" it. It was to 
this chateau that the duke of Berry retired vsith 
tlic duke of Orleans wlien the league was formed 
against the duke de Bourgogne. The duke of 
Berry, to whom tlie chateau belonged in the be- 
ginning of the i5tli century, gave it, in i4i6, to 
the chapter of Notre Dame, of whom Louis XIIl 
bought it in 1632, and erected upon its site an 
hospital for militar\ invalids, which took the title 
of CoTurnanderie de St. Louis. It contained a cha- 
pel dedlcaled to St. John. Louis XIV having built 
the Hotel dcs Invalides, tlils house was annexed to 
ihe general hospital de la Salpetriere, of wbicli it 
still continues a dependence. 

* Sec Iiic('tre, iLiH'lmns of Ptai^ 



45o HOSPITALS. 

fiic^tre is happily situated on lofty ground, atsd 
the air Is better than in most of the hospitals of 
Paris. Great difficulty was experienced in ob- 
taining a supply of water, as the quantity requireet 
for so vast an establishment was very considerable, 
and it possessed none but what was brought from 
the Seine. This inconvenience has been removed 
by the ingenuity of art. In 1733, Boffrant, a 
skilful architect, sunk at Bicetre a well which, by 
its depth and breadth, and the simplicity of the 
machinery which draws up the water, is certainly 
the most remarkable in France and perhaps in 
Europe. It is fifteen feet in diameter aud upwards 
of one hundred and sixty-six feet deep. It is sunk 
in the solid rock and constantly contaius fifteen 
feet depth of water. This well is in a building, to 
the left of which is the machine for raising the 
water, and to the right the reservoir for receiv- 
ing it. Two large pails ascend alternately, in the 
space of five minutes, and furnish two hundred 
pails of water per day. When the pail reaches 
the reservoir, it is turned over by a hook and 
emptied into the reservoir, which will contain 
four thousand hogsheads. It is constructed of 
solid masonry with vaults supported by massive 
pillars. The water is conveyed by pipes to dif- 
ferent parts of the eslablishment. The machine 
is a large wheel formerly set in motion by four 
horses, but now worked by twenty-four paupers, 
who receive for their labour 6 sous each and an 
extra portion of bread. Their labour endures for 
an hour and a quarter. When they hear the water 
emptied into the reservoir they turn in another 
dircctiou, in order to let down the empty pail and 
bring up the full one. 



TALS. /^Sl 

e HospiU is now devoted to a 

iMA purp IS an asylam and workhouse 

be indigent, a lunatic asjlum, and a prison, 
indigent occupy the greater part of the build- 
They have no private rooms, but there «rc 
halls, with workshops and dormitories, as 
several gardens and court-yards for exercise. 
lose who work are chiefly employed as shoe- 
BTS, stocking-manufacturers, and tailors. They 
ve wages, part of which is expended in pro- 
ig them better food, and the rest is given to 
I when they leave the asylum. They also • 
5 many pretty articles in wood and bone, and 
ill the productions of their industry to the 
3smen of Paris; for it is a rule atBic^tre, that 
ing made in the house should be purchased by 
inmates, hut every thing they want is bought 
aris. The workshops nre narrow dirty gal- 
s^ the indigent, however, arc well clothed, 
in general appear sallsded with llieir ti'cat- 
t. Their daily allowance of Ibod is a portion 
)up, a pound and a quarter ol bread, lour 
:es of meat tor dinner, vegetables or cheese at 
t, and a quarter ol a pint ol' wine. At the 
of seventy they have a double portion oi 
I; and when they have been thirty years in 
house, they receive a double allowance ol 
y kind. A class of persons called reposans 
;ach servants of the hospital as arc unable to 
k. They are treated the same as the other 
pers, except that they go out when they please, 
are allowed a small chest of drawers and cur- 
s to their beds, 
ben sick; tlic pau}un.> are removed to the in • 



452 HOSPITALS. 

firmary, where every attention is paid to them, 
and they hare beds with curtains. There is a 
Dispensary belonging to the establishment, and 
extensive borders in the garden for common me- 
dicinal herbs. 

The linen for the paupers and lunatics is kept 
in a long gallery; and there, but there only, 
cleanliness prevails. The linen consists of fifteen 
thousand pair of sheets, and the same number of 
shirts, caps, etc. The sheets are changed monthly 
and the shirts weekly. 

There are three thousand two hundred beds 
destined for the indigent, who, being mostly aged 
persons, are treated with the respect due to their 
years and misfortunes. The number of Innatics 
is eight hundred. 

The most afQicting spectacle in the interior of 
this vast establishment is the lunatics, who have 
in general the same allowance as the paupers, but 
more bread is given them on account of their 
greater appetite. They are neverchained or beaten, 
but when dangerous are confined with a straif 
jacket and shut up. Since the revolution a hand* 
some new building was comnaenced, which wa 
not finished till 18212. It cost 4oo,ooofr., and 
appropriated to lunatics whose cases are not coi 
sidered desperate, and who undergo a regul 
treatment. It consists of two wings fiankd ' 
fine galleries, in the centre of a square court « 
closed with an iron railing. This part of the h 
pital contains some extraordinary lunatics, s 
as the pretended Dauphin, a man one hunc 
and nine years of age, etc. 

All culprits condemned to detention in f 



BOSPITALSi 453 

irere formerly sent tQ Bkltre h> paas the term of 
iheir imprisonment ; but since an attempt made 
by some of the prisoners, in i8a5, to set fire to 
the biiilding, the number has been greatly reduced, 
tnd lew are now sent here except such as are con- 
demned to the galleys, who remain at Bic^re till 
the time of their departure. A band of these 
conTicts tied together two by two, and chained 
by dozens, is called a chaine; and before they set 
out they are stripped and searched. The convicts 
are either in upper rooms, called cabanons(Jb(f the 
vu%ar gallanons), or under rooms, called cachoti 
hlancs and cachots noirs. The former are celts on 
the ground-floor, which receive light frbm a small 
window at the top. The latter are subterranean, 
but are seldom used, except as cellara. Those 
who are condemned to death in Paris are trans- 
ferred to Bicetre, where they await the result of 
their appeal to the Court of Cassation. If this 
appeal be rejected and tlic royal mercy be not 
extended to ihcm, ihey are taken, on the day 
fixed for Uieir execution, from Bicetre to the Con- 
ciergerie, at an early hour in the morning, and 
from thence to the Place de Greve, where the exe- 
cution generally takes place about four o'clock in 
the afternoon. 

That part of the establishment appropriated to 
paupers is open daily to the public. The prison 
cannot be visited without an order from M. Fou- 
geres, secretaire de la Prefecture de Police, which 
must be applied for by letter. A similar order is 
required to visit the lunatics, but strangers jnay 
obtain admission by applying to the keeper 



/' 



454 HOSPITALS. 

Hdpital cFEnghieiij 

iVo. i4> rue de Babylone. 

This small hospital, founded in 1819, is ttteilded 
l>y the Scaurs de la ChariU. It contains sixteen 
beds for inen, and fourteen for women. 



Hdpital Leprince^ 

JYo. 45, rue Su Dominique. 
This small hospital was founded in iSig, in 
execution of the will of M. Leprince, who be- 
queathed a sum for that purpose. It contains 
but few beds. The Sosurs de la Chariti attend 
the patients. 

Hdpital des Gardes du Roi, 

Hue Blanche. 
This is a spacious house, converted into an boS- 
pital for the king^s body guards. 



Hdpital Militaire de la Garde RojaJe^ 

Rue St. Dominique, au Gros Caillou, 

This hospital was founded by the duke de BireB 
in 1765, for the French guards, and fifteen han- 
dred beds can be made up in it if necessary. 



Hdpital Militaire du Val de Grdce, 

No. 277, rue du faubourg St. Jacques. 

The buildings of this hospital formed a con- 
vent of nuns, who were originally established in 
the parish and castellany of fii^vrele Chat^l, but 



9 AirO BBITETOLEIIT I WWW I fl Uiii. 4^9 

irthy or by an order of tkm preiect of 
a request of the mayor of the arrondism^ 
iommune, in which they reside. This 
ould be signed by the sub-prefect, and 
ied by the certificate of a physician at- 
i lunacy of the iudividual: nevertheless, 
r absolute urgency, lunatics may be re- 

once, with the obligation that the 
tutors immediately fulfil the formalities 

for their admission. — Admission is 
^ery day, at whatever hour the patients 
•resented, but the pid)lic are only ad- 
Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Sundays, into 
duDirecteur, or of the surveillant'gemSnd 
lisiratiotit from nine till four o^clo^u 
cured or uncured, are restored to their 
I the permission of the authority which 
or ordered llieir admission. The asylum 
ted l)y •4>pUini^ lo M. Ic Dircc luur. 



ES AM) r,i:M:VOLENT INSTl- 
TiriONS. 



ice des Incurables FemmeSy 

No. 5.|, liuc dc Scenes. 
use, originally called Ifopital des In- 
vas foundecl, in 1634, by Cardinal dc la 
ault, as appears ])y an inscription over 
3t" tlie churcli. Tlic buddings present 
tercsting in tbcir external appearance, 
itributcd on a plan which will bear a 
n with any establishment of the kind, 
h is in the centre j in the nave is an 



46o HOSPICES AND BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 

elegant mural monument in honour of the foun- 
der, who is represented in a kneeling posturt. On 
each side of the church are rooms, destined ori- 
ginally for both men and women. It has five 
hundred and ten beds, and is now exclusively 
devoted to women, who are attended by the 
swurs de la Charite. 



Hospice des Incurables Hommes^ 

JYo. 1 66, Rue du faubourg St, Martin. 
This hospital was established in the ancient 
convent of the Recollets in 1802, when the HSpital 
des Incurables was appropriated to females only. 
The number admissible into this house is four 
hundred. The sceurs de la CharitS also attend 
here. This establishment may be visited daily. 



Hospice des Menages^ 

JVo. a8, rue de la Chaise, 

This house was originally a lazaretto for chil- 
dren afQicted with scorbutic and other cutaneous 
diseases. Upon the return of Charles "VlU from 
his expeditions in Italy, the lazaretto was one 
of several houses appropriated to his troops, who 
brought with them the venereal disease. In i554> 
the old building being pulled down, the munici- 
pality of Paris bought the ground and materials, 
and erected an hospital called HSpital des Petites 
Maisons, for beggars, old men, idiots, etc. By an 
ordinance of October, 180T, this institution was 
appropriated exclusively to the aged and infirm* 
and received the name of HSspice des MSnages^ 



WOBPICJES AND BEKEVOLEMT IWSTlTtTIOItil* 4^r 

t DMne indkatiTe of its object. It contaios five 
hondred and fourteen beds for aged persbtts of 
jioth sexeSy married or widowed, who hate re- 
sided in Paris. The man must be seventy, and 
the woman sixty years of age. Each receives a 
pound and a quarter of bread per day ; the sum 
of 3 francs, and a pound of meat every ten days j 
and a load of wood, and a load of charcoal a year. 
Besides the beds above mentioned, it contains a 
hundred which are reserved for widowed indi- 
viduals of either sex, sixty years old, who on 
entering pay 1600 francs, and bring some furni- 
ture. They have more comforts than the others, 
and *can quit the hospital for any period they 
choose, and receive, during their absence, at the 
rate of i5o francs a year. The sceurs de la Charitt 
attend this establishment. Strangers may visit 
the hospital every day. 



^sile PiOjal de la Proificience^ 

JVo. 5o, rue de la C/taussee des Martyrs. 

Tills establishment, founded iu 1804, ^y ^^' ^'^^ 
Mad. Micaull de la \ icuville, was created a royal 
institution in 1817. It is under the immediate 
authority of the Aliiilsler of the Interior, and serves 
as an asyhnn for sixty aged or infirm persons ol 
both sexes belonging to Paris. Twelve phiees aic 
gratuitous, of whicli two are at the nomination 
of the founders or their families, two are at the 
disposal ol the Minister of the Interior, and cl^ht 
are lilled up ])y the Provident Society- The othei b 
are for boarders, lor each of wliom Goo francs ;« 
year is paid. Twelve of the latter now hehMiL- 

3o 



462 HOSPICES AND BENEYOLEFfT INSTITUTIONS. 

to the king, and are filled up by the mkiister of 
his household ; sixteen are in the nomination of 
the Provident Society; and twenty in that of the 
Council of Administration of the Asylum. It 
has a governor, and is superintended by a connctl, 
composed of five members, of which the governor 
is one. Four Sceurs de la ChariU manage the 
household affairs. 



Institution de Sainte Ferine^ 

Grande rue de Chaillot, 

This house was an ancient monastery, called 
Abbaye de St. Ferine, which was suppressed in 
1790, and, in 1806, was converted into an asylum, 
by M. Duchaila, for aged persons of both sexes, 
who have a small fortuue. The empress Jose* 
phine was a great benefactress of this institution. 
By her orders the building was enlarged and tbe 
number of beds augmented. No person under 
sixty years of age can enter this establishment. 
The mode of admission is two-fold, i. By paying 
annually 660 francs; 2. By paying down a sum in 
proportion to the age, according to a fixed stand- 
ard. Thus a person sixty years of age would 
pay down 6,269 francs, whereas one, one hundred 
and two years old would pay only 800 francs. 

Philanthropists may purchase as many places 
as they please, according to the scale of payment 
given above. The number admissible is one hun- 
dred and seventy-five. This institution is attend- 
ed by the sofurs de la Sagesse, 



IC£8 AND BEltBVOLEirr IITftTITtTMIfS. 4^ 

ison de Retraite^ or Hospice de 
Larochefoucauld, 

luie tTOrleanSf near the barriire ttEnfer' 
, house, Trhich is now devoted to the recep- 
of old servants of the hospitals, and other 
j and infirm )>ersons, was originally established 
the Freres de la Charite, under the title of Maison 
yale de Sante, for twelve soldiers and the same 
nber of ecclesiastics. The buildings were erected 
er the designs of Antoine. During the revo- 
ion it became an hospital for the inhabitants 
Bourg la Reine and the adjacent villages, and 
>k the name of Hospice National, In 380Q it 
IS devoted to its present purpose, and contains 
e hundred and fifty beds. Infirm persons who 
B«ixty years and upwards pay 200 francs a year, 
td those under that age, a5o francs. Infirm per- 
ns, of small forliitic, upwards of twenty years of 
ige, may treat for atlinlssioii })y ]ia\ ing down a 
sum according to tlielr age, etc. which gradually 
rises from 700 francs to 1600 francs. The house 
furnishes food, lire, medicine, etc* and there is a 
private infirmary. The Scjeurs de la Cliarite at- 
tend this institution, which may be visited by ap- 
plying to the porter. 



Hospice des Fjufans-Troiivcs ^ 

No- 71, rue iV i'lnjvr. 

At a remote period of the history of France. 

the maintenance of foundlings was at tlie clinrgc 

of the feudal lords. Their progressive increase 

led, in iSS^,, to the appropi'iation of the llnpii.il 



464 HOSPICES AND BENEVOLENT INSTI'n)TK)IfS. 

de la Trinity for the receptiou of deserted chil- 
dren. In 1570, the foundlings were removed from 
the H6pital de la Trinity to a house in the cite, 
ceded hy the chapter of INotre Dame for a pe- 
cuniary consideration. The children received into 
this house, wrhich took the name of Maison de U 
Couche, were placed daily in a large cradle in the 
church of Notre Dame, to excite the public libe- 
rality and diminish the expenses of the lords. The 
foundlings of this establishment being dreadfully 
neglected, a widow lady, residing in the vicinity, 
received them into her house, but her servants, 
weary of their employment, made them an article 
of traffic. This dreadful abuse at length became 
public, and Vincent de Paul, a man celebrated for 
his zeal and benevolence, incensed at the abomi- 
nable traffic in foundlings, procured for them, in 
3 638, a new asylum, near the Porte St. Victor, 
and engaged the Soeurs de la Char it S to take care 
of them. The funds for their support being found 
very inadequate to the object, the superintendents 
of this establishment determined by lot which oi 
the infants should be preserved and fed. The 
others were abandoned. In i64o, Vincent de Paul 
assembled together the Soeurs who had the care 
of these foundlings, and enjoined them to re- 
nounce the barbarous decision by lot, and to pre- 
serve the lives of all the unfortunate children. 
The zeal of this philanthropist in the cause of 
humanity, rendered him superior to all the re- 
pulses he met with in soliciting contributions. In 
i64T) he obtained of the court an annuity of 
5ooo livrcs for the foundlings, and 1000 livres for 
tlieir nurses. In iG44f be obtained an additional 



»IC£S AND I INSTITUTIONS. 4^ 

y of 8000 in 1648, part of thft 

U of Bic^ t was ai J <equest granted fot 
lum. In this chateau ihe mortality of the 
m was so great, that it was thought to arise 
in unhealthy atmosphere j they were therc^ 
smoved to a house near the convent of St. 
ly and the Saeurs de la CharitS were charged 
e care of them. The numher of foundlings 
lUy increasing, and the revenue and alms 
found very inadequate to their support, the 
nent^ in 1667, ordained that the seigneuu 
justiciers should pay annually to this asylum 
im of 1 5,000 livres. Upon the issuing of 
ecree, the managers of the institution de^ 
led upon the formation of two more spacioQ* 
ommodious estahlishmenls. For the first, 
purchased some houses in the fauhourg St. 
ae, upon the site of which they erected an 
live hospital.^ Tlie second asylum wus eslab- 

in tlircc small houses al the corner of the rue 
; Notre Dame, winch the managers purchased 

Hotel Dieu. This asylum was demolished in 
and a more substantial and convenient struc- 
rected near the same spot,t after the designs 
fraud. Soon after the revolution, the con- 
>f thePrelres de lOratoire, in the rue d'Enf'cr, 
10 ancient abbey ol Port Royal, in the rue de 
urbe, were converted into foundling hospi- 
o which the children from the two establish- 
before mentioned were removed. The 

in the rue de la Bourbe is now a 13'ing-in 

()\v llic Hospice lies Orphclins. 

low llic Ihireau Central iV Ad miss ion dans Ui> 

a II A et Hospices, 



466 HOSPICES AND BENEVOLENT INSTITOTIONS. 

hospital. The wards of the actual asylum in the 

rue d^Enfer, called creches, are furnished with an 

immense number of cradles. In the church is 

a magnificent statue of St. Vincent de Paul, by 

Stouf. The garden is very extensive. The nurses 

are called nourrices and meneurs. The dormitory 

for the nourrices contains twenty-five beds. The 

meneurs occupy a separate part of the building. 

Children are admitted here by day and night 

without any inquiry. The number of children 

annually received into the Foundling Hospital is 

from five to six thousand. Any person wishing 

to bring up a foundling, may have one from the 

hospital on giving proper security for its board 

and education. An individual resident in the 

country who undertakes to bring up one of these 

children, receives an allowance until the child 

be twelve years old. This hospital is attended by 

the Sceurs de St. Vincent de Paul, and the Sceurs 

de la Charite; and is kept in admirable otder. 

The facility thus afforded for the protection of 

deserted infants, however objectionable in other 

respects, certainly operates as a powerful check 

to infanticide. Strangers may visit this asylum 

dailv* 



Hospice des Orphelins^ 

JVo, 134? '^^ <^« faubourg St. u4ntoine. 
This building was originally occupied as a found- 
ling hospital. At first female orphans only were 
received into this establishment; but when the 
H6pital de la Piti^ was annexed to the Hdtel 
Dieu, the orphans of that institution were removed 



iPICES AND BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 4^ 

and Xhto buiidiogs were disposed so as to 
Uie sexes separate. It now contains aboot 
indred orphans of both sexes, from the age 
o to twelve. They are taught writing and 
netic, and at an early age are sent into the 
ry to learn rural occupations, or are put out 
Btices to some trade, and continue under the 
Ction of the institution till they are of age;, 
bospital is attended by the Soeurs de St, Fm- 
la Paul. Admittance may be obtained daily. 



^ypital Rojal des Quinze-Vingts , 

JYo, 38, rue de Charenton, 
Is hospital for the blind was founded by St. 
, in 1360, in the rue St. Honore, at the comer 
5 rue St. Nicaise, where, at that period, there 
in extensive wood. The hospital, at its first 
utlon, was flivided Into aveuglcs and uojants ; 
alter conducted ihe iormer. There were at 
lime three hundred blind persons in the 
le-Vingts, or fifteen score as the name indi- 
besides voyajits. They were placed bv their 
ier under tlie superintendence of the grand 
ner of France, and had many privileges. A 
:er was attached to liie church who held a 
ng every Sunday. Thefreres and .sceurs might 
act marriages, l)ut on condition that It should 
twcen an aveuirle ixxidi a voyant. Two blind 
rjs, or two who could see, were Ibrbiddcn 
irry. To contract a marriage, it was neccs- 
lo ask permission of the chapter. If any 
icd without permission they were dismissed, 
e Quinze-Vingts occupied their original ha hi- 



468 HOSPICES AND BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS. 

tation till I'j'jg, when cardinal de Rohan, grar 
almoner of France, removed them to the Hoi 
des Moiisquet aires noirs, where they still remai 
At the revolution this institution took the title > 
Hospice des Ai^eugles, and was superintended 1 
a gratuitous and honorary council of five person 
but the revenue was in great part confiscated. ] 
i8i4> Louis XVIII restored to the hospital t1 
revenue which it previously possessed. Tliis ii 
stitution is still under the government of the grai 
almoner of France. The number of inmates 
three hundred. None are admitted but tho: 
absolutely both blind and indigent, and sach ai 
received here from any part of the kingdon 
They are lodged, and receive twenty-four sous 
day for their food and clothing. The work ezi 
cuted by these unfortunate persons is extreme! 
interesting. Strangers are admitted to the hosp 
tal daily. 

Institution Rojale des Sourds et Muei 
(Deaf and Dumb Asylum), 

JS'o. a54» rue du faubourg St, Jacques. 
For this institution, which is highly deservii 
of a visit from the stranger, France is indebted 1 
the celebrated Abbe de I'fip^e, who, without p 
tronage, and with a fortune not exceedii^p 5oo 
a year, undertook to maintain and bring up i 
his own expense more than forty deaf and dun 
pupils, whom he succeeded in instructing to rei 
and write, to comprehend all the difficulties ' 
grammar, and to reduce the most abstract met 
physical ideas "to' writing. The Abbe de I'Ep 



CI I 



0! 



aiown in Parii till i777> wben tb« 
iph IL, being io the Firench capital^ 
>eaf and Dumb Scbool. The ingenious 
ployed excited tbe jadmiration of the 
vfbo expressed to the queen of France 
se that the school should not have re- 
jouragement from the government. Tfae 
^ked the school, and io JVovember of the 
^g jear, a decree was issued which autho- 
.ts esktabli^hment in the buildings of a con- 
of Celest»Bs which had been suppressed. The 
/ee was not carried into execution till March, 
yS5, »t wJUich period an annuity of 3,4oo livre« 
WfiB granted to the institution. The Abb^ de 
r£f>4^ dying in 1790, was succeeded by the Abb^ 
Sicanl* yfho cai^ried the system of instruction to 
perception. During the revolution tbi^ institution 
was transferred to the buildiogs of the Seminaire 
de St. Magloire, rue dii faubourg St. Jacques, 
wbere it still continues. The Abbe Sicard died 
on the loth of May, 1822, and was succeeded by 
the Abbe Perier. The Minister of the Interior is 
visitor of this institution, which is superintended 
by an honorary council of seven members. The 
number of gratuitous pupils is iixed at ninety. 
That of boarders is unlimited. To be admitted 
gratuitously into the institution, the child must 
be full twelve years old, and not exceed sixteen j 
and must present a certificate from the authorities 
of his parish, setting forth that he is really deaf 
and dumb, sound of mind and body, and with- 
out the means of education. The pupils of both 
sexes remain in the institution five years, and are 
tauglit reading, writing, arithmetic, drftw ing, iuid 
PART I. 4'> 



4^0 HOSPICES AND BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIOITS. 

some trade. The terms for boarders depend upon - 
the circumstances of their parents, but the com- - 
mon standard is 900 francs a year for boys and 
800 francs for girls. Strangers are admitted fi^oin 
time to lime to witness the public exercises, which 
are highly interesting and extremely well attended. 
No one could be present without feeling the most 
powerful emotions of pity, anxiety, and astonish- 
ment, mingled with the warmest respect for those, ■ 
through whose unwearied skill and philanthropy 
numbers of these unfortunate individuals have 
been put in possession of social and mental en- 
joyment. Others have been enabled to read and 
pronounce aloud any sentence written for them, 
though, of course, being merely imitation and not 
heard by the utterer, the pronunciation is not 
correct. This sort of pronunciation is the efTect 
of a compelled mechanical exertion of the organs 
of speech, produced by the instructor's placing 
his lips and mouth in certain positions, and ap- 
pearing to tiie scholar to make certain motions, 
who, in endeavouring to imitate such motions, 
necessarily utters a sound more or less like that 
required. The degree offeree which it is necessary 
the scholar should apply to pronounce distinctly 
any word, is regulated by pressing his arm gently, 
moderately, or strongly. The various specimens 
shown of the work performed by them is both 
curious, and wonderful. 

The public exercises do not take place on fixed 
days, but arc always announced in Galignani*S 
Messenger. For tickets of admission, apply by 
letter (post paid) to Monsieur le Directeur, at the 
Institution. They niay also be obtained by writ- 



lOSPICES i BENEYOl 

the nam , and a( a by X^ 

k). In a book at the po o 



Institution Royale des Jeu 
Aveugles^ 

; No. C8, rue St. f^ictor. 

^his institution originated in the benevolent 
rtions of M. Hauy, who offered himselfin i784» 
htSociete Philanthropique^ to instruct grattti- 
sly the bliod children under their care. * His 
thod was not new, but he was the first who 
; it in practice in Paris, and carried it. to 
fection. Shortly after its establishment, the 
ad School was separated from.the Philanthropic 
iety, and in 1791 was created a royal insti- 
[on, by Louis XVI. This school occupies the 
Idings of the ancient College des Bens Enfans, 
1 well deserves a visit IVoni the traveller. It 
itains sixty blind bovs, and thirty girls, who 
maintained at the cxriensc of the state lor 
ht years. Blind children arc also admitted as 
irdcrs. Thev arc taught music, reading, arilh- 
tic, writing, and various trades, in all ol which 
y excel. AdmittJincc may be obtained every 
^ except Sundays and Thursdays, by applying 
the porter. l\d)lic exercises of the pupils take 
ce from time to time. 



Maison dc licjiii^e pour Ics Jeutics 
Pris()nfiicrs\, 

line (les (ins, St. Jacques. 
This institution, which is established in the an- 



472 ESTABLISHMENTS CONNfiCTED WITH 

cient convent des Jacobins, is destined to r< 
young offenders condemned to corporeal pi 
ment.. When the term of their imprisonme 
expired, they are here received and emplo; 
is provided for them. Upon obtaining perm 
of the government, young prisoners are al 
to enter before their sentence has expired, 
here receive elementary instmction^ are taug 
principles of religion, and are habituated to h 
This useful establishment is in part suppOrl 
voluntary contributions. 

Maison etJ^ducation de VOrdre R 
de la Legion d'Hcnneur, 

IVo, 2, rue Barbette* 
This establishment, for the education of gi 
well as a similar one in the Hotel des Loges, 
forest of St. Germain, is a dependence of the jl 
Royale de St, Denis.* In this house there ar 
hundred gratuitous pupils. JVo strangers a 
lowed to visit it. 



ESTABLISHMENTS CONNECTED M 
THE HOPITAUX AND HOSPICl 



Bureau Central d' Admission dan. 
Hopitaux et Hospices^ 

iVb. 1, place du ParvU Notre Dame, 
This office is established in buildings erect 
a Foundling Hospital. On the sides of th 

* See 6'C. Dtmsy Emfirons of PariM, 



AE H6l»ITAtJX AND ROSHCtS. %^ 

& two fountains, consisting of anii^tf 
tes, upon each of which is a bai-relieff re- 
ig females attending a dying man, in al- 
tht H6tel Dieu. The object of this office 
/erent imposition in obtaining admiBsitm 
iC hospitals. All the persons connected with 
medical men. Urgent cases are admitted with- 
delay, but other patients are obliged to olvttin 
:ket at the central bureau before they can enter, 
sdns from the country are admitted into the 
pitals of Paris upon producing a passport de- 
red gratis. Here also tickets are given for the 
lission of paupers into the hospices. The o/Bee 
pen daily from nine o'clock till four. A me- 
il man attends here every Tuesday, Thursday, 
Saturday, from nine to twelve o'clock, for the 
itment of children troubled with scald heads. 
try Monday and Friday, from nine to twelve 
ock, bandages are given to persons furnished 
h a certificate of poverty from the Bureau de 
'.rite. 

Mais on Scipioii, 

Hue S'cipion, Jaubourq St. Marcel. 
nder the reign of Henry III, a rich Italian gen- 
lan, named Scipion Sardini, built an hotel on 
spot, which was purchased in 1622 to form 
asylum for aged and infirm men. In i636 it 
i given to the Hopital de la Salpctriere for its 
ghter-house, baking-office, etc. It now forms 
3neral bake-house for all the hospitals, pri- 
>, etc. of Paris, and sends out annually more 
1 seven million pounds of bread. Strangers 
allowed lo visit this immense establishment 

',0. 



^74 ESTABLISHMENTS CONNECTED WITH 

Phannacie Centrale^ 

Qum de la TournelLe, 

A general dispensary, first eslablishcd in line 
Ilopital des Enfans Trouves, Parvis JVolre Dame, 
was transferred, in 1812, to the convent of the 
Dames Miramiones, where it stilL exists. This es- 
tablishment is divided into sections, one of which 
consists of warehouses for drugs, etc; the other is 
a vast laboratory, in which medicines are pre- 
pared for the hospitals, charitable institutions, 
and prisons. Mere also are prepared, for the whole 
kingdom, boxes of preservatives from contagion, 
and remedies for drowned or suffocated persons. 
No persons are allowed to visit this establishment 
except medical men and surgeons. 



Etablissement Central de Vaccination 

Gratuitey 

No. 8, rue de Poitiers, 
This institution, formed in i8oi, by the Prefect 
of the department of the Seine, is placed under 
the superintendence of the General Council of Hos- 
pitals, and directed by tlie Central Committee of 
Vaccination. The experiments on vaccination are 
performed in this establishment by a central com- 
mittee, composed of fifteen members, charged by 
the p;ovcrnment to correspond with the Prefects, 
thcCummittces of Vaccination, and the Physicians 
of the departments, and to propagate this di&' 
covciy through the kingdom, in order to exter- 
minate the small pox. Vaccination is gratuitously 
performed in this establishment, on Tuesdays aud 



— ■ Ap, jVowmces. 



■«? :',^Ll !»" ~ 0.1. tf« "»"; „,-,. 



,r ./Hrti"""'"* 

„„,.■".■-• "TiweS:.* ["•"""■"" 



,,« Hfipi 






476 ESTABLISHMENTS CONNKCTEO WITH 

practice of the medical art. It may be ykited by 
applying to the porter. 



Secours a Domicile (Relief at Home). 

In each of the twelve arrondissemens of Farv» 
there is a bureau to afford relief to aged and iDfirm 
persons, and poor women haying large families, 
and gratuitous advice and medicines to the sick) 
at their own houses. There is also an infirmary 
attached to each bureau. The relief granted to 
the poor consists of a distributioti of bread, meat, 
and clothing, besides which a monthly allowanoe 
of 3 fr. is afforded to such as are seventj-five 
years of age, and of 6 fr. to such as are eighty. 
Before and during the revolution, these olfices 
were called bureaux de bienfaisance. They are 
under the direction of the prefect of the depart- 
ment and the General Council of Hospitals. Each 
bureau consists, ist, of the mayor, who is presi- 
dent^ ex-officio, the deputy mayors, the rector of 
the parish, the curates of the chapels of ease, akid 
the protestant minister, where there is a church 
of that persuasion; and, of twelve managers, 
chosen by the Minister of the Interior; Sro, of 
commissai-ies for the poor, and of dames de ehariti^ 
whose number is determined by the bureau^ An 
accountable agent is attached to each. In 1819, 
the bureaux relieved thirty-seven thousand and 
fifty-four families, or eighty-five thousand eight 
hundred and fifty-seven individuals. 



THE ndPlTAUX AHb H08FICBS* 

^tabUssement en faueur des^Wlesses 

Indigens^ 

JVo, 9, rue du Petit Muse, 

This establishment, the object of which is to 
affford gratuitous advice, linen, and dressings to 
indigent persons, who have received wounds, 
sprains, etc., was founded by the late M. Dumont 
Yaldajon, a celebrated surgeon, for the support 
of which government allowed him, and continues 
to his successors, the sum of twb thousand francs 
a year, taken from the funds of the Sedours & 
l>omicile. Strangers are allowed to visit tbis 
institutiou. 



BtabUssement de Filature^ - 

Rue de la Chaussee^ cul de sac des HospitalihreSy near 

the Place Royale, 

This establishment is principally destined to 
procure work for poor women, who, on present- 
ing a certificate from the Bureau de Charite, with 
the recommendation of a responsible person, re- 
ceive a quantity of hemp for spinning, for which, 
when done and returned, they are paid a cer- 
tain sum. The number of women employed by 
this institution is about three thousand. There 
are besides one hundred weavers, who have no 
other means of existence than what are afforded 
them here, and for whom frames are procured, 
if they are unable to buy them. About thirty 
children belonging to these paupers are gratui- 
tously instructed in a neighbouring school, at the 
expense of the establishment. 



47^ BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 

BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. 



Societe Philanthropique, 

This association was founded in 1780, under tbe 
special protection of Louis XVT, for affording re- 
lief to sufL>ring humanity. The funds are em- 
ployed in distributing food to the indigent by 
means of soup-houses j in gratuitous advice, and 
medicine for the sick; and in assisting various ^ 
other charitable establishments. Every subscriber \ 
of 5o fr. a year receives as many hundred soup- : 
tickets and cards for the dispensaries, as he gives ' 
subscriptions of 5o francs. Each of these cards 
entitles the person to whom it is given to receive 
the benefit of advice, medicine or a bath, as his 
case may require; and in extreme cases physicians 
go to those who need them. A committee of lifty 
members, of which a third is renewed every year, 
chosen ]}y the subscribers, is charged with the 
administration of the funds and the distribution 
of relief, wilh the visiting of the infirm and in- 
digent, and the preparation and execution of all 
the undertakings of the society. The king hns 
declared himself the head and protector* of this 
society; the late duke of Berry was president, and 
took an active share in its proceedings. In i8aQ, 
this society distributed 106,069 fr. 



Societe pour Vextinction de la Petite 
P^erole en France. 

'J'his society, composed of distinguished medical 
men, was formed for the purpose of ascertaining 



up me Child. Ihe sum Krained to eacli is loo It. Its 
affairs are managrl by 48 ladles. In each arrondiisf 
ment ihtre aie pliysielans, siirseons. apotbecaiies, and 
midwiiei auacljeJ tn this society. The king ^ivc& annu- 
ally 100,000 fr., and cacli membet of the society 5o&. 
The principal office is at No. S, rue Coi[ Ue'toa. 

Order oj Freemasons at Paris. 

Prerious to the llcTnlutioD masonr* was in t bigbly 
flourisbing stale in France. The Duke of Orleans was 
l^and master, and ibe higliesi pertonagei in the state 
were membeis of the institution. In the grand political 
conflict all the loilge* were closed, and masonry was 
Tirinally abolished in Franre, bul the " sacred Grc^ was 
preserved as well »% all the masonic archives, by M. Rod- 
tier dc Mnnlaleau , and on the return of order, masonry 
was ai-ain organiicd several members of the imperial 
liiinily'ivcre.ndmilted, and Joesph Bonaparte acceplcd ilie 
* SeepaRC^:}. 



pftiseRS; ^Si 

met' ^ a committee, -^o wemlMMmd to 
mm weekly; and the houses of correeliitt 
uiexed to the general hospital (la Salpe- 

Li 1675, Louis XIV reduced the nam&er 
)risons of Paris, retaining only nine. Not- 
indiog these salutary arrangements, the pri* 
stem experienced but little improvemcnC. 
accession of Loub XYI to the throne, the 

of Paris were in a very bad state ^ labour 
cvdictedy and the prisoners were without 
Mton. Upon the entrance of M. de Mai- 

into the administration, he ordered tfai 
I, .and those confined for politicah<t>f]reiiC6i|i 
sparated from the criminals. The striking 
of abuses drawn by his pen attracted the 
»n of his successors, and upon M. ^ecker^ 

into office, the amelioration of priaoBS 
B of the first objects of his attention. The 
ement begun was making considerable pro- 
hen it was arrested l)y llie revolution. The 
uent Assembly determined to reform the 
system, but more urgent affairs employing 
oie of their time, the execution of the pro- 
s left to the succeeding legislative body. 
29th of September, 1791, a law^ w^as passed 
established houses d'arret, of justice and 
)n. All other prisons were prohibited, and 
;s towards the prisoners was enjoined. The 
on olthe measure was scarcely begun, when 
em of terror and arbitrary imprisonment 
le prisons with those who ought to have 
►r ever strangers to them. The innocent 
e guilty, the virtuous and the criminal, 
T I. 4^ 



/' 



.{82 PRISONS. 

were confounded together in the same receptacle j 
and youth, beauty, courage, and talent were de- 
livered up to torture, too barbarous even for 
beings brutalized by corruption and wretchedness. 
The gth Thermidor put an end to that dreadful 
state of things; but the victims of suspicion and 
persecution, having escaped from the horrors of 
the dungeon, lifted up their voice against the ad- 
ministration of the prisons, and public opinion 
united with them in demanding a change of the 
system. In 1795, in pursuance of a decree of the 
IN'alional Convention, separate prisons were ap- 
pointed for the divers classes of offenders, and the 
criminal and penal code was formed, which fixed 
with greater precision the competency of the dif- 
ferent tribunals. The changes effected in the cri- 
minal legislation since the revolution have neces- 
sarily produced a sensible effect in the prison 
regulations. The prisoners are'now well f^ and 
well treated ; just complaints are listened to and 
redressed; and they are employed according to 
their respective talents or professions : of their 
earnings one-third goes to the prison, one-third to 
the prisoner, and the remainder is given to them 
when set at liberty. Most of the violations of the 
law, which formerly were regarded as crimes and 
punished with death, arc now considered merely 
as misdemeanours. Lettres de cachet no longer 
exist, and trial generally takes place soon af^er ap- 
prehension. The violations of the laws may'now 
be divided into three classes, viz. ist, crimes which 
incur the forfeiture of life, or severe corporeal 
punishment; 2nd, misdemeanours; 3rd, breaches 



itiicipal a Je] 

as existiD^ in fa are e 

Hog three military p 



^epot de la Prefecture de Police, 

is is a place of temporary detention, where 
arrested by the police officers are confined 
eir examinatiou takes place, and it is decided 
ber tbey shall be detained or set at liberty, 
prison is divided into two parts; the'fir^ 
t the sal^ de St. Martin, consists of two coni'^ 
3US chambers, and is devoted to those who 
)Ie to pay for an allowance of provisions,- afid 
nmodation superior to that which the cmii^ 
prison affords.' The other part consists of 
Wing three stories high. Each story is com- 
[ of a long, narrow, and dark room, several 
rooms, and sonic cells. In ll)e course of a 
iinny lliousand individuals are received al tills 
, from whence ihey are clllier discharged or 
lilted to prison. On this account it is to be 
;tl that a Inciter svsteni prevailed, particularly 
ssifving the persons taken into custody. 



L (I Con cieri^erie . 



sConcIergei'ie, whicli forms part of tlie l)ulld- 
)f the Palais de Justice, was the prison of tlie 
nt J^alais, when it was used as a royal rcsi- 
'.. Its name is derived from the concierge 
cr), who was the chief of a jurisdiction 
I Bailliage du Palais, had the title oi baill/, 
enjoved several privileges. The buildingA 



484 PRISONS. 

which form this prison still retain the hideous 
character of feudal times, but they are in good 
repair, and their distribution as commodious as 
the confined situation will admit. The entrance 
is on the right of the grand flight of steps leading 
to the Palais de Justice. Over the low and nar- 
row door-way might be placed this inscription 
from Dante : 

Lasciate ogni speranza voi che entrate ! 

A sombre vestibule communicates with the grtfi^ 
the female prison, the gaoler^s apartments, rooms 
for close confinement, in one of which was 
imprisoned the count de Lavalette, the circum- 
stances of whose escape are well known, and the 
infirmary. At the extremity is a long dark gal- 
lery in which is a dungeon where the unforlcmate 
princess Elisabeth, sister of Louis XVI, was con- 
fined^ another in which Robespierre was impri- 
soned ; and a third which was occupied by Louvel, 
the murderer of the duke of Berry. This giAlery 
communicates with the parloir^ where the pri • 
soners are allowed, for one hour at a time, to con- 
verse with their friends through iron rails, of 
which there is a double range, leaving an interval 
of about five feet. The vestibule and gallery are 
lighted by lamps even in the day time. The pr^au 
presents a kind of area or court, one hundred and 
eighty feet in length by sixty in breadth, round 
which is a gallery leading to the cells, and com- 
municating by stairs to the upper stories. It was 
partly constructed in the thirteenth century, and 
partly rebuilt in modem times, and is ten or 
twelve feet below the level of the adjacent streets $ 



PRISONS. 4^ 

as « ptoiMnade • for the prisoneni who, 
ip|it diose Confined in dungeons, are allowed to 
Ik lirom eight o'clock in the morning till dude. 
Slipper stories are occapied by such persons as 
ttble to pay for a bed {prendre la pi$toU), The 
rment varies from 17 sous to a fr. 10 sous for 
days, according to the kind of bed. The ac* 
amodation afforded to the other prisoners is 
y inferior. The dark dungeons, however, have 
; been used for upwards of thirty years. They 
twenty-three feet in Jength by eleven and a 
fin height. The Tvur de Montgomery, in which 
seigneur de Montgomery was imprisoned, and 
srwards the historian Philip de Comines, Ra- 
Uac, and Damien, was demolished in 1778, when 
! Palais de Justice Was rebuilt, 
die Conciergerie will ever be memorable for 
confinement of the unfortunate queen Marie 
toinette, wlio was imprisoned liere during two 
nths and a half, and only left it for the seal fold, 
e room which she occupied was afterwa-rds di- 
nished to half its size, covered with seven coals 
3il-paint and varnish to destroy the dampness 
the walls, and is now transl'ormed into an 
liatory chapel. Visitors are first conducted 
the chapel of the prison, which communicates 
h the expiatory chapel, bv an opening behind 
altar. The prison chapel is so disposed that 
lind its altar appears that of the queen's prison, 
Ich produces a mournful and impressive effect. 
2 wall througli whicb the opening has been 
de is remarkably tbick. On each side mural 
numents bave been erected to llie memory of 
lis XVI and the princess Ellsabetb. They arc 

4.. 



486 PRISONS. 

of white marble upon a black ground sprinkled 
with tears, and are ornamented with medallioDS 
of the illustrious personages whom they com- 
niemorate. On that to the left islhe inscrlplion 
'^A la menioire de Louis XTI. On that to the 
right — A la memoire de Madame Elisabeth, The 
expiatory altar bears the following inscription, 
said to have been composed by Louis XYIII: 

D. O. M. 

Hoc in loco 

Maria Antonia Joscpha Joanna Aastriaca 

Jjudovici XVI vidua, 

Conjuge trucidato, 

Libcris creptis 

In carccrem conjccta. 

Per dies LXXVI xrumnis luctu ct sqaalorc adfecia, 

sod 

PropriA virtnle innixa, 

Ut in solio, ila et in vinculis 

Majorcm fortnnA se prxbuit. 

A 6celcstissimis dcnique hominibus 

Capitc damnata, 

Mortc jam immincnte, 

Alaernuin pictatis, foriltudinis, omniuraqiie virtotam 

Monuuicntnm hie scripsit, 

Die XVI Ociobris, MDCCXCIII. 

Reslitutc tandem regno, 

Career in sacrarium conversus 

Dicatus est 

A. D. MDCCCXVI, Lndovici XVIII regnanlis anno 

XXll, 

Comiic do Cazes a sccmitatc publicik Regis luinistro, 

Pi.efecio xdilibusque cnrantibus. 

Quisquis liic adcs, 

Adorn, admirare, xn'ccare. 

ndow this inscription is recorded, in letters of 



PRISONS. /\ 

iage of a letter addressed to mada 

/ the queen, iu which her majesty < 

she pardons those -who had done 1 

ite the window stood the q<iieen^s b 

i'rom the door by a large screen, whi 

jh importunity, she obtained as her o 

against intruders. In this spot is u 

a picture by Simonj representing her n 

.aning on the bed, and addressing '. 

s to heaven. To the right of this pictur 

jer, by Pajou, ezhibiling the scene of disli 

•n the queen was separated from her fam 

risoned with her in the Temple. 

'o the left is a beautiful picture, by Droll i 

presenting a scene in the middle of the nig 

.vben the present curate of St. Germain VXuj 

rois, M. Mangin, intro<]uced himself into here 

disguised as a gendarme, to perform with her 

last communion. The two gendarmes on duty 

represented as joining in this awful cercnio 

This prison has several times been the ihcalrc 

a dreadful massacre. The most recent was on 

'jd and 5d of Septeniber, 179'^, when two hund 

and thirty-nine persons were inhumanly murder 

Tlie Conclergerle is principally used ior th 

persons who are about to take their trial, 

which purpose they are transferred here IVom 

other prisons. Capital convicts also are hrou 

here on the lu'^hl preceding their execution. 1 

tickets of admission applv bv letter to /!/"• /' 

ge/es, secretaire dc la Prcfectiue tU roliti'. I 

niittance mav also be obtained bv personal ;i[>] 

cation, upon pioduclng a passport, at tiic 

reaii dcs Prisons, second court of the Prclc< tui' 



488 PRISONS. 

La Grande Force^ 

lYo. 12, rue du Roi dc Sicile- 
The buildings which fonn this prison wert 
origiDally an hotel belonging to the duke de it 
Force, whose name it bore. Towards the end of 
the reign of Louis XIV^, this edifice was divided 
into two parts, one of which took the name of 
H6tel de Brienne, and had its entrance in the rue 
Pavde ; the other retained its former name, and 
had its entrance in the rue du Roi de Sicile. AAer 
passing through several hands, the H6tel de la 
Force was converted, in 1780, into a prison for 
debtors and persons charged with civil offences. 
It is now used for the detention of prisoners pre- 
vious to trial. This prison consists of several 
piles of building, each of which has a prSau^ or 
separate court. The most airy building is situated 
in the centre between two courts planted with 
trees. Here such prisoners are detained as can 
incur some expense. On the left, is the infirmary. 
On the 5d of September, 1792, and the four fol- 
lowing days, one hundred and sixty prisoners, 
among whom were three priests and the princess 
de Lamballe, were massacred in this prison. 



La Petite Force, 

' JYo, aa, rue Pauee* 
At the period when the H6tel de la Force waf 
converted into a prison, the H6tel de Brienne was 
demolished, and a new prison for prostitutes 
erected upon its site, which took the name of La 
Petite Force. The front presents a sombre aspect. 



I^RISONS. 4^9 

Minlhited with vermiciiUted rustios, and 
«nee is formed by an elliptical arek. It it 
ones high, and is sarmounted bj a Dorie 
, In the construction of this editi^^e neither 
or plaster were employed, the whole being 
of stone bound together by iron bars. 
>ms are spacious and the massive arehitec- 
unique in Paris. This prison is still ap* 
ted to the detention of prostitutes, wno 
iloyed in spinning and sewing. Strangepv 
litted upon applying to the turnkey. 



St. PelagiCy 

JVo, i4, rue de la Clef* 

mildings of this prison were formerly oc* 
as a female penitentiary, under the direc- 
a community of nuns, called Filles de St, 
, and subject to the control of the ma - 
>f the general-hospital. Its name is derived 
. Pelagic, an actress of tliecity of Antioch, 
;ame a penitent in the fifth century. Upon 
pression of religious orders, in 1789, the 
de St. Pelagic remained some time vacant, 
ary, 1792, the prison de la Force being 
re, the prisoners for debt were transferred 
:lagie, which, from that period, became a 
prison. St. Pelagic afterwards underwent 
changes previous to the i5th Germinal, 
ipril 4, '798), when it again became a pri- 
debtors and persons sentenced to corpo- 
ishment. In March, 181 1, it was consti- 
itate prison, to which all persons confined 
ifferent prisons for political offences were 



/^ 



49^ PRISONS. 

transferred. Upon the occupation of^^aris by the 
allies, in i8i4} tl^e state prisoners were set at 
liberty on the 2nd of April, by command of the 
sovereigns. 

This extensive prison, the front of which pre- 
sents a terrible aspect, is now appropriated to 
debtors, persons sentenced to corporeal punish- 
ment, those committed for misdemeanours, young 
offenders, and authors imprisoned for political 
writings. No prison in Paris presents so singular 
and diversified an association of rank, profession, 
and age. On the ground-floor are spacious 
workshops, in which the prisoners sentenced to 
corporeal punishment labour in making fringe, 
articles in mother of pearl, straw hats, and 
other articles. The lodging of these prisoners 
consists of long galleries at the first and second 
stories. On the first Ooor, the gallery towards 
the south is appropriated to such as can pay the 
pistole i but none are allowed to enjoy this pri- 
vilege if they be condemned to more than three 
months' imprisonment. The others sleep upon a 
bedstead which extends the whole lengQi of the 
gallery. They are locked up at six o clock in the 
evening, and till nine they pass their time in re- 
lating to each other their roguery and crimes, 
amidst bursts of laughter, which from time to 
time interrupt the narrator. At nine o^clock the 
gaoler appears, the names arc called over, and the 
prisoners being locked up for the night, breathe a 
pestilential air, and arc eaten up with vermin. 
Those who are upwai'ds of sixty years of age are 
indulged witli soup and broth, a portion of wioe, 
and a mattress and two blankets to their bed, in 



PRISONS. • -49' 

to the paillasse. The second story is oc- 
y debtors. These, if they have money, live 
[y as it is possible to do in prison. They 
a chamber and even several rooms, can 
ied with food by a restaurateur, and re- 
its from their friends j and if perchance 
itor who has sent them to prison forgets 
he monthly allowance for food, they are 
ed j but this seldom occurs. Here are to 
)fBcers, advocates, artists, authors, stock- 
and even priests. There are fewer mcr- 
nd tradesmen than any other class. Oil 
h of the same story are the mSmes. By 
ular name are called the young prisoners 
iteen years of age who have abandoned 
'esto dishonest occupations, or haVe been 
led at the solicitation of their parents. 
I of cip;ht and ten ycnrs old are to be met 
re. TIk'v arc employed in spinning and 
ivool and cotton, and arc allowed to lake 
"rcatlon in a spacious court. Unlbrlu- 
nit lillle attention is paid to llieir moral 
ment, an<l it is rare, when tlicv arc set at 
that lliev return to habits of honesty. 
, booksellers, and printers, im])risoncd lor 
ollences, occnpv an entresol which looks 
the ilrst court and is called the corridor 
'J'liev each have a separate room. The 
, vi( es, and defects in the administration 
rison have been a])lv depicted by Messrs. 
Jony, who were conlined here, in then- 
illlled Lt^s HeniiLtes en Prison. For per- 
to visit this prison npply by letter to 71/. 
?, sei ri'laire de. la P reject iire de Police. 



49^' PRISONS. 

BicStrej 

See Uopital de BicilrCf page 449* 



MadelonnetteSj 

JYo. a4> ^"^ ^^^ FontaineSy au JUarais. 

This building yfAs originally a convent of nuns, 
called Ft lies de la Madeleine, who devoted them- 
selves to the reformation of prostitutes. In 1795 
it became a prison for suspectSj and in 1796 was 
appropriated to female debtors, the detention of 
women previous to trial, and those sentenced to 
corporeal punishment. Considerable additions 
have recently been made to the buildings, and a 
neat chapel was erected in 18 17. The prisoners 
are employed in spinning, embroidery, sewing, and 
mending linen. The charge to those who send work 
is extremely low, and the it is excellently done. 



Saint LazarCy 

JVo. 117, rue du faubourg St, Denis. 

Upon the suppression of religious orders, at the 
beginning of the revolution, the convent of the 
Lazarisls or priests of the mission, in the rue du 
faubourg St. Denis, was converted into a prison 
for suspects, and shortly after it contained nearly 
nine hundred victims of persecution. By a decree 
of the Convention of the ^Sth Frimaire, an III 
(December i5th, i794)> it was appropriated to the 
detention of women sentenced to various terms of 
imprisonment. The buildings of the prison are 
commodious, and the general management good* 



PAISOIfS. 4S^ 

soners are employed as at les Madelon- 
To visk this prison, apply to M. Fougires, 
'•« de la Prefecture de Police. 



ron de VAbbajre St. Germain. 

nooks of the ancient Abbey of St. Ger- 
s Preshad their jurisdiction, their officers, 
r prison; the latter, which now serves for 
ry prison, is very strong, and has its oi^ 
Military men of all ranks, accused of 
sanours,' are imprisoned here till the^ are 
led before a court-martial. The prisoners 
rigorously treated here than in other pri* 
ley can see their friends more easily, and 
wed to gaze through the grated windows 
passengers in the streets. The principal 
I is terrific; it is sunk to the depth of 
:et, is dreadfully damp, and so low that 
J sized man cannot stand upright. When 
of trial arrives, the prisoner is conducted 
"ourt-martial, whose sittings are held at 
:l de Toulouse, No. dq, rue du Cherche- 
f condemned to the galleys or to death, 
)ner returns to the Abbaye; from which, 
ormer case, he is sent among the galley- 
t Bicctre, and in the latter to the plain of 
, where he is shot within forty-eight 
The massacre which took place here on 
f September, 179*2, and several following 
is one of the most horrible scenes of the 
•evolution. This prison cannot be visited 
permission ot le CJiefde la Police Militairt, ^ 
tat Major de la Place^ Place Vcndome. 

I. \i 



494 PRISON'S. 

Prison de MouLaigu^ 

Rue des Sept P^oies. 

This was formerly a college which produced 
many celebrated literary characters. It was con- 
verted into a house of detention during the terrible 
rcigu of Robespierre. It is now. a mHitary prison, 
where soldiers who have come to Paris without 
leave, and those of the garrison guilty of breaches 
of discipline, are confined for two days or longer, 
according to the gravity of the charges against 
them. A school upon the Lancasterian plan has 
been established here within a few years. ■■ 



Maisoii d'ArrSt de la Garde Nationale^ 

Hotel Bazancourt, quai St, Bernard, 
lu this house the national guards arc punished 
for breaches of discipline, by twenty-four hours* 
imprisonment. In a house situated at the back 
of this prison is a place of detention and correc- 
tion for persons from ten to fifteen years of age, 
who betray evil dispositions. 



INSTITUT DE FRANCE. 49^ 



CHAPTER XVI. 
CNTIFIC AND LITERARY INSTITUTIONS. 



Institut de France. 

je Inslitute was formed, during the republican 
irooienty by the association, under a general 
collective title, of the several literary and 
itific societies, denominated jicademicMj es^ 
isbed during the reigns ofLouis XIII and- Louis 
At the revolution, these academies were 
er dissolved or their meetings suspended. The 
ilLilc was oriniiiallv divided inlo llirec classes: 
first, plivsical aiul mallieinalicai sciences; the 
nd, moral and political sciences j I'.nd tlietlilrd, 
aturc antl the line Arts. In the year XI (i8o3), 
aparte divided the Institute into four classes: 
iirsl comprehended the physical and malhc- 
ical sciences; the second had for ils object the 
ncli laniinairc anrl literature: the third, ancient 
orv and literature; and the fourth, the Fine 
5. Upon the restoration, Louis X\lll issued 
)rdinance, dated IMarch 21, 1816, by wiilch, for 
four (la6.^cs of" the Institute, four academies 
c substituted ; viz. 1 . The yicademie Francaise ; 
riie yfcadch/iic Jloyale des Inscriptions et Belles 
ties ; 5. The ylcudeinie Jioyale des Sciences : 
riic ylcadc/nie des Beaux jirts. Tlicse acade- 



49^ IXSTITUT DE rUAXCE. 

mies are under the special protection of the king. 
The interests and the funds common to the four 
academies are under the direction of a committee 
of eight members, presided by the Minister of the 
Interior. Two members of the committee are 
chosen from each academy. They are elected 
annually, and are always re-eligible. The mem- 
bers of one academy are eligible to the other 
academies; and each receives a salary of iSoofr. 
The surplus funds are devoted to the formation of 
pensions for the most aged members, or such as 
are necessitous. Every time a member attends, 
he receives a counter to denote that he was pre- 
sent. Each academy has its special rules and 
funds at its own disposal. The library, coUections, 
etc. of the Institute are common to the foor 
academies. The private funds of each academy 
are disposed of by bureaux or commilteeSy in 
conformity to certain regulations. The AcadimU 
Fran false consists of forty members, who are 
charged with the composition of a dictionary of 
the French language, and with the examination of 
important works in literature, science and history, 
with a view to the improvement of the language. 
This academy adjudges alternately an annual prixe 
of i5oo francs for poetry and eloquence. It also 
decrees two annual prizes founded by M. Mont- 
lujon, one for the work most useful to the public 
morals, and another for an act of virtue displayed 
in the lower classes of society. The jfcademie 
Roy ale des Inscriptions et Belles- Lettres is also 
composed of forty members. The learned lan- 
guages, antiquities and monuments, history, and 
the moral and political sciences relating to history, 



IIISTITCT DE FKANCE. 497 

ire ibdobjeots of Uieir researches and labours* 
[hffiir attention is particularly directed to the 
ranslation of Greek, Latin, and Oriental works 
nto the French language, and to the formation of 
liplomatic collections. This academy adjudges 
in annual prize of i5::o francs, and sometimes 
wo> for literary memoirs. Within a few years 
ilso, the Minister of the Interior has graated 
nedals to be distributed to such persons as pro^ 
luce the best memoij^s upon the antiquities of 
France. Major Rennel was an honorary member 
>f Hub academy. The AcadSmie Roy ale (Us Science* 
s divided into eleven sections, as follows >—-Gfeo- 
netry, six members; mechanics, six; astronomy, 
iix| geography and navigation, three; general 
)hilosopby, six; chemistry, six; mineralogy, six ; 
>otany, six ; rural economy and the veterinary 
irt, six; anatomy and zoology, six ; medicine and 
urgery, six. Tlie annual prizes adjudged by this 
icadeniy are one of 3ooo francs for physical seich- 
es j one, founded Ijy M. Montlujon for slatislicsj 
ind one by M. Lalande, for llie principal astrono- 
nical discovery or observation. Sir Joseph Banks, 
)r. Jenner, and Dr. Hcrschcll were honorary mem- 
»ers of this society. The u4cademie Rojdie Hes 
^eaux Arts is also divided into sections, designated 
nd composed as follows: — Painting, fourteen 
nembers^ sculpture, eight j architecture, eight; 
ngraving, four; musical composition, six. The 
loyal Academy of the Fine Arts also distributes 
nnual prizes. Those who obtain the grand prizes 
'f sculpture, architecture and musical compo- 
ition, are sent to Rome, and supported there at 
he expense of the government. The Academie 

4q. 



498 LVSTITUT DE FRAXCC. 

des Sciences appoints two perpetual 8€cretaiie9, i^ 
and each of the other academics one, subject to r= 
the king's approbation. To the Academy of Belles- v^ 
Lettres and to that of the Sciences is added a class ^ 
of ten free academicians, who enjoy the same ^ 
privileges as the other members, and are elected g 
in the accustomed forms. The Royal Academy 'c 
of the Fine Arts has also a class of free acade- « 
micians, the number of which is decided by the 
academy. Each academy, except the jicademic '. 
Francaise, has a certain number of foreign associ- 
ates, who are generally the most distinguished 
artists, and literary and scientific men in their 
respective countries. They have also correspon- 
dents among the literary men of the French pro- 
vinces, and in most of the large tovnis of £urope. 
An annual grant is made to the Minister of the 
Interior, for the salaries of the members, secre- 
taries, and other persons attached to the establish- 
ment, and for literary labours, experiments, prizes, 
printing, etc. This grant is distributed to the four 
academies in proportion to their respective labours 
a>nd necessities. The nominations to vacancies 
arc made by the respective academies* but the 
persons chosen must be con firmed, by the king. 
The hall of the Institute is common to the four 
academics. The Academic Francaise holds its 
weekly meetings on Thursdays j the Acad^mie 
des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres on Fridays ^ the 
Acadciniu des Sciences on Mondays; and the 
Acadcniie des Beaux Arts on Saturdays. The an- 
nual meeting of the Academie Francaise is on 
St. Louisas Day j of the Academic des Inscriptions 
It Belles Lettres in July; of the Academic des 



CE. 499 

SeiQOces . ai of; 

iilg of ihe xtisiiiuic, c( Dec tie !• le- 

miesy is on the 24th 01 2\ il, liic r of 

the day wben Louis X\iii landed at i ais in 
181 4* Ou public occasions the mei of the 

Ij^stitute -wear a costume of black < roidered 
-with green silk. 

Tbe~ meetings of the Institute were held at the 
Louvre till 1806, when the government granted 
to tbem^ the college Mazarin, now called the 
Institute on the quai Conti. This edihce was 
founded in execution of the will of Gardiual Maza- 
TiJiy for the sons of sixty gentlemen or principal 
b.urgesses of Roussillon, Pignerol, Alsace and 
lE'landers^ which had been recently conquered or 
annexed -to the crown j the collegians were to 
be gratuitously boarded, and instructed in religion 
and Belles Leltrcs^ thcv were also to learn fencing, 
riding and dancing. These nations alone being 
admissible Into llie college, it took the name of 
Quatre Nation-w The cardinal bequeathed to the 
college his library, the sum of two millions of 
livres for tlie expense of its construction, and au 
annuity of 45,000 livres. 

This edldce was commenced in 1661, after the 
designs of Levau, and under the direction of Lam- 
bert and d'Orbav, on an irregular piece of ground. 
The iront forms a section of a circle, terminated 
at the extremities by pa villous. In the centre ks 
the portico of the church (now the hall where 
the public meetings are held), composed of columns 
oi the Corinthian order surmounted by a pedi- 
ment, benenth which is llie inscri[Uion : raUii-^ d: 



5oO INSTITUT DE FRAiVCE. 

I' Inst it ut. Above it rises a dome terminated by 
a lantern. In front of the Institute are two foun- 
tains, each formed of two lions in cast iron, from 
whose mouths the water issues. The axis of the 
portico and dome is precisely the same as that 
of the southern front of the Louvre, and a com- 
munication is formed between the two edifices by 
the construction of the Pont des Arts. The front 
produces a picturesque and theatrical effect ; and 
the building upon the whole does honour to the 
genius of Levau. The pavilions which terminate 
the wings projecting very far upon the quay, 
orders were given in 1769 for their demolition ; bat 
if this project had been executed, the structure 
would have been stripped of its beauty. The 
courts and interior constructions necessarily di- 
verge greatly from the exterior direction of the 
edifice. To hide this defect, the architect formed 
a first court with projections on the four facades, 
cut off at the angles. The projections to the right 
and left present each a portico of arcades, deco- 
rated with Corinthian pilasters, and pediments 
adorned with figures by Oesjardins j one leads to 
the private rooms of the Institute and the library, 
and the other to the hall of the public sittings. 
The buildings of the second court have never 
been finished. Destined originally for a college, 
they were constructed without any architectural 
ornament. They are occupied by the schools 
of the different branches of the Fine Arts, until 
the structure recently occupied as the Museum of 
French Monuments be ready to receive them. 

The hall of the public sittings has been censured 
for its theatrical appearance, but M. Vaudoyer, 



INSHTUT DE FRANCE. 5oi 

who WM charged to alter the churdi for it$ 
pecsent destinatiODy had serious difBculUes to en* 
couBterj and has certainly succeeded in affording 
•ceomniodalion to the greatest number of spec- 
tators possible. Above the President's seat is a 
marible bust of Louis XVIII, by Bosio. The mem- 
bers of the Institute occupy benches in the form 
of a semicircle, on each side of tbe centre of the 
hall. In allusion to this arrangement, it has been 
said of the members, Sped at um veniunt, ipectan* 
iur ui ipsi. The recesses formed by the chapeJs 
are now occupied by galleries. The interior of 
the dome is enriched with fine sculpture, bj 
Desjardins, but is rather too high for its small 
diameter. The orchestra is placed in a very ad- 
vantageous manner for the effect of the music, 
and for diminishing in appearance the elevation 
of the dome. The hall is adorned with marble 
statues of Bossuet and Descartes, by Pajou; Fene- 
lon, by Le Comte, and Sully, by Mouchy. In three 
adjoining rooms are statues of Pascal, by Pajou j 
D'Alembert and Rollin, by Le Comte ; CorneiUe 
and Mollere, I)y Caflierl 5 Fontaine and Poussin, 
by Julien J Montansier, by Mouchy; the President 
Mole, by Gols ; Montaigne, by Stouf; Montes- 
quieu, by Clodlon J Uaclne, by Bosio; and Cassini, 
by Moltte. In one of the rooms is a fine mosaic, 
terminated in 1775, by Le Comte, who devoted 
ten years to It. In a building of the second court 
is a temporary gallery of architecture open lo the 
public, which is worth visiting. In it are exhihited 
models in relief of the finest buildings of Kgypt, 
India, Greece, and Rome, the collection of frag- 
ments of ancient architecture, collected in Italy 



5o2 l'objiervatoike, 

and Sicily by Dufourny, or modelled under Lis s; 

inspection, and a model in relief of the Coliscuni) q 

nine feet in diameter, executed in cork, at Rome, ; 

by Lucangeli, in 1808. Here also are exhibited j 

the productions of the candidates for the great :: 

prizes decreed by the Academic des Beaux Arts. * 

This establishment possesses a library * called : 

Bibllotheque de VInstitut, It is entered by a door { 

in the second court, and occupies a long wains- < 
cotted room ornamented with carved-work. On 
each side is a gallery. Into this library no stranger 
is admitted without an introduction by a member, 
which it is easy to obtain. 



U Obser^atoire^ 

Rue (TEnfer, 

Upon the establishment of the Academy of the 
Sciences in the reign of Louis XIV, it was found 
necessary, in order to facilitate the labours of its 
members, to construct a laboratory and an obser- 
vatory. The Laboratory was constructed in a 
part of the building belonging to the royal library ^ 
and after considerable deliberation it was decided 
that the Observatory should be erected upon the 
spot which it now occupies. Claude Pcrrault 
was charged by Colbert to prepare a design for 
this edifice, which was begun in 1667, and finished 
in 1672. When the building was considerably 
advanced, John Dominic dc Cassini, a celebrated 
. astronomer, whom Colbert had sent for from Bo- 

'*' The Biblioili^quc Mazarine is in the same building, 
hut is a separate esiablisliiiicnt. See Biblloihbque Ma- 
z urine. 



l'observatoire. 5o3 

iogna, came to Paris. He found the structuce so ill 
adapted for astronomical observations, that, at his 
suggestion, several alterations were made, not- 
withstanding which there is no part of the build- 
ing from which they can he made with accuracy. 
The principal pile forms a parallelogram of 
ninety ieet by eighty-two, to which have been 
added on the south two octagonal towers, which 
giye a greater extension to the front. In the north 
front is a projection of twenty-fbur feet, which 
forms the grand entrance. Great difficulty was 
found in obtaining a solid foundation on account 
of the quarries beneath ; these it was necessary to 
fill up with huge masses of stone. The aspect of 
the Observatory is striking ; its architecture is re- 
markable for grandeur and simplicity j and it may 
be considered a public edifice of the first order. 
Neither wood nor iron were used in its construc- 
tion. The -vvliolc l)iill(linp; is of stone, niicl all 
the rooms aiul slaircases arc vaulted. The pruiei- 
|ial part ol llils etlllice henij^ found useless, a eou- 
tiLinous huildinij lias l)ecn erected on the east, in 
which nearly all the ohservatlons are made. This 
structure is so disposed, that the two lateral fronis 
are parallel, and the two others perpendicular to 
the meridian line, which ibrms its axis, and which 
is traced on the (loor of a large room at the second 
story. This line, proloni^ed to the south and the 
norlh, extends on one side to Colliourc, and on 
the other to Dunkirk. The meridian line, Aviiii Ii 
divides this building into two equal parts, is the 
point from which French astronomers reckon their 
longitude ; its direction is marked by an ol)eli.sk 
at I^lontmartrc, the distance of >vhich from the 



5o4 l'observatoire. 

Observatory is nearly three English miles and a 
half. Its prolongation, extending from Dunkirk 
to Barcelona, served to measure the quarter of the 
terrestrial meridian, which is calculated to be 
equal to 5,i5o,74o toises. The ten miliioDlhpart 
of this length has been adopted for the metr^ or 
standard of long measure in France. The line 
of the southern front of the Observatory corre- 
sponds with that of the latitude of Paris, which 
crosses France in the direction of east to west. 
This line and the meridian crossing each other 
at the centre of the southern front of the Obser- 
vatory, have served for the point of departure of 
numerous triangles, from which have been pro- 
jected the general map of France, called Carie de 
Cassini or de VObserualoire^ published in one hnn- 
dred and eighty-two sheets. 

On the ground-floor is an opening, three feet 
in diameter, which leads to subterranean rooms, 
by a spiral staircase of three hundred and sixty 
steps. Formerly there was a corresponding open- 
ing, which passed through the various floors to 
the roof of the edifice, affording the means of 
astronomical observations, for experiments upon 
the fall of bodies, and the verification of barome- 
ters. The subterranean building, which forms a 
kind of labyrinth, is used for experiments on the 
refrigeration and congelation ol bodies, and for 
observations on the mean temperature of the at- 
mosphere. For some years past they have been 
closed on account of accidents from persons im- 
prudently advancing too far into the quarries; 
but visitors may obtain permission to go down, 
if accompanied by a guide. On the first floor 



l'observatoirs. SmS 

« Iftkseope tweBty-two fe«l in leii0|h» ^4 
pentjr-two inches in diameter, wbich k fize^ iQ 
large moveable frame; an4 can be drawn qiU 
I tl^ platform of tbe southern froQl* Every 
gkty when the weather permit^, ob^ecvationy 
■e made from this platform and the ^joimng 
09^%$p On the second floor is a spacious raom, 
inch, in 1787, was almost eotirelj rel^uilt, i^i 
mfecfuence of damage occasioned to tbe wtdU 
ltd ceiling by the percolation q£ water Irom 
le roof. In this room are globes, various in- 
.nijnaits, the meridian line upon the floor, |iq4 
ic marble statue of Gassini, who died in i^i*^ 
t the age of eighty-seven years. IIms s|Atae» 
^er than life, was executed in i8to, by MQiUe, 
mi represents the Italian astronomer seated iA 
le act of meditation. An anemometer, fixed at 
le summit of the edifice, indicates the direction 
f the wind, upon a dial placed under the vault of 
ne of the rooms, which is adorned with portraits 
f celebrated astrononiers, and paintings repre- 
snting the seasons and the signs of the zodiac. 
1 the salle des secrets is a phenomenon in acou- 
tics: by pulling the moulh against a pilaster Piid 
peaking low, the voice may be heard by a person 
t the opposite pilastej-, and by no other person 
1 the room. There is also here a pluviameter, 
or ascertaining the quantity of rain which falls 
t Paris in a year. Upon the floor of another 
oo?n is an universal chart, engraved l)y Chazelles 
ndSedileau. Upon ihe roof of this edifice, which 
ras originally formed of thick flat stones, a square 
torve buiidipg, flanked with two turrets, was 
reeled about the year iSio- In one of these 

PART I. /p 



5o6 l'observatoire. 

turrets has been fixed an achromatic telescope, 
designed to observe and describe the paths of 
comets. A well selected library is attached to 
the establishment, and a fine mural circle has 
been erected by the munificence of the Duke of 
Angoul^me. 

The contiguous building on the east is entered 
from the first floor of the principal structure. It 
contains various instruments, and among others 
a transit instrument to observe the moment when 
the sun passes the meridian of Paris. The roof 
of this small building opens in various parts, by 
means of a simple mechanical arraugementy and 
affords a view of the heavens. 

Until 1811, the front of the Observatory was 
m great part hidden by houses and other build-i 
kigs, which have since been taken down. It is 
now surrounded by a terrace according to the 
original plan of Perrault, and the outer court is 
enclosed by palisades and two modern pavilions. 
A wide avenue, planted with trees, extends in a 
straight line from these pavilions to the railing 
of the garden of the Luxembourg, and from thence 
to the walk in front of the centre of the palace. 
On the vacant spot between the palisades of the 
garden and those of the Observatory, the unfortu- 
nate Marshal Ney was shot in December, i8i5. 

The Bureau des Longitudes, formed for the im- 
provement of navigation by means of astronomi- 
cal observations, was first established in 1795, 
and holds its sittings at the Observatory. It is 
composed of three mathematicians, four astrono- 
mers, with five adjoint*; two navigators, one geo- 
grapher, and three instrument makers ; it has at 



UNIVER5ITE DE FRANCE. So'] 

its disposal this Observatory, and that of the Bcole 
Militairey together with all the astroDOinical in- 
struments belonging to the government. It corre- 
sponds vrith the other Observatories of France, 
and with those of foreign countries. This society 
is charged with the publication o£La Connaissance 
des Temps, for the use of astronomers and navi- 
gators; and is bound to publish an extract from 
it annually, under the tide of u4nnuaire. The Ob- 
servatory is open to strangers every day. 



Unisfersite de France. 

Charlemagne is supposed to have founded the 
University of Paris, with the assistance of Alcuinus, 
an Englishman, and a disciple of the Venerable 
Bede. In succeeding ages, different kings of France 
founded universities in several of the principal 
towns of the kingdom. The number of tJnlversi- 
ties in France at llic commencement ot tlie revolu- 
tion was about ten or twelve, independently of the 
various colleges and schools founried hv different 
religious orders ; but at that period the whole were 
dissolved. After various attempts to supply their 
place by llie eslablislimcnt of primarv, secondary, 
and central schools in the departments, the late 
government adopted a plan of public education 
entirely new. For the Courts of Justice, which 
had succeeded to the ancient i^ar/f?m<?/25 established 
in various parts of F'rance, twentv-five Courts of 
Appeal were created in the principal towns, and 
the whole Ordre. Judiciaire was made subordinate 
to a Grand Judge, iMinister of Justice. \n lil^e 
manner, one Imperial Universilv, consisting ol as 



5o8 UNIVERSITE DE FRANCE. 

many Academies as there were Courts of Appeal, 
was established for all France, under the directioD 
of a Council and a Grand Master. Upon the resto- 
ration in i8i4> Louis XYIII abolished the office 
of Grand Judge, but retained the Courts of Appeal, 
now called Cours Royales ; and, at the dame time, 
did away with the Council and Grand Master of 
the University, but kept up the Academies. Hie 
council was afterwards re-established, under the ' 
title of Conseil Royal de Vlnstruction puhliqus^ 
and placed under the authority of the Minister 
of the Interior \ and in 1 822 the office of Grand 
Master -was restored. The Council consists of 
nine members, including the Secretary. There are 
also seventeen Inspectors-General of Studies. An 
Academy in France, therefore, includes, in general, 
every establishment for education, and none what- 
ever can be created without the permission of the 
Royal Council of Public Instruction. This Coun- 
cil holds its meetings on Tuesdays and Saturdays 
at the chief oHice of the University, No. i5, rue de 
lUniversit^. The office is open to the public on 
Thursdays from two o^clock till four. 

The University, as it was established by the late 
government, and as it still exists, is composed as 
follows : 1. Les Facultes. 2. Les ColUges Boyawt*' 
et ColUges Communaux. 3. Les Institutions et Ten-- 
sions. 4* ^^^ Petites Ecoles or Ecoles Primaires, 
The University possesses special funds for granting 
pensions to superannuated and infirm teachers. 

^ Under Napoleon diesc were called Lyems, 



a natsk.1* 



ACAiDfiMIE DE PARIS. 

le Academy of Paris occupies the buildings of 
Sorhonne, a celebrated school founded by 
ert SorboD, in i!253. The college and chnrcn 
5 rebuilt by Cardinal Richelieu, after the de- 
I of Le Mercier. The first stone of the church 
laid in May i655, but it was not finished 

le front towards the Place de Sorbonne is 
rated with two ranges of columns finely eze- 
d. The portico towards the court has a range 
en columns raised on a flight of steps, and 
med by a pediment; the rest of the front 
eots two rows of windows, but is devoid of 
acter. Besides the dome which ci^wns the 
ling, small steeples arise above both fronts, 
they have a mean appearance. 
biilldlng In Paris suffered more during the 
lution than the church oflhe Sorbonne. Con- 
•ahle repairs, however, liave been executed 
in a few years, with the design of restoring 
divine worship, and tlie niagnihccnt paintings 
le dome, executed l)y Phihp de Champagne, 
still be seen. Fi-om this church the beautilul 
soleum of Cardiual Richelieu, deemed the ma- 
»iece of Girardou, was removed at the revo- 
n, but it Jias since been restored. It also 
ains a magniiicent monument to the memory 
16 late Duke of Richelieu, president of the 
icil. 






5lO LES FACULTES. 

LES FACULTlfcS. 

The Faculties are divided into five classes, yh. 
Theology, Law, Medicine, Sciences^ and Lelters. 
With the exception of Strasbourg, Paris is tke 
only city in France that has professors of aU the 
faculties. 

Faculte de Theologie, 

The seat of this faculty was at the Sorbonne 
till the revolution, Mrhen it V7as suppressed. Upon 
its reorganisation it was established in the ancient 
College du Plessis Sorbonne, but has since been 
restored to the Sorbonne. The number of the 
professors is six, who deliver lectures upon the 
doctrine!^ and evidences of Christianity, Morality, 
Ecclesiastical History, Church Discipline, Ilebrew> 
Greek, Latin, Elocution, etc. 



Facuhc de Droit, 

JVo. 8, place St. Geneuieve, 

The study of Law was introduced into FFancc, 
from the celebrated schools of Ravenna and Bo- 
logna, about the middle of the twelfth century ; 
but the earliest notice that we have of the esta- 
blishment of regular law-schools is of i584* Louis 
XIV reorganized the school about the year 1680, 
and it was then composed of six professors of 
canon and civil law, one professor of French law, 
and twelve docteurs agreges. The faculty occupied 
a building in the rue St. Jean dc Bcauvais till the 
reign of Louis XV, when it was resolved to erect 
H new school upon the Place St. Genevieve. This 



LES FACULTES. 5 1 I 

ucture was begun in 1771, after 'ihe desigotof 
iifflot. The entrance is ornamented with four 
lie columns, crowned by a pediment, in the 
npanum of which are the royal arms. Between 
o figures in relief above the door is a marble 
idallion of Louis XV. The interior is commo- 
jusly disposed in lecture rooms, etc. Thfe school 
law is now divided into live sections, viz. i. Le 
"Oil Romain ; 2. Le Droit Civil Fran fais ; 5. La 
'ocedure et le Droit Criminel ; 4* ^* Droit Sa- 
rd et des Gens i 5. Le Droit Posit if et yidminu- 
itif. The two latter were instituted in i8ao. 
the same year, a division of the Law School 
as established in the College de Plessis Sor- 
mne, the building in the Place St. Genevieve 
ting found too small. A student of law can- 
it be admitted to the lectures, unless he de- 
)sits a cerlificate of his birth with ihe Secretary 
llie Faculty; nor cnn he take his degree, 
ilicd baccalditrcat, iniless he be a liacheior of 
rts in the Facullv of Letters. The course ol 
udies for obtaining' llic degree of baclielor in 
w is two years; three to be a licentiate; and 
• ur to be a doctor ol laws. The courses of lec- 
ires must also have been regularly attended, and 
ubiic examinatiotjs and llieses maintained. The 
umber of law students is about tluec thousand, 
rom one thousatul to one thousand two hundred 
re examined annually, in order to ol)taiii an ad- 
ocale's di[)ioma. 

Facullc dc MtdeciiiCj 
No. 14, nic (\cVEcolc (le Medecinc. 
rhe earliest historical notice that wc possess ol 



5l3 tES FACULTF.5. 

the practice of medicine in France, is of \ht utih 
century. The period when it became a tdence 
at Paris is unknown. When the schools assumed 
the form of an university under Philip Augustvs, 
medicine was among the sciences taught, bnt at 
that period there was no particular place appro* 
priated to its study, and the lectures were de- 
livered in the houses of the professors. The mim- 
berof scholars augmenting, houses were hired for 
that purpose, but no special school was established 
till the year 1469. A project was then formed to 
build schools in the rue de la Bucherie, which were 
begun in i^'Ji, and completed in i477- ^ '^'^ ^^ 
amphitheatre was ei'ected, in which the anatomical 
demonstrations were made till 1744* when it was 
rebuilt upon a more spacious and commodious 
plan. It receives light by a dome, ornamented on 
the outside by allegorical statues, and supported 
within by eight columns of the Doric order. The 
buildings of this school having fallen into ruui; 
the Faculty removed, in 1776, to an edifice in the 
rue St Jean de Beauvais, previously occupied by 
the Faculty of Law* The professors of anatomy 
and midwifery, however, still continued to deliver 
their lectures in the amphitheatre of the rue de la 
Bucherie. The ancient portal of the latter tehool 
still exists, but has been walled up. Its architec- 
ture is in the style of the fifteenth century. The 
amphitheatre is no longer used. The Faculty of 
Medicine occupied the building in the rue St. Jean 
de Beauvais till their union with the Ecole de ChU 
rurgehe, when they removed to the new school of 
the latter, in the street now called rue de Fficole 
de M^decine. The first stone of this magnificent 



LES FACULTIES. Sid 

M&at w«s hid bj Louis XV, in 1769. mad h wm 
opened on the 3isi of August, 1776. It was Imilt 
npon the site of the ancient Collie de Bourgogne, 
after the designs of Gondouin, and is a specimen 
of the most elegant and at the same time purest 
ankitectnre in Paris. The front towaros the 
street n one hundred and ninety-eight feet in 
length, and is adorned with sixteen columns of the 
Ionic order. Above the entrance is a bas-relief, 
hf Berruer, representing, in allegorical figures, the 
Government, accompanied by Wisdom and Bene- 
ficence, granting favours and privileges to surgery, 
and the Genius of the Arts presenting the plan 
of the building. A peristyle of four columns 
wkiles the two wings. The court is sixty-six feet 
in lengUi by ninety-six in breadth. At the bottom 
is a superb portico of six Corinthian columns, of 
large proportions, resting upon steps and sur- 
mounted by a pediment. The bas-relief of the 
tympanum, by Berruer, represents Theory and 
Practice joining hands on an altar. Theory is re- 
presented by genii perusing books; Practice by 
others occupied in dissections. In the upper part 
of the wall, at the back of this portico, are five 
medallions surrounded w ith garlands of oak, pre- 
senting portraits of the following celebrated sur- 
geons : Pilard, Pare, Marcchal, La Peyronnie, and 
Petit. The rest of the architecture of the court 
is of the Ionic order to correspond with the 
front. 

The portico of the court leads to the aniplii- 
theatre, which is lighted from above, and is ca 
pable of containing one thousand five hundrec 
students. Opposite the entrance is the president 



5l4 LES FACULTIES. 

chair, elevated a fc^ feet above the professors* 
seats. In front of the chair is inscribed— 

Ad CiEDES HOMINUM PRESCA AMPHITHEATRA PATEBAJT, 
UT LOTVGUM DISCANT REVERE ROSTRA PATENT. . 

In the amphitheatre are three large paintings in 
fresco, by Gibelin. That in the centre represents 
Louis XVIreceivinghis chief surgeon, Lamartini^re, 
and several other academicians and pupils, before 
whom are displayed prizes of encouragement. Be- 
neath it is this inscription : 

JLa BIENFATSANCE DU SOUTERAIN hate LEUA PIOOEES 
£T RECOMPENSE LEUR ZELE. 

In that on the right, Esculapius is seen teaching 
the elements of medicine and sui^ery. Inscription : 

Il8 TIENHEKT DES DIEUX LES PRINCIPE8 QU'lLS XOUS 

ONT TRANSMIS. 

That on the left represents surgeons dressing the 
wounded after a battle. Inscription: 

IlS ETATVCHEIfT LE SANG* CONSACRE A LA DEFElTIE Dl 

LA PATRIE. 

Below the picture, in the centre, are busts of the 
two founders of the school of surgery, La Pey- 
ronnie and Lamartiniere, by Lemoine. 

On the first floor towards the street is an extensive 
and valuable Cabinet of Human and Comparative 
Anatomy, well deserving the traveller's attention 
from the multiplicity and variety of its con- 
tents. On entering the gallery, to the right are 
several glass-cases, in which is exhibited a system 
of osteology, admirably arranged, illustrating the 



LES FACULTIES. 5l5 

[rowth, and diseases of the bones, from 
skeleton to the adult. The first case 
mes wilhout their earthy parts; the 
present entire bones, the crania of dif- 
mSf the trunk, the pelvis, and the arti- 
m, terminated by examples of exos- 
)sis and anchylosis. Ou the opposite 
etal specimens including several lusus 
complete system of injected prepara- 
ng the courses of the arteries and veins, 
nth a minuteness and delicacy which 
5 highest honour on the French ana- 
lool ] several preparations of the various 
lystems ^ the foetus in utero in spirits \ 
of the morbid parts, forming aneurism 
ta j and preparations of the parts and 
aing the various herniae. In the centre 
t number of calculi and calculous con- 
)iliarv ''»n^^ vesical- illustralions of the 
to ol llu' organ of vision, sucli as cata- 
irosis ()[)lilljalinia, clc. ^ injectcii prepa- 
Uc ])rain ; ihc anastomosis ol llio arterial 
ind iIh' joints; the course and ternuna- 
e llioracic duct and jugular veins ^ two 
liar casts ol" the Gladiator ; the anatomy 
in all its iiiiuutiic, displayiug tlic talent 
lity olClorjuct and Brcscliet in a manner 
ites the admiration of" the nictiical world 
iual observer j and two perfect specimens 
5ori)ent svslem in wax', by PiiNon. The 
)ns of the braiu, the origin of the ner- 
nn, and the course of the great synipa- 
/c, will he duly appreciated from the (ine- 
Lvposc of the dissection. This gallery is 



5l6 LES FAGULTES. 

terminated by several cases of the osseovs ^jfMn of 
quadrupeds, birds, fishes and reptiles, showing the 
gradation from the lower orders in the scale of 
animated beings to the human race. The heedf 
of the elephant and rhinoceros; and aikeletons of 
several ruminating animals, will be obserred on 
the summit of the side casesj also aa Egyptian 
mummy divested- of its envelopements. 

The next room contains instruments of ancient 
and modern surgery, in which may be traced the 
progressive improvement from the unwieldy in- 
struments of the old school to those more simple 
and elegant ones employed in the practice of 
modern surgery. There is also a fine cast of the 
Apollo Belvedere in this room. 

The third room contains inimitable wax prepa- 
rations of the progress and fatal results of various 
diseases ; the maxillary sinus, the stomadi» the 
pylorus, the hepatic and other abdominal viscera 
taken from extraordinary cases ; diseases of the 
uterus and unusual formations ^ those of the knee 
joints, and several cutaneous diseases, as dephan- 
tiasis, etc. The last case contains a large collection 
of casts of aneurisms of the aorta, and large blood 
vessels, correctly represented internally and exter* 
nally. Various diseases of the valves and mal- 
conformations of the heart, as well as unusual 
origins of its larger arteries, are admirably de- 
lineated in wax, by Cloquet, Laumonier, and 
PiDson. 

The centre of the room is occupied with sone 
admirable wax figures of the nerves of the brain, 
face, neck and ear^ the lacteal and glandular wyB- 
tem of the mesentery y and other preparationref the 










5.7 
of 


gr 5 




seve 


s& 


a* 


in- 


; ' 


a 


ot the 


oiiowins 




, cent: id 

I : 



,.il]^ lower extreraitic 
'^#ilitft of hermaphroai 

liiiits; a spotted fa 

dwarf named B^be, 01 ] 

in a glass-case, with the loiiowing i 

'' ISicolas Ferry, nain, recocilli et eleTc sods le nom 
de Bebe, h la cour du roi Stanislas, qui en fit an de ses 
ama^emens. Ce nain est ici represenlc d'apr^ un de 
ses portraits, rev^ta d^habillemens tons tires de sa garde- 
robe' qu'il a lul-m^me porte's, et un pen de temps avant 
sa mort. 

" U naqtut dans les Vosges, et mournt fe 9 jnin, 17641 
&ge d'entiron vingt-cinq ans. A &a naissance il pcsail 
dohte onces j un sabot lui servit de premier btreeau. 

« Voyez la description plus e'tendne, et son ^pitaplie 
rapporte'es, dans le Supplement de V Encyolopedie, vol. 
iv, pages 5 et 6." 

Here there is also the body of a prelate disin- 
terred during the wars of Poland, supposed to 
have been buried four hundred and eigJiteen years. 
It is petrified, and what is very remarkable is, that 
having been interred in his robes, the colour of 
his velvet cap may be distinguished. 

The fourth room is sui rounded by glass-cases con- 
taining various specimens ofdrugs used in medicine. 

The fifth lOom contains instruments for optical 
and physical experiments, to which the public are 
not admitted without an order from the director 
or a medical professor. The other parts of the 
building contain rooms for demonstration, apart- 
ments lor the superintendents, a council chamber 
and a well selected and extensive library. 

PART I, ,44 



5l8 LES FACULTES. 

The council chamber is adorned with a picture 
by Girodet, representing Hippocrates refusing the 
presents offered to him by the enemies of his 
country y and several busts of the most eminent 
French anatomists and surgeons. The library is 
a spacious apartment with a bust of Hippocrates 
in the centre. 

Attached to the School of Medicine are several 
dissecting rooms in different parts of Paris. The 
principal are at the Hopital de la Piti^> the Hdpiial 
de la Charitd, and the Hopital de la Perfection. 

The £cole de Clinique of the Faculty of Medi- 
cine occupies a building in the rue des Saints 
Peres, near the Hopital de la Chants, the portico 
of which, by Antoine, is worthy of attention. It 
is surmounted by a. statue of Hippocrates. Few 
persons are allowed to enter this school except 
members of the Faculty t)f Medicine and students. 

By a royal ordinance, dated November aist, 
\%iij the Faculty of Medicine was suppressed, in 
consequence of a disturbance which took place 
three days before, during the delivery of the lec- 
tures. The ordinance set forth, that several similar 
disturbauces which had occurred, proved the exisr 
tcnce of a radical defect in the organisation of 
the faculty, and that tlie Minister of the Interior 
was charged to lay before his Majesty a new sys- 
tem of organisation. 

On the 2d of February, 1825, the king signed 
an ordinance for the re-organisation of the Fa- 
culty of Medicine. It is now composed of twenty- 
three professors, eleven honorary professors, and 
twenty-four associates. The lectures are divided 
into the following classes: i. Anatomy; a. Phy- 



LES FACULTES. Sig 

gy j 5. Medical Chemistry ; 4* Medico-physics; 
[edical Natural History ; 6. Pharmacology j 
[ygieine ; 8. Surgical Pathology ( two profes- 
); g. Medical Pathology (two professors); 
Operations and dressings for wounds, etc.; 
Therapeutic and Materia Medica; ii. Legal 
icine; 1 3. Midwifery, and diseases of women 
infants; i4- Clinical Medicine (four profes- 
); 1 5. Clinical surgery (three professors); 
]^linical Midwifery. The lectures are delivered 
londays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, 
le Cabinet of Anatomy and the library are 
1 to the public daily, from ten o^clock till two* 

Facultc des Sciences. 

lis learned society is established in the ancient 
dings of the Sorbonne. Its professors lecture 

.he. higher branches of Algebra, on Natural 
osophy, Astronomy, IMcchanics, Chemistry, 
^ralogv, Botany, and Zoology. 



Faculle dcs Letlrcs. 

I this faculty llicrc are twelve professors, wiio 
/er lectures on Greek literature, on Latin and 
ich eloquence and poetry, on the history of 
'VSj on philosophy and its history, ancient 
modern, on geography, and on ancient and 
lern Jiistory. This faculty likewise occupies 
. of the buildings of the Sorbonne. 



520 BOYAL COLLEGES. 

ROYAL COLLEGES. 

There are at present in Paris five rojai odleges, 
between the pupils of which, and the royal college 
of Versailles, there is a general competkion for 
prizes at the end of each scholastic year. To this 
effect eight or ten pupils of each class wko baTe 
most distinguished themselves are selected, and the 
adjudication of the prizes is conducted with great 
pomp at the church of the Sorbonne, in the cnresenoe 
of the whole corps universitaire. Three of these col- 
leges, viz. those oi Louis U Grand, Henri IV, and of 
St. Louis, admit boarders and day'Scholara. The 
two others, namely, the College de Bourbon, and 
that of Charlemagne, receive day-scholars only. 
The terms for board are looo fr. a year. Each pupil 
pays for education, annually, io4 fr., of which 
the half is always paid in advance. The royal 
colleges are each governed by a proviseur, to wbom 
is joined a censeur des etudes, a ch9plaia and a 
steward. The pupils of the institutions and pen- 
sions are obliged to attend the lectures iu the 
royal colleges. The course of education com- 
prises the Greek, Latin, Italian, English and Ger- 
man languages ; natural and moral philosophy, 
belles-lettres, mathematics, chemistry, natural his- 
tory, geography, writing, drawing, etc. The 
masters of institutions have the privilege of paying 
only 1 5 fr. per quarter for each pupil sent by 
them to a royal college, but they are required to 
pay an annual fee to the college. 'When the 
classes are very numerous they are formed into 
two divisions. To the College of Louis le Grand 
is annexed a school of the oriental languages. 



ROYAL COULEGES. 5a I 

he departments, there are royal colleges in 
eat towns. In small towns the colleges are 
[ colleges communaux } these are private esta- 
nents aided by the commune and subject to 
aur'QeUlance of the authorities. The royal 

leges of Paris deserve a visit from the inlelli- 

ut traveller. 



College Roj-al de Louis le Grandj 
JYo. ti3j rue St, Jacques, 
This was formerly the College de Clermont, and 
ceupied by Jesuits. It was founded by Guil- 
lume Duprat, bishop of Clermont. The first stone 
»f the chapel was laid by Heni-y III, in i58a. The 
esuits beiug expelled from France in i594» the 
college was abaudoned, and when recalled in i6o4, 
they were forbidden to reopen it, or to give in- 
slruction. It was not till 1618, that they obtained 
this indulgence, wlicn, delivered from all restric- 
tions, they determined lo rebuild llieir college. 
The first stone was laid on tlie first of August, 
1628, and it was erected after the designs of Au- 
gustin Guillain. 

Louis XIV , who always had Jesuits for confes- 
sors, was a great benefactor to this college, which 
induced its members to clvc it the name of the 
king, instead of that of the founder. At its erec- 
tion, the following inscription was placed over 
the portal: 

Collegium claromontaivum societatis .Jesu. 

In 1674, Louis XIV being present at a tragedy 
performed by the pupils, said to a nobleman who 
had expressed his satisfaction with the represen- 

/,4. 



529. IIOYAL COLLEGES. 

tution: Faut'il s^en etonner? C'est mon college. 
After the monarch's departure, the ancient in- 
scription was removed, and during the night work- 
men were employed in engraving upon a tablet of 
black marble these words, in golden letters— 

Collegium Ludovici MACirr. 

The next day the new inscription was put up, and 
the college bore the name of Louis le Grand till 
the revolution. The Jesuits, suppressed and ba- 
nished in 1762, being driven for the second time 
from France in 1765, the members of the college 
de Lisieux removed into this building. In 1793, 
this college, organized under a new form, received 
the name of College de VEgalite ; in 1800, that 
oi Prytanee ; in iSo/j., that o^ Lycee Imperial ; and 
in 1 814, it resumed its former name of ColUge de 
Louis le Grand. 



College Royal de Heniy IF", 

This college is established in part of the church 
and other buildings of the ancient abbey of St. 
Genevieve. 



College Rojal de St, Louis , 
Hue de la Ilarpe. 
This college was begun in i8i4, and opened on 
the 'iod of October, 1820. It stands upon the 
.site of the ancient college d'Harcourt, of which 
some part of the buildings was preserved. The 
entrance is of a grand and noble character. The 
court is spacious, and at the bottom is the chapel. 
On the right rises a fine pile of building four storie5 
high, having a gallery at the ground-floor. 



KOYAL COLLEGES. 5 23 

College Royal de Bourbon^ 

JVo. 5, rue JVeuue Si, Croix, 

i buildings in which this college is established 
erected in 1781, after the designs of Brong- 
for a convent of Capucins. In 1800, the 
architect was charged to convert it into a 
;e, to be called Lycee Bonaparte^ a name 
1 it bore till the restoration, when it assumed 
)f College de Bourbon, The front is one hun- 
and sixty-two feet in lenglh by forty-two in 
tion. It presents two pavilions at the extre- 
s, and has no openings except three doors, 
in "the centre is adorned with columns, and 
access to a vestibule leading to the court, 
pavilions are surmounted by pediments and 
. The front is likewise ornamented by eight 
s for statues, and two recesses for bas-reliefs, 
wliich were placed llierc Jiavinpj l)een re- 
el. On each side is n large J)asin, into which 
•flows through lliree lions' heads in bronze, 
ourt Is surronnded by four piles of building, 
iilch ihc church of St. I.ouis forms one. At 
round-lloor a pcrlslylc, composed of Doric 
ms, extends round the court, and forms au 
errupled line of terrace at the (irst slorv. 



College RojaL de Charlemagne, 
?^'o. iio, ntc Sdlnt Atitniite. 
[1 build lugs of this college were origlnnllv 
)Ied by Jesuits, who, at iheir suppression, 
succeeded l»v a coinmunitv of Gcnolevans. 



524 INSTITUTIONS AND PENSIONS, etC. 

INSTITUTIONS AND PENSIONS. 

These establishments correspond to academies 
and boarding-schools in England, but are under 
the superintendence of th6 Royal Council of Public 
Instruction. The number of them in Paris is about 
one hundred. The two most celebrated of these 
institutions, called colleges de plein exercice^ are 
considered nearly upon the same footing as Hoyal 
colleges and enjoy some of their advantages. The 
one is the Institution de St, Barbe, No. 7, rue de 
Reims, and the other is the College Stam^las^ rue 
Notre Dame des Champs. The former contains 
about five hundred pupils. The terms for board 
and education are 65o fr. a year, under ten years 
of age; 760 fr. from ten to twelve 5 and 870 fr. 
upwards of twelve. Pupils are admitted from 
seven years of age to fourteen. Day*scbolars are 
also received. £ach boarder Hods his own bed 
and various other articles; pays 5o fr. a year 
for washing; l^o fr. for medical attendance 5 and 
60 fr. for stationary. The course of educatipn 
begins with the elements and continues till the 
pupil is prepared for admission into the Poly- 
technic school. 



PETITES ECOLES, OH ECOLES PRIM AIRES. 

The name of these schools sufficiendy indicates 
their object. They form the fourth class under 
the direction of the Royal Council of Public In- 
struction, and are very numerous. 



SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 525 

SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 



College Rojral de France ^ 

JYo. 1, Place Cambrai. 

!he College Royal de France was founded, in 

.9, by Francis I, at the solicitation ofGuiiUume 

iriy his preacher, and the celebrated Guillaome 

dde. Nothing could be more deplorable than 

I state of letters in France before the establish- 

mt of this college. The Greek language was 

i taught in Parb, and the professors had little 

no acquaintance with the best writings of an- 

|uitj. The Latin taught was rude and barha- 

ms ; the philosophy had neither solidity nor 

eamess. Frivolous and useless questions were 

;itated, and the debates, although very animated, 

irned altogether upon puerile subjects or words. 

rancis I not having erected an edifice for his new 

>llege, the lectures were delivered in the College 

I Cambrai. At first only two professorships 

ere founded, one for the Greek and another for 

16 Hebrew tongue. In proportion as learned 

en accepted invitations to become professors 

JW chairs were established. Their number, in 

short time, amounted to twelve, viz. four for 

nguages, two for mathematics, two for philoso- 

ly, two for oratory, and two for medicine. 

harles IX founded a professorship of surgery, 

id Henry IV established one of botany aud 

latomy. Henry II founded a chair of philoso- 

ly, which was afterwards filled by the celebrated 

id unforlunate Ramus, who, in i568, established 



SsG SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

a chair of mathematics here at his own expense. 
The first chair of Arabic was established in 1587, 
by Henry III. Louis XIII founded a second chair 
of Arabic, and one of canon law ; and Louis XIY 
a second chair of canon law, and a chair of the 
Syriac language. Louis XVIII created a chair of 
the Tartar-Mantchou, and Chinese languages, and 
one of the Sanscrit. 

Previous to the civil wars in the middle of the 
sixteenth century, four or five hundred students 
regularly attended the lectures at this college; but 
the wars and contagious disorders .caused the 
schools to be deserted. The professors fled as well 
as their pupils, because, from the exhausted state 
of the finances, their salaries were no longer paid. 
At their solicitation, Henry lY made arrangements 
for their regular payment, and formed the project 
of erecting a new college. The colleges of Ti'e- 
guier, of Leon and Carabrai, were pulled down to 
afford a site for the new structure 5 but the king's 
death suspended the fulfilment of his intention. 
However, Louis XIIL his son, laid the first stone 
on the 18th of August, 1610. When the college 
was partly built the works were suspended, and 
were not resumed till towards the end of the reign 
of Louis XV. On the 2ad of March, 1774? ^^ 
first stone of the new structure was laid by the 
duke dc la Vrilli^re, and about four years ai^er 
this edifice, built after the designs of Chalgrin, was 
completed. It consists of a spacious court sur- 
rounded on three sides by buildings. An arch 
crowned by a pediment adorned with sculpture, 
is the only decoration of the entrance. In the 
building facing the entrance is a large hall, in 



k the public disputations are held. Tbe 

ig is decorated with an allegorical paintiDg, 

Carraval. The lateral buildings contain, on 

ground-floor, the leclure-rooms, and, in the 

cr stories, the apartments of the professors. 

lecture-rooms are small, dark, and incon- 

ent. The number of professors in this college 

venty-one, and their courses of lectures, which 

public and gratuitous, are as follows : — i. As- 

[iomy^2. Mathematics^ 5. General and Mathe- 

tical Philosophy ; 4.^ Experimental Philosophy j 

i\Iedicinej 6. Anatomy 5 7. Chemistry 5 8. Natu- 

Hislory; 9. Laws of Nature and Nations^ 

. History and Moral Philosophy} 11. Hebrew, 

aldaic, and Syriac Languages j 12. The Arabic 

nguc} i3. The Turkish Language j 14. The 

rsian Language \ i5. The Chinese, and Tartar- 

intchou Languages and Literature \ 16. Sans- 

L Language Jiiid Literature^ 17. Greek Language 

d LileraUire; 18. (jicik Lai)guai;e and Plii- 

;o])l»y; i(). l.allu Oraloiy- 7.0. Lalin Poetry; 

. Freuch Literature. ALiuy disliui^ui^lied pei- 

iiagcs atteud these leetures; no exaniiuatioiis 

iC place, luor are prizes adjudged. The lectures 

3 priuclpallv uselul to tlio^e \\ho are desirous 

peri'ectiiii; their education alter the years usually 

voted lo stud v. 



licnlc iloyalc Polytediniquc, 

A decree oi the ?Salional Convention, dated 

Yentose, an II (March 11, i79'|), created a 

wimission dcs Traiciux Piihlicsj and an I'^co/'' 



528 SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

Cent rale, the latter of which, by a decree ol' the 
1 5th Fructidor, an III (September ist, itqS), took 
the name of J^co/e Poly technique. The object of 
this most useful and justly celebrated institution 
is to diffuse the knowledge of the mathematical, 
physical, and chemical sciences, and likewise to 
form pupils for all the different schools of engi- 
neering, military, civil and naval, and for tibe 
artillery, and military geography, into which per- 
sons cannot be admitted without having studied 
in the Polytechnic School. Under the goyem- 
ment ofS Napoleon, the Polytechnic School under- 
went various modifications^ and by an ordin- 
ance of Louis Xyill, dated September 4th, i8i6, 
it was completely reoi^anized, and placed under 
the special protection of the duke of AngouUme. 
A great number of ezceUent officers, engineers, 
and scientific men have been trained in this school. 
Pupils are admitted from the age of sixteen to 
twenty. Every year candidates for admission 
undergo an examination in Paris and in the de- 
partments. The terms are looo francs a year, 
besides looo francs upon entering for furnbhing 
a bed, etc. The king has founded twenty-four 
scholarships, of which eight are in the nomina* 
tion of the Minister of the Interior, twelve of the 
Minister of War, and four of the Minister of the 
Marine and Colonics. The affairs of the school 
are under the superintendence of a council of in- 
struction, and a council of administration. The 
period allowed for study is two years, to which 
in certain cases a third year is added. Strangers 
cannot visit this school without permission of the 
sous'gouverneur, who resides there. 



•SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 629 

j£cole jrale des Ponts et Chaussees^ 

U6tel Carnafiilety JYo. 37, rue Culture St. Catherine, 
The origin of this school goes back to the year 
1^479 ^"^ ^^ assumed no importance till 1784' 
llie object of this establishment is to afford in- 
struction in the art of projecting and constructing 
works relative to roads, canals, bridges, ports, 
and public buildings dependent on them. The 
school possesses a rich collection of plans, maps, 
and models, relative to these operations. During 
the revolution, the number of pu|>ils was thirty- 
six 5 it is now augmented to eighty, all of whom 
are taken from the Polytechnic School. The 
government of the establishment is vested in the 
Minister of the Interior and the Director-general 
des Ponts et Chaussees et des Mines, It is im- 
possible to visit this institution without a special 
order from tlie Direcienr, j\o. ig, Place Vendonio. 



Ecole Royale des Mines ^ 

The project of lliis inslluition was I'orined by 
llic Caidlnal de Fleurl, and put in execution in 
1783. It consists of a Cun'^eil des Mines, who di- 
rect all subjccls connected with mines, coal-pits, 
quarries, iron-woi ks, salt-pits, etc., and who have 
under their direction engineers and practical 
schools. The number of" boarders is llxed at 
nine, but there are also nine day-scholars, wiio 
receive instruction gratis. The Minister oi' tlic 
Interior and the Director-general des Ponts et 
Chaussees et des Alines are the governors ol" this 
PART I. \5 



53o SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

establishment. Attached to the school is a cabi- 
net of mineralogy, but which is very defective 
when it is considered what means are possessed 
by the establishment of rendering it more exten- 
sive and perfect. It is divided into two classes ; 
I . The mineral productions of France, arranged 
in the order of the departments; 2. A general 
collection of rocks. The Cabinet is' open to the 
public every Monday and Thursday, from ten to 
three in summer, and from eleven to three in 
winter. Strangers and studious persons may enter 
every day. 

In the winter there is a public course of geo- 
logical and mineral ogical lectures. 



£cole Speciale des Langues Orientales 

J^ivaiiteSj 

A^o. 1 2, rue JYcuue des Pctits Champs, 

The Persian and Malay are taught on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, at nine o^clock. Arabic, 
on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, nt eleven 
o'clock. Vulgar Arabic, on Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Saturdays, at noon. Turkish the same 
days, at nine. Armenian, Tuesdays, Thursdays, 
and Saturdays, at half past two. Modern Greek, 
Mondays, Tuesdays, and Fridays, at half-past two. 



£cole des ChaHi^Sy 

Al the Bibllothequc Royale, rue Itichelieu. 
This institution was founded by Louis XVIII, 
for encouraging the study of the ancient manu- 
scripts contained in the different libraries, and the 



SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 53 1 

ts of the archives of the kingdom. To this 

the keepers of the records and the king^s 

rians receive an addition to their salary to 

k young men (who are nominated hy the 

ister of the Interior) palaeography, or to under- 

d and decipher ancient charters. Each pupil 

ives for his labour an allowance of Goo francs 

3ar. 



:ole Rojale et Speciale des Beaux 

ArtSy 

Rue des Petits jiugustins. 

This school, for teaching the art of design, is 
composed of the corps Enseignans of the A cade- 
mie des Beaux Arts. It is divided into two sections, 
one of painting and sculpture, and the other of 
nrchitecture. In the first division, medals are dis- 
tributed every quarter to those who make the 
best drawlnii Croin the naked model. Once a year 
two otlier prizes arc distributed ; one of i oo francs, 
founded by Count Cayhis, for the best head as to 
expression; tlie second, of 5oo francs, for the best 
head of the natural size, from the living model. 
In the second division, there are four professors 
who teach every branch of the art of building. 
The professor of the history and theory of the 
art delivers public lectures two or three times a 
week; and every month he proposes two subjects 
for competition ; the best prochiction obtains a 
medal; of the second honourable mention is 
made. The professor of mathematics applied to 
architecture also proposes a subject for compe- 
tition, the pri/.e for which is a medal. The pro- 



532 SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

fessor of perspective delivers lectures every year, 
which are common to both sections of the school, 
as are the subjects which he proposes for prize 
medals. Besides these prizes, there is the dipart- 
mental prize, which is given every year, Vfith- 
out competition, to the pupil who has been most 
successful in the competitions of the three or four 
preceding years. The jicadimie RoyaU des Beaux 
Arts proposes an annual prize, to which no candi- 
dates are admitted but those who have gained 
medals. It selects eight of the best compositions, 
the artists of which are allowed to develope, on 
a large scale, all their parts. The pupil who 
gains the prize is sent to Rome, for four years, 
at the expense of the government. Thb prize b 
adjudged in October, previous to which the works 
of the candidates in painting, sculpture, design 
and engraving, are eihibited to the public. At 
the meeting of the jicadimie in which the prize 
is adjudged, the cantata is executed which has ob- 
tained the prize in the section of music. By an 
ordinance of December i8lh, 1816, the buildings 
of the Musee des Monumens Franfais (formerly 
the convent des Petits Augustins) were granted 
to this school, and in 1820, a new edifice, after 
the designs of Debrct, to be called Palais des Beaux 
Arts, was begun in the garden of the Museum. 
The lectures on Architecture are delivered on 
Mondays and Thursdays, from one till two» and 
on Fridays and Saturdays, at eight in the morn- 
ing. Those on Mathematics are delivered on 
Wednesdays and Fridays, at twelve. The schools 
are open to the public in the evening from five 
o^clock till seven. 



- SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

jle Rojale Gratuite de Desstn^ 

JYo. 5, rue de PICcole de Aledecine. 

i school, established in the ancient amphi- 
•e of surgery, was founded by M. Bacheiier, 
67. Its object is to afford instruction iq 
ing to such artisans of Paris as intend to de- 
themselves to mechanical professions. The 
ent number of pupils is about fifteen hundred, 
hey are taught, on Mondays and Thursdays, 
ctical geometry, arithmetic, mensuration, stone- 
ting, and civil architecture j on Tuesdays and 
idays, the proportions of the human figure, and 
e drawing of animals j on Wednesdays and Satur- 
lys, the drawing of ornaments and flowers. To 
coile emulation among them, medals are distri- 
uted every month, and prizes every year. Over 
he door of the room where the pupils arc em- 
ployed, is the foUowTng inscription :— 

FrUDIARE AMA PiCTOn SCULPTORVE PAL,tSTRA 
H/EC soil PATF.A>T A M !' H I THF. ATR A FarRO. 

No Strangers are allowed to enter this school. 



Ecole Royale Spcciale et Gratuite de 
Dessifi pour les jeuiies Persojines, 

IVo. 7, rue (le 'J'niir(ii.'2e, l'\iii/>oiirq Sf . Germain. 

Tills school is nialiitaincd at he expense of the 
fTovernmeat, In order to Instruct young women 
destined for tlic arts or Industrious professions lu 
drawing ligures, ornaments, landscapes, animals, 
and flowers. There is an annual dislrlhiitlon of 
medals and other prizes, followed by n public 
exhibition of the drawings of the pupils. 



53/| SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

Ecolc Rojale de Musi que ct de 
Declamation^ 

JYo. 19, rue du l^'auhourg Poissonniere* 

This establishment was founded by letters pa- 
tent, dated January 5d, 1784, at the instance of 
the Baron de Breteuil. The object of it is to 
afford gratuitous instruction in singing, instru- 
mental music and declamation, to young persons 
of both sexes who evince talent foi^the stage. At 
the revolution, this school fell into decay, but 
was afterwards restored by Napoleon, under the 
name of Conservatoire de Musique. Upon the res- 
toration it resumed its original title. A great 
number of excellent musicians and dramatic per- 
formers have been trained in this school. In the 
spring, several concerts are generally given, and 
every year there is a public distribution of prizes, 
i'ollowed by a concert, in which the successful 
candidates for the prizes take part. The Minister 
of the King's Household generally presides upon 
tliis occasion. 

r 

Ecole de Chanty 

hue de f^augirard. 
In this school, children of both sexes arc taught 
to sing by an easy method. The public exercises 
of the pupils, which take place occasionally, are 
very agreeable. 

Ecole de Phamiacie^ 

iVo. 1 3, rue dc L'*Arbalete. 
The buildings occupied by this school, wliich 
is ;ni appendage to the school of medicine, arc 



SPFCIAL SCHOOLS. 

; of an ancient convent called Hdi 
sine. About the year i58o, the fi u 

sn that existed in France was formea in i 
nds of this convent, by M. Houel, v^rho tOoK 
lis model the garden of Padua. In the spring 
summer, lectures arc delivered here upon 
rmacy, chemistry, natural history, and bo- 
{. Apothecaries are admitted to exercise their 
fession after an examination in this school. 
; botanical garden still exists and is open every 
, except Sunday, from April till September, 
ingers may also visit the school. 



£cole d' Accouchement y 

See page ^66, 



Ecolr Spi'cialc de CojujiiercCj, 

Ao. 1 j), rue St- ylntoiiic. 
Tiis uscliil school, ^vllic]l is suppoilcd hy the 
clianls ol" Til lis, admits scholars ahovc ihe 
of (iltccri lor iiislrwction in every branch ol 
'cantile Ijusincss. The scholars represent coni- 
xial houses, and correspond ^vilh each oilier, 
merchants- ihty make purchases according 
the price ol' the day, and the samj)les shown ^ 
to IJic /Jxc/iafif^i; regularly, settle accounts, 
ke up their hooks, and balance them, 
hey have six hours recreation daily. 



Kcolc Rojdlc de Mosaiqiic, 

\<K I I r, nic (Ic ri^colc tie iMcihcinc. 
he scholars are appointed by llic L^ovcrnmcnl 



36 SPFXIAL SCHOOLS. 

nd taugbl the art of copyiog pictures in Mosaic. 
There is a public eichibition of their productions 
every Friday and Saturday, from twelve till two. 



J^coles cT Equitation (Riding Schools). 

The most celebrated is under the direction of 
MM. Frauconi, rue du faubourg du Temple. 
There is a second, a royal school, No. 19, rue Cadet, 
faubourg Montraartre. Pupils here pay 24 francs 
entrance money, and receive sixteen tickets, for 
which they pay 3 francs each. These tickets are 
not received at the school after three months from 
the time of their delivery. Ladies pay 5 francs 
each lesson. There is a third school in the rue 
de Fleurus, near the garden of the Luzjembourg. 



E coles de Natation (Swimming-Schools), 

See page 4^* 

Semifiaijv de St. SulpicSj 

Place St. Sulpice. 

This seminary was established in 1641, but the 
members of it were distributed in various private 
houses till i645, when its founder, the Abb^ OUier, 
purchased for them a house and garden close to 
the front of the church, the view of wliich it 
greatly obscured. In 179^ the seminary was sup- 
pressed, and about the year 1800 the old build- 
ings were pulled down. Two years after the 
seminary was re-established in a house which 
forms the angle of the rue de Yau^rard and the 
rue Pot de Fer. The first slone of the magnificent 



ure which it now occupies was laid Novem- 
ist, i8ao. The front presents a mass of 
ng, three stories in height, flanked with two 
ons. Its total length is two hundred feet. Tk« 
pal entrance is formed hy a detached portico 
3sed of three arches in front and one on 
ide. When terminated this edifice will pre- 
bur fronts. The second, towards the rue 
e Fer, is already finished. The architecture 
bles that of the principal front, hut it has 
>rtico. The court, when the building is 
id, will be truly superb, and a spacious 
f for the students to walk in bad weather 
xtend round it. The seminary is under ike 
Ion of the Priests de St. Sulpice, and has |i 
ience at Issy. The two houses contain tbref 
ed pupils. Strangers are allowed to visit 
;tablishment, upon obtaining permission of 
eur le Siiperieur General. 



Seminnire du St, Esprit^ 

A''o. 24, rue lies Posies. 

pupils of this seminary are only forty in 
3r, although the building will contain one 
ed. They are destined for missions to the 
es, and consist of young Frenchmen or Gre- 
ho have devoted themselves to the ecclesi- 
state. The building was erected in 1769 
eminary which was suppressed in 1792. It 
ts nothing remarkable, except a fine bas- 
ibove the pediment of the church, repre- 
5 a missionary preaching. Strangers may 
n"s seminary by applying to the Superieur. 



538 SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

Petit Seminaire. 

This seminary forms two divisioDS, Oue is es- 
tablished at the ancient seminary of St. ^^icolas du 
Ghardonnet, and the other at No. 20, rue du Ri- 
ga rd. £ach contains one hundred and twenty- 
five pupils. 

Seminaire Anglais^ 

Rue des Posies, 

This seminary was established under letters 
patent granted by Louis XIV in i684» which au- 
thorised Catholics, who could not be educated for 
the ministry in England, to live in ecclesiastical 
community. Their church was dedicated to St. 
Gregory the Great. This house was suppressed in 
1792, and became private property. 

■*" Till ilic reign of George 111, catholics "w^erc not al- 
lowed to establish colleges or seminaries in England. On 
this account several colleges for the education of English, 
Scotch, and Irish catholics were founded in Paris and 
other parts of France. These were suppressed at the 
revolution, and the property belonging to ihem was se- 
questrated. The late government embodied all the col- 
leges of Paris into one establishment, under ihcanthoritv 
of the Minister of the Interior, and gave them the Irisu 
Seminary, rue des Irlandais. Over the door was in- 
scribed, Chef-lieu des Colleges Britanniques, Upon 
the restoration, the former president of the colleges, and 
the other English catholic clergy, claimed their properly. 
During the revolution, however, several catholic colleges 
had been established in Great Britain and Ireland, which 
rendered those in France less necessary. On the other 
hand, the respective claims of the English, Scotch, and 
Jrifch colleges cannot be precisely ascertained. For these, 



Seminaire or College des Ecossais, 

Rue des Fosses St. J^ictor. 
This seminary was at first situated in the rue 
s Amandiers, but afterwards it was established 

a new building, finished in i665, in the rue 
:s Fosses St. Victor. It was originally founded 
r David, bishop of Murray, in Scotland, in i325j 
id again, by James Beaton or de Bethune, arch- 
shop of Glasgow, in i6o3. These facts are re- 
>rded in the following inscription, engraved on 

tablet of black marble in the chapel of the 
)llege. 

D. O. M. 
nno Domini M.CCC.XX.V, regnante in Gallic Carolo 
ulchro, ct Roberto de Rruce, regnante in ScoliA, anti- 
10 foedere conjunctis David de Moravid, Episcopus 
WavicDsis in Scoliii, hoc collegium fiindavit. Anno 
omini M. DC. Ill, Jacobus dc Rclliune, Arcbicpiscopus 
lasi^'uiciibis in Scotia, noviuii fiin<];ili()iit'iii inhliiiiit, ])io- 
)silo in ] ci jtcUiani a(]niiiiisti alionciii \ ciicrabili Palic, 
oniino Piioic CarUi.si.i' Pari^iciisis. Anno Domini 

.DCXX\.I\, conjiuiclio iiliiiKsrjiie fimdationis in 
inni vl idem roilf^inni ah ai cliicpiscopo l^ai isieusi 
eta, anctoriuilo rcgia, d soprcnii Sonalns Pat i.sionsis, 
nclita c'i>t. Luinsqnc iundatoris nieiuoria', Pi iin.-.rinji, 
rocuratoi, cl ahnnni luijns collcijii posucrnnl. 

Rc'qnicbCiiul in P.icc. 

Above ibis inscription are engraved I lie ar- 
lorial Ijcarings of ihe l)isbop of Murray, and of 

id pL'ilia])s oilier rcasoits, die iiovernnn'nl lelnins dn- 
)lK'gcs and dieir piopei (y nnder a kind of sequestration, 
ibject to die diieclion of ibe Minislcv ol" llie Inloiioi . 
be aibuiiiibtralor of die properly is an liisli cailiolir 
ic.st. 



54o SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

the archbishop of Glasgow. Those of the first 
are : jizure^ a chevron, between three stars sable. 
Those of the second are quarterly : ist and 4th. 
Azure, afess, between three lozenges sable $ od and 
5d. Sable, on a chevron, a fish's head and seaUsy 
or. The motto, Ut vincas, ferandum^ The coro- 
net, a fish, Ayith the bishop's mitre above. James 
de Bethune is said to have been the last Catholic 
bishop of Scotland. 

The college was rebuilt by Robert Barclay in 
1 665. The chapel, which deserves a visit at least 
from the British traveller, was erected in 1673. It 
contains some objects worthy of notice. At the 
revolution, the college being used as a prison, the 
chapel was converted into a cabinet d^aisance. It 
is now, however, completely restored. The most 
remarkable object is the monument of the unfortu- 
nate James U, erected to his memory by his faithful 
friend, and the constant companion of his exile, 
James duke of Perth, governor of his son, called 
James III, and the Old Pretender. On the top of 
the monument was formerly an urn of bronze 
gilt, containing the brain of the king, who died 
at St. Germain-en-Laye, the 16th of Septem\)er, 
1701. This monument, in black and white marble, 
was executed by Louis Garnier, in lyoS. The 
following is the inscription: 

D. O. M. 

Memoriae Anguslissinii Principis Jacobi II, Magnc 
Br i tan nix, etc. Regis. 

111c parti* lerrA ac mari triumphis clarut, ted conttanti 
in Deum fide darior, huic regaa, opes, vt omnia vitx 
floreniis commoda postposnii. Per summum scclas k 
suft sedc pulsus^ Absalnnis inipietatem, Achitophelisper- 



SP£GIAL SCHOOLS. 5^1^ 

lam, et adeil>a Scmei convicta invictA leQitate et p%n 
itift, ipsis inimicis amicus soperavit. Rebus liiini|||^ 
jor, adversis superior, et coelestis glorix studio inflam- 
voiSy quod regno caruerit, sibi Tisaa beatior, miseram 
ic Titam felici, regnam terrestre coelesti commaUiTit. 
>c domas, quarn pias Princeps labentem sustinuit, et 
xiae fovit, cui etiam ingenii sni monimenta omuiai 
licet suA manu scripta castodieoda commisit, eamcor- 
ris ipsius partem, qu^ maxim^ animus Tiget, Eeli|jk>af^. 
▼andara sa seep it. 

MitM annos LXVAI, rcgnaV^t XVI, obiit XVII M. 
lob. An. Sal. Horn. M.DCG.I. 
Tacobus, Dux de Perth, Prxfectus institationi; J«eobi 
\y Mag. Brit. Regis, hujus domi^s benefactor moerens 
suit. ' _ . ' ■■- 

When the Irish college was made the chef lieu 
the British colleges, this monument was trans- 
>rted there, where it remained some y6ars ; but 
is now restored to its original place in the 
apel of the Scotch college. Here are also buried 
e bowels of Louisa Maria, king James the Se- 
nd's daughter^ and the heart of Mary Gordon, 
ichess of Perth. 

Over the altar is a painting of the Virgin, and 
I one side a Crucifixion much admired. It 
►ssesses several other pictures, among which is 
le of the martyrdom of St. Andrew to whom 
e chapel is dedicated. The house is at present 
t, on a long lease, to Mr. Mailhat, master of a 
)arding school, who allows strangers to visit it, 
it iequircs them to conduct themselves with the 
eatest reserve in the chapel. 
The valuable manuscripts of king James II, 
hich, as is mentioned In the inscription on hh 
PART K ffi 



542 SPECIAL SCHOOLS. 

monument, were confided to this Seminary, were 
unforlunalely lost during the revolution. 



Seminal re or College des Irian dais^ 

j}fo, 3, rue des IrlanJais. 

The object of this establishment is to train yonng 
Irishmen for ecclesiastical functions in their own 
country. The chapel^ built after the designs of 
Bellanger, about the year 1780, is very simple, 
it being merely a large room, which occupies all the 
ground -floor of one of the wings. Above it is the 
library, which is spacious and neat. Over the 
door of the lecture-room is this inscription: Sic 
studcy quasi semper victurus ; Sic vive^ quasi cito 
moriturus. 

Scoles de la Chaiite. 

In the twelve arrondissemens of Paris there are 
fifty charity-schools, in which six thousand five 
hundred poor children arc educated. The num- 
ber of each sex is nearly equal, and the total num- 
ber forms nearly a tenth of all the children in 
Paris between the age of five and twelve years. 
The boys' schools are under the direction of the 
Fr^res de la Doctrine Chretienne, a kind of derai- . 
monks who dwell two or three together. The 
girls* schools are superintended by the Sceurs de la 
Charite and other nuns. The children are taught 
reading, writing, arithmetic and the principles of 
religion. In some of the girls* schools there are 
also sewing rooms. Such of the committees of 



SPECIAL scnooLi. 54^ 

f as have not buiidiogs at their dispoul for 
■tuitous schools, send the poor children bt 
luarliers to the schools Mtahlished id them. 
1 of the charity-schools are founded and 
rted b; voluntary con tributioiu. 



ICcolc des Savoyards. 




'aris there are 






oy, principally 






9, shoeblacks 01 






re seen in the 






sy or other anii 






Teals, In order 






forth the alms 






ibourgg, where 






each of which < 






s, stih)Pct lo the 


aiilhorily of a c 


ihicforold 


ard, ul„> Ji,di:,r 


^rsihe ruLction 


s of house- 


!■ anrl ^ui.nli.in. 


I-iich lias his pi 


ace marked 


. ll.c <^.yy\l.y\, to which he rqi 


■airs in the 


"S/"""- "■■■'<■"■ !■: 


■ public; and in 


ihe evening 


ins of the .lav ai 


■c deposited in i 


I small box 


lirelire, which i; 


s never opened 


till it con- 


Lsumsuniclcilly 


considerable to 


be ..sefullj 


d to tin; wunis 


of the society- 


The lirsl 


s, C3lahll>hcd h 


V ihL- Abhc lie 


Ponlhriant 


b, were ronfiii. 


■it to religious 


InatrEiclion. 


Krcal Has their 


success, thill till 


7 Savoyard. 


iflerwards lii.igh 


I III lead and wj 


■ile. 



544 SCIENTII'IC, LITERARY, 

SCIENTIFIC, LITERARY, AND OTHER 

SOCIETIES. 



Societe Royale Academique des 

Sciences. 

The object of this association, which holds its 
meetings at the Salle St. Jean, Hotel de Yillcy is 
to advance the progress of human knowledge^ It 
was formed in 1820, and has the Duke of Angou- 
l^me for a protector and perpetual president. 
Some of the members of this society are men dis- 
tinguished by their talents ; but their* labours have 
not realized the beneficial results anticipated. The 
society holds a meeting every fortnight^. besides a 
public meeting annually. 



Academie Rojrale de Medecine. 

Previous to the revolution there was an Aca- 
demy of Medicine and anothec of Surgery. The 
former was created in 1776, and the latter in 173 1. 
Upon the formation of Uie Institute the Mescal 
Academy was annexed to the class of the sciences. 
By an ordinance of December 20th, 1820, the 
Academy was restored. The object of its insti- 
tution is to reply to inquiries of the gbvemment 
relative to epidemic diseases, murrain, the pro- 
pagation of vaccination, legal medicine, the exa- 
mination of new and secret remedies, natural or 
factitious mineral waters, and in general every 
thing that concerns the public health. It is di- 
vided into three sections: 1. Medecine^ 2. Sor- 



\ir<u<^ft» t^x^xjau A asitf* yJiMx^ 



fjetj ; 3. Pharmacy. The society is composed of 
titular members, honorary members and asso* 
(nates, who are elected by the Academy, subject 
to the king^s approbation. It has also an indefi- 
nite number of ccurrespondents. The chief physi* 
cian of the king is perpetual president. The 
meetings of the Academy are held at No 8, rue 
de Poitiers. 

Societe Philomatique^ 

JYo. 6, rue ePAnjou, faubourg St, Germain. 

Most of the members of this society, who are 
fifty in number, are also members of the Institute, 
and next to that institution it is the most scientific 
body in Paris. It is divided into several sections, 
and its attention is principally directed to the 
natural sciences. A periodical work, entitled Bul- 
letin de la Societe Philomatique^ is published by 
the Society. 

Societe dllistoire Natuj^elle^ 

Hue cV A njou^ faubourg St. Germain. 

The most distinguished men in France in the 
science of natural history are members of this 
Society. 

Societe Philotechnique^ 

No. 17, rue des Petits Augustins. 
This society, which was founded in 179^, is 
composed of sixty artists and scientific and lite- 
rary men, besides honorary members, free mem- 
bers and correspondents. Each resident meml>cr 
pays f\0 fr. a year^ but every month he receives 

/,6. 



546 SCIENTIFIC, LITERARY, 

a silver counter of the value of 5 fr. if he has at- 
tended two meetings in the preceding month. 
The meetings are held on the 2d, latb, and asKl 
of every month, at seven o'clock in the evening. 
A public half yearly meeting is held in the spring 
and the autumn, in the Salle St. Jean, at the 
H6tel de Yille. Papers are then read, and musical 
compositions performed j and sometimes the ar- 
tists of the society exhibit their pictures, -designs 
and sculptures. Candidates for admission as re- 
sident members or correspondents must apply by 
letter to the president or perpetual secretary, and 
be presented by. two members. 



Societe Rojrale des Antiquaires de 

France^ 

No, 16, rue des Petits Aiigustins, 

This society, which was at first called Academic 
Celtique, has published some very interesting me- 
moirs. In i8i4, Louis XVIII created it a royal 
society. The object of its formation is to inves- 
tigate and throw light upon national and foreign 
antiquities. It consists of resident members, and 
a great number of correspondents in the depart- 
ments and foreign countries. Each resident mem- 
ber pays annually 56 fr., for which he receives the 
Memoirs printed by the society. The correspon- 
dents merely pay for their diploma of admission. 
Candidates for admission must apply by letter to 
the president or vice-presidents, and be presented 
by two members. Tiie meetings of the society 
are held on the 9th, 19th, and agth of every 
month, and a public meeting is sometimes held. 



AN0 OTRER SOCIETIES. 54^ 

Societe de Geographic^ 

JVo. 13, rue Taranne, 

lis society was founded in 1831, and consisls 
ubscrlbers^ and a committee of thirty memr 
• Its object is to promote the knowledge 
;eographical science, by sending travellers to 
itries little known, and proposing 8ub)ecU 
prizes. A bulletin is published by the socitt]f. 
subscription is 36 fr. Every subscriber must 
resented by two members of the society. 



Societe jisiatiquCy 

JVo, I2f<nie Taranne, 

he duke of Orleans is protector of this society, 
ch was founded in 182*2. It consists of sub- 
bers of 36 fr. a year, and a committee who 

ilish a scicnlliic journal. The object of the 
ety is to encourage the study of the Asiatic 
juages. 

Societe des Ainls des Arts, 

his society was founded l)efore the revolution, 
was subsequently dissolved, and re-cslablishcd 
817. Its object is to encourage the art of en- 
zing, and an unlimited number of subscribers 
admlttted. Each subscriber pajs 100 fr. per 
um, for wiilch he receives a proof plate en- 
ving, or two others, which is determined by 
When the subscribers are supplied the plate 
roken, In order to prevent the same engravings 
ag sold in the shops. 



548 SCIENfTIFIC, LITERAttY, 

Societe Linneenne. 

No. 46, rue des St, Phres, 

This society, which devotes itself to botany, meets 
regularly on the first and third Thursday of every 
month. On the ^4^ of May it celebrates, by a 
fete champStre, the anniversary of the birth of Lin- 
naeus, and holds a public meeting on the aSth of 
December, the anniversary of Toumefort*8 deaUi. 



Societe Grammaticale^ 

JVo, 34, rue des Bons Enfans, 
This society .occupies itself with ideology, lexi- 
cography, and every thing connected with gram^ 
matical science. Its meetings are held weekly^ 



Societe Roy ale des Bonnes Letires^ 

2Yo. 17, rue JVeuue St. Augusiin. 

Party spirit gave birth to this society. The 
members are of the party called ultras^ who aim 
to promulgate opinions relative to monarchy and 
Catholicism which the liberals do not allow* Lite- 
rary lectures are delivered in the winter season ; 
but they have always a political colouring. 

Athenee des Arts. 

This establishment was founded in 1793 for the 
advancement of the progress oF Letters, the Fine 
Arts and the Mechanical Arts ; and holds its meet- 
ings in the Salle St Jean, at the H6tel de Yille. 
Its members consist of artists,, literary men and 
even artisans : ladies are also admitted. Prizes are 



J o socu 

djudg^d i r 

A the arts v s. i^ec 

ausical composition ana every 

{uarter a concert is ^i likewise 

nolds an annual public 



Athenee Royal de Paris, 

JYo, 3, rue de f^alois. 

This institution was founded in 1781, by the 
unfortunate aeronaut Pilatre du Hosiers, under 
ttie special protection of MoNSiEUB, afterwards 
Louis Xyni, and took the title of Musee de Pilatre 
du Rosiers, . Its object was the cultivation of the 
arts and sciences connected with commerce. The 
death of its founder caused the Museum to lan- 
guish. Sometime afterwards it was re-organized 
under the name of Lycee; and it was here that 
the famous Laharpe delivered those lectures which 
form his work entitled Lycee, or Cours de Litte- 
rat are ancienne et moderne. In i8o3, it took the 
title of Athenee de Paris. Lectures are delivered 
here annually (commencing on the i5th of No- 
vember), on various branches of literature and 
science, w^hich are attended by ladies as well as 
gentlemen. The annual subscription is 120 fr. 
for gentlemen, and 60 fr. for ladies and students. 
Sliarcliolders of the Athenee are perpetual mem- 
bers. Subscribers have access to a w\3ll selected 
library. 

Athenee des Dames y 

J\'o. 24? Place Vendome, 
Tlic Athenee meets three times a week. TIk 



55o SCIENTIFIC, LITERART, 

evenings are devoted to literature, music, dancing, 
and social games. Gentlemen are admitted. 



Societe Rojale et Centrale 
d' Agriculture. 

This society, which holds its meetings in the 
library of the Hotel de Yille, was established by 
an order in council, dated March ist, 1761. Its 
object is the amelioration of the difTerent branches 
of rural and domestic economy in France. It is 
composed of fifty resident members, thirty asso- 
ciates, and twenty foreign associates. Its afTairs 
are managed by a president and vice-president 
(chosen annually by the society), and a secretary 
and treasurer (appointed for life by the king, out 
of a list of three candidates presented to him). 
This society corresponds with all the agricultural 
associations in the kingdom. The king is its pro- 
tector. It meets every fortnight, and on the first 
Sunday after Easter holds an annual public meet- 
ing, under the presidency of the Minister of the 
Interior, when a report of its proceedings is read 
and prizes are distributed. 



Societe pour V E ncourageinent de Vln^ 
dustrie Nationale^ 

JVo, 43> file du Bac, 
A society entitled Societe libre d' Emulation pour 
I' Encouragement des Metiers et Inventions utiles^ 
founded in 17^6, was dissolved a few years before 
the revolution. The want of such an institution 
being much felt, it was re-established, in 1802, 



K^U OTHER SOCIETIES. 59 r 

under the title of SocUle pour VEmourmgnoMU de 
VIndustris IfationaU, by the concurrence of a 
great number of men oF science, magistrates, pro- 
prietors, and manuracturers. Its object is to se- 
cond the efforts of the government for the ame- 
lioration of every branch of French industry. 
j The principal means it employs are— ist, distri- 
I butions of prizes and medals for inventions or 
improvements in the useful arts ^ ad, the commu- 
< nicatioa of models, designs or descriptions of 
I new inventions, and of instructions or informa- 
tion for manufacturers or 
pcriments and essays for 
■ methods announced to the 
advances to artists who ar 
to enable ihem to execute 
{ of acknowledged utility j , 

n bulletin, distributed cychisivety to llie members 
of the society, contniiiliii; nutlets of discoveries 
relatiiis to iuduslry miide in France or in I'orciyn 
countries, with remarks upon lliem. It pos- 
sesses considerable funds, and alio receives aid 
from the government. This society holds a gene- 
ral meeting twice a year. The first is in Fchrna- 
ry, wiicu a report of its proceedings is rcail and 
oiVicers are cleeted. The second is in July, for 
the dislrihution of prizes and the noininHliou of 
two censors. At both these meetings new inven- 
tions anil articles of improved manufacture are 
i cxhiliitcd. The council of administration assem- 
bles every fortnight. To become a member of 
this society it is necessary to be pirsfnted l.v ii 
I member, imdto i>in "ifi fnuics a year. 



552 SCIENTIFiC, LITERARY, 

Societe de la Morale Chr^tienne^ 

Rue Taranne. 

This society was formed in 1822. One of its 
objects is the aboiitioja of slavery. It publishes a 
journal, and sometimes proposes prizes connected 
wixh its objects. The members pay an annual 
subscription of 20 fr. 



Societe pour r Instruction Elementairej 

JVo, 13, rue Taranne, 

This society was established in i8i5, for en- 
couraging the formation of elementary schools in 
France, according to the best methods of instruc- 
tion. It founds elementary schools, encourages 
the translation of books for elementary instruc- 
tion, and corresponds with schoolmasters, sub- 
scribers, and similar societies ; sells its publications 
at cost price, and publishes a periodical work en- 
titled Journal d'Education, This society holds 
two general meetings at periods that are not fixed. 
A great number of English attend these meetings, 
and are so deeply interested in the proceedings 
of the society that all their memoirs are translate 
into English. The council and administration 
meet every fortnight. To become a member of 
this society, it is necessary to be introduced by a 
member, and to subscribe annually 20 francs, for 
which each subscriber can place three children in 
one of the schools supported by the society. 



AND OTHEB SOCIETIES. 553 

yciete Academique des Enfans 
d'Apollon, 

No. 8, rue Mandar. 

society meets on the second Sanday of 
Qonth, and holds an annual meeting, which 
•ted to music and poetry. 



ite Ljrrique des Soupers de Momus. 

association of authors meets on the first 
of every month, at the restaurant called la 
i Taverne de Londres, rue de Richelieu. It 
s of twenty members, each of whom must 
t at the monthly supper a song or piece ojf 
In this society are embodied the two as- 
ons called les Diners du Vaudeville and U 
\i Moderne. 



oclcte Acadeiiiique d'Ecriture^ 

]\''i}. •2'?., rue Qidncampoix. 

society roiislsts of persons distlnguislicd for 
;nniaiishlp 



rn \ 47 



P„.uc ^A^-^"^^^- 1^\' 






A» o? a^^ • a root» av». ^g ibe ^^ 

Cb»^^''' :«Atnao5 "?, .bese ao* »*rag"=°'^., 



BIBLIOTHiQUE DO HOI. 5SS 

deposited in a tower of the Louttc, c^led 2<i ']^out 
de la Librairie, and consisted of iilumimited mis- 
sals, and other religious works, accounts of mi- 
racles, lives of Saints, and treatises upon astrology, 
geomancy, and palmistry. In order tliat literary 
persons might at all times enter the library, a 
silver lamp was constantly burning, l^its collec- 
tion was partly scattered and carried away under 
the reign of Charles YI. The remainder disap- 
peared during the regency of the Duke of Bed- 
ford, who purchased it for 1200 livres, and sent 
the greater part to England, together wiih the 
archives that were deposited at the Louvre. Most 
of the books were adorned vviih miniatures, and 
had costly bindings, with gold or silver dasps and 
mountings. Louis XI collected the books scattered 
in the various royal palaces, to which he adde4 
several other collections. Charles VIII and Louis 
XII augmented llie royal library, and tlie latter 
transferred It to tlic Chateau oi" Blois. At tliat 
period it consisted of" one thousand eight hun- 
dred and ninety volumes, of which one livnidrcd 
and nine were printed volumes and the others 
were manuscripts. Francis I transferred the li- 
brary ol' lilois to Fontainebleau in the year i541- 
This monarch added greatly to the royal library. 
Henry H issued an ordinance by which it was 
decreed, that a bound co^y on vellum of every 
book printed cam privi/egio should be deposited 
at the ro\ al library. During the persecutions in 
the following reigns the library was augmented 
by the conl-iscation of many private collections^ 
b»U it suficred considerably Irom the ligucurs, wln^ 
<^arricd off some of the most valuable manuscripl--. 



556 PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

Catherine de Medicis bequeathed to the royal 
library a collection of medals and manuscripts 
which she had brought from Florence. In the year 
i594» Henry lY ordered the library to be trans- 
ferred from Fontainebleau to Paris, and placed 
in the College de Clermont, which was left unoc- 
cupied by the Jesuits, who had recently been 
expelled from France. That Order being recalled 
in i6o4i their college was restored, and the king's 
library was transferred to a room in the conyent 
of the Cordeliers. Under Louis XEDE, the royal 
library was enriched by many valuable collec- 
tions, and removed from the convent of the Cor- 
deliers to a spacious house in the rue de la Harpe. 
It then Consisted of sixteen thousand seven hun- 
dred and forty-six volumes in manuscripts and 
printed books. During the reign of Louis XIV, 
and the administration of Colbert and Louvois, 
the treasures of the royal library were augmented 
l\eyond any thing previously known. At the same 
time it was rendered accessible to the pnblic. 
The house in the rue de la Harpe being found 
much too small, Louis XIV formed the design of 
transferring the royal library to the Louvre $ but, 
in 1666, Colbert bought two houses adjoinii^ his 
residence in the rue Yivienne, to which the books 
were removed. This extensive collection, daily 
augmented by bequests, presents, purchases, and 
tribute, contained, at the death of Louis XIV, 
in 1715, more than seventy thousand volumes. 
Louvois had formed the determination to establish 
the royal library in the Place Venddme, but bis 
death defeated the project. Under the regency of 
the Duke of Orleans, the treasures of the library 



BIBLIOTUEQUE DU ROI. 55^ 

continuing to increase^ and the houses inlhe rue 
Vivien ne being found very inadequate to their 
object, a resolution was formed to remove them 
elsewhere. In the rue de Richelieu there wa^ an 
immense hotel which had formerly been occupied 
by cardinal Mazarin, and had borne his name. At 
the cardinaFs death it was divided into two parts, 
the one, having its entrance in the rue Vivien ne, 
was called Hotel de Mazarin, and the other* having 
its entrance in the rue de Richelieu, was called 
Hotel de Nevers. To the latter hotel the royal 
library was transferred. Its stores were greatly 
augmented under the reign of Louis XV, at whose 
death the number of printed volumes amounted 
to more than one hundred thousand. Upon the 
suppression of the monasteries at the revolution, 
all the manuscripts and printed volumes contained 
in them were transported to the library, which 
took the title of Biblwtheque Nationale. The 
number then added is computed at nearly two 
hundred thousand volumes. Under Napoleon, it 
was called Bibliotheque Imperiale, and was en- 
riched by some of the valuable treasures of the 
Vatican and other libraries of Italy. Upon the oc- 
cupation of Paris by the allied armies, in i8i5, the 
greater part of these were restored, and the library 
resumed its original name. An annual grant is 
made by the government to the royal library, for 
the purchase of books, manuscripts, engravings, 
and antiquities. 

The building which contains this splendid col- 
lection is entirely destitute of ornament. Its length 
is five hundred and forty feet, and its breadth one 
hundred and tliirty. The front is a plain wall 

47- 



558 PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

pierced here and there with windows. The en- 
trance leads into a court, three hundred feet in 
length by ninety in breadth, surrounded with piles 
of building which are uniform, and not without 
dignity and elegance. In the centre of the court 
is a bronze statue of Diana, by Houdon. A hand- 
some staircase to the right leads to the rooms 
which form the library of printed books, and the 
cabinet of medals and antiques. The books are 
kept in cases with wire grating, which no one is 
allowed to open except the persons attached to 
the establishment. 

The library was formerly divided into five sec-p 
tions, viz. i. Printed books; n. Manuscripts; 
T). Medals and Antiques; 4* Engravings; 5. Title 
Deeds and Genealogies. The sections are now four, 
the latter having been suppressed during the re- 
volution, and since annexed to the section of 
manuscripts. 

The printed works occupy the first floor of the 
building, which has thirty>three windows opening 
into the court. The number of volumes is said 
to be upwards of seven hundred thousand. They 
are arranged in five divisions, asfollov^: i. Theo- 
logy; 2. Jurisprudence; 3. History; 4- Philoso- 
phy ; 5. Belles Lettres. These divisions are sub- 
divided, and the works arranged in alphabetical 
order. 

Tables, with inkstands, are placed in the middle 
of the rooms for the convenience of readers and 
writers, who must furnish themselves with paper 
and pens. Ko conversation is permitted. The 
easiest way to procure a hook is to write its title, 
and hand it to one of the librarians. The tables 



BIBLIOTHEQUE OU KOI. 56^ 

$am commonly, crowded by persons of all dhsses 
JA pursuit of knowledge, and frecpiently by liMlies. 
£i a square room, called le Petit Saion^ whieh 
eontains the earliest printed works, is a bust of 
Louis XYIII, in bronze, and in the centre of the 
principal gallery stands the French Parnassus, by 
Titon du Tillet, a paltry production in feronze, 
representing an abrupt mountain, on whieh are 
sixteen figures, including Pegasus, and nearly as 
naany genii holding medallions ; other medalHons 
are suspended to branches of laui^l. The figures 
represent the poets and musicians of France, with 
Louis XIY as Apollo, and Mesdames De Lasuze, 
Desoulhieres, and Scudery as the Three Graces. 
To the original figures, those of Rousseau, Crebil- 
lon, and Yoltaire (the latter at the age of forty^iive 
years), have since been added. At the eadof this 
gallery is a very remarkable representation of the 
j^reat pyramid of Gfiiseh in Ej^ypt, and the siir- 
roiindiiiij; country, done on an exact scale, wlilch 
is marked upon the plan. Tlie Avhole is pow- 
dered with dust from a stone brought by Grobcrt 
from the pyramid called Cheops; there is aiso a 
fragment of the pyramid, on which is the follow- 
ing inscription: Fefrani ex Pyrarnide ylls^Yft i'^i'^ci. 
(JJie.op'i nwicupatd, J. Grobert attulit, A. D. i8oo. 
]ti this gallery are busts of Jerome Bicrnon and 
J . p. Bignon, successively librarians. It also con- 
tains a l)eautiful basin of porphyry, brought from 
tlie abbey of St. Denis, and supposed to have been 
used at the baptism of Glovis. In the adjoiniuL; 
gallery is a representation, upon a new plan, ol 
the system of the universe, executed at IMilan. 
l»y Gl). llouy, who presented it to the librarv 



S6o PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

and at the extremity is a statue of Voltaire, seated 
in an arm-chair, by Houdon. This gallery leads 
to a room exclusively devoted to geographical 
works, in which are two immense globes began 
at Venice, by Pierre Goronelli, by order of the 
cardinal d'Estr^es, who presented them to Louis 
XIV, to whom he had dedicated them. They are 
nearly twelve feet in diameter and thirty-five in 
circumference ; and are surrounded by two brass 
circles, by fiutterfield, thirteen feet in diameter, 
which form the horizons and meridians. On the 
terrestrial globe the water is blue, and the land 
white 'y cities are represented in red and gold, and 
mountains are green shaded with brown* These 
globes are more remarkable for their size than 
their exactness, and are supposed to be the largest 
in Europe, except one in the University of Gam- 
bridge. An inscription on the celestial sphere 
informs us, '* that all the planets are laid down 
in the position they occupied at the birth of Louis 
le Grand i"*^ and one on the terrestrial globe asserts 
** that it was constructed to exhibit the countries 
which that great monarch might have subdued, had 
not his moderation prescribed limits to his valour." 
The ground-floor is filled with new publications. 
These rooms are not open to the public. The 
greatest typographical curiosity in this library, 
is the most ancient printed book ivi/A a date$ it 
is a Psalter, printed at Metz, in i^'jj by Fust and 
Schoffer. The Bible called Mazaririj also in this 
library, is supposed to have been printed in i456, 
with cut-metal types. 

The Manuscripts are deposited in six rooms, 
and consist of about feighty thousand volumes, in 



BIBLIOTHEQUE DU ROI. 56 1 

Greek, French, Latiiiy Oriental, and other Ian- 
guages, including thirty thousand which relate to 
the history of France. The catalogue of the ma- 
nuflcripts alone fills twenty-four volumes, besides 
ample supplements to each. This section of the 
library once possessed the most ancient manu- 
script known, viz. the Virgil of the Vatican of 
the fourth century; which together with other 
valuable manuscripts from the Vatican and the 
library of St Mark, at Venice, were restored in 
i8i5. After passing through several small rooms, 
the stranger enters a superb gallery, which existed 
in the time of cardinal Mazarin. Its length is one 
hundred and forty feet, and its breadth twenty- 
two. The ceiling, painted in fresco, by Roma- 
nelli, in i65i, represents various subjects of fabu- 
lous history, divided into compartments. In thb 
gallery are preserved, under glass cases, the most 
valuable and curious manuscripts of the whole 
collection. Among tbcm is a Statement of re- 
ceipts and expenses under Philippe le Bel, in the 
fourteenth century, on waxen tablets; the manu- 
scripts of Galileo; of Leonardo da Vinci; letters 
from Henry IV to Gabrieile d'Estrees ; the prayer- 
book of Pope Paul III ; and those of Anne of 
Brittany, Henry III, and Louis XIV, all beau- 
fully written on vellum, and richly illuminated; 
a iinc collection of Missals of the French kings; 
the manuscript of Telemachus, by Fenelon ; Me- 
niolrs of Louis XIV, in his own hand ; the manu- 
script ot Joscphus, etc. etc. The most ancient 
manuscripts now existing in this collection, arc 
some prayer books of the fifth and sixth centuries. 
Among the foreign manuscripts are some Persian, 



562 PUBLIC LIBRARIES. 

Indian, Arabic, Chinese, and Siamese, remarkable 
for iheir antiquity and beauty. In one of the 
rooms are the genealogies, which occupy about 
five thousand portfolios, but this room is aot open 
to the public. Among the specimens of aijitograjj^y 
the following are entitled to notice : 

Corneille, — The letters are badly formed, and 
the lines are at irregular distances, but the writing 
is easy and bold. 

Pere la Chaise, — The letters are of a fantastical 
and ugly form, and the lines incline downwards. 

Scarron. — A small, neat hand ; the letters re- 
gular and well joined, and the lines perfectly hori- 
zontal. 

Bossuet. — A small, irregular hand; the letters 
very far apart, and lines crooked. 

Boileau. — A small, regular hand ; the letters well 
joined, and the lines horizontal. 

Racine. — A small, regular hand 5 the letters well 
shaped, and the lines horizontal. 

Montesquieu. — The letters ill shaped and iodis^ 
tinct ; the lines ascending and many erasures. 

ydtaire, — A small, neat and distinct hand \ the 
letters well joined, and lines very straight. 

Madame de Maintenon.~^\. bold running hand ; 
the letters long and slanting, but not well joined^ 
lines horizontal. Not like a woman's hand. 

Madame de la Falliire, — An unequal hand ; the 
letters large and ill shaped ; some slanting, some 
vertical, and others gothic, and the lines incline 
downwards. 

Francis I. — Gothic hand; letters vertical; lines 
horizontal and at large intervals. 

TIenry Z^.— Bold running hand ; letters gothic. 



DIBLIOTflilQVE OU ROI. 563 

atanthig large and tolerably weU joined ; lines 
horizontal. 

Louis XIV. — Bold running hand; letters large, 
irregular, slanting, and too close; lines inclining 
downwards. Except that the writing is smaller, 
it hfas a perfect resemblance to that of Madame 
de Mainiienon. 

Turenne. — An irregular running hand; sonle-* 
what similar to that of Louis XIV. 

The Cabinet of Medals and ^nfiques,yfhlcb. forms 
a distinguished part of this sumptuous establish- 
ment, is situated at the extremity of the principal 
gallery on the first floor. The total number of 
medals and coins is computed at eighty thousand. 
Among them are some which are extren^elS^ scarC6 
and some which are unique. Of the former, is 
one of Mark Antony, the son, in gold. Among 
the latter, is a medal of Nero ; one of I^escennius 
IVit^er^ a Greek incdaliioii, in silver, of the same 
emperor- a gold inedal ol" Uranlus, suruanied 
AutonliiUS J a salirlcal medal of Galllen, in wliicli 
he is represented witli a woman's head-dress 5 a 
*^^old medallion, three inches in diameter, repre- 
senting Justinian j another of Alexander Tyrannus 
Africanus ^ and a third of the emperor llonudus. 
It likewise possesses many of the earliest Roman 
coins and specimens of modern medals. The an- 
tiquities arc very numerous and valuable. Among 
thcni is the superb collection of the Count de 
Caylus. At the revolution, all the antiquities con- 
laincd in the treasury of theSainte Chapelle, and in 
that of the abhey of St. Denis, were added to this 
<:abinet. It is worthy of observation, that during 
ibe d'sorders and pillage of the revolution, I he 



564 PUBLIC LIBRARIfiS. 

royal library, which contained so much meuUic 
treasure, was constantly respected. In the cabi- 
net may be seen many curious Egyptian antiqui- 
ties^ the helmet and shield of Francis I, some re- 
markable objects found in the tomb of kkig Ghiide- 
bert, the iron chair of king Dagobert, a famous 
cup of agate, the sword of the Order of Malta, 
'the seal of Michael Angelo, the sjhields of Hannibal 
and Scipio, and some antique busts. But the 
most precious curiosities in the collection 'are, the 
beautiful antique cameos and intaglios, consbting 
of engraved seals and rings, by Greek artista, exe- 
cuted with an exquisite finish which has not been 
equalled in modem times. At the entrance of 
the cabinet is a bust of the Abb6 Barthelemy, 
formerly keeper of the medals. On the ground - 
floor a room is preparing to receive some ancient 
stone monuments (among which is the celebrated 
zodiac of Denderah), as well as some mummieSi 
papyrus, and other antiquities. A magnificent 
room in marble is also constructing, in which the 
Archaiological lectures will be delivered. 

The Cabinet of Engravings occupies several 
rooms of the entresol, and is approached by a 
small staircase to the right, at the bottom of the 
court. It was founded by Colbert, who, in 1667, 
bought the Abb^ de Maroiles' collection of plates, 
comprised in four hundred and forty volumes, 
containing about one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand impressions. To this acquisition were 
afterwards added other collections: — that of Gaig- 
ni^res, in 171 1 ; of Beringhen, in 1731 j of Marahal 
dUxelles, in 1753 j ofBegon, in 1770^ and several 
others less considerable. The number of plates 



BIBUOTHEQUE DU &0I. 565 

at present composing the Cabinet may be com- 
puted at one million two hundred thousand^ con- 
tained in five thousand five hundred volumes or 
portfolios. They are classed in the following 
order: — viz. i. Galleries, cabinets, and collections 
of sovereigns and private individuals, rare speci- 
mens in the art of drawing and eugraving.<-^2. The 
Italian and Southern schools.— -3. The German 
schools. — 4* The French schools.— 5. Engravers. 
—6. Sculpture. — 7. Antiquities. — 8. Architecture. 
— g. The* Physico-Mathematical Sciences.— 10. 
Natural History. — 11. The. Academic Arts. — 12. 
Arts and Mechanics. — 13. Encyclopedias. — i^. 
Portraits. — 15. Costumes. — 16. Historical Prole- 
gomena. — 17. History.— 18. Hierology.— 19. My- 
thology. — 20. Fictions.— 21. Travels. — 23.. Topo- 
graphy. —aS. Bibliography. 

Persons desirous of examining some of the vo- 
lumes should ask, in the schools of Italy, for the 
works ofMLchaelAngclo,riaphacl, Titian, Corregio, 
llie CarraccI, Dominic Zampicri, and Guido j — in 
those of Germany, Albert Durcr and Holbein ; — 
in those of the Netherlands, Lucas Van Leyden, 
Rembrandt, Rubens, and Vandyck j — in those of 
France, Poussin, Lebrun, Lesucur, and Rigaud. 
Amongst the foreign engravers, the V7orks of Rai- 
mondl, Hollar, Crispin de Pas, Goltzius, Bloeinart, 
and Romain de Ilogue j among the French, those 
of Callot, Duplesis, Bertaux, Mellan,Silvestre, Nan- 
tcuil, Picart, Le Clerc, Edelinck, Audran, Le Bas, 
Willc, and Moreau. In Natural History arc manv 
plates of birds and plants, beautifully coloured 
such as the pigeons of Madame Knip, the birds ol 
Paradise of Lcyaillant, the fruits of La Chausscc, 
P.AUT I. i8 



566 PUBLtC LIBRARIES. 

the flowers of Prevost, the lilies and roses of Re- 
route. The portraits, to the number of fifty-five 
thousand, are divided in each country according 
to the rank or profession of the individuals, and 
are classed in chronological or alphabetical order. 
The series of the costumes of various countries 
and different ages cannot be viewed without 
interest. The History of France fills eighty port- 
folios. The topQp;raphical collection is very curi- 
ous; the topograpliy of Paris alone occupies thirty- 
four portfolios. The Cabinet of Engravings con- 
sists of several rooms';' in the first of which is a 
selection of very fine engravings, in frames. Ali 
the aqua-fortis engravings are placed in the com- 
partment of the first window ; the engravings of 
Raimondi, together with those of the Italian and 
German masters, arc to be found in that of the 
second window, or the first in front.' All the 
other parts of the first room, and of the second 
(called the gallery), are occupied by fine plates of 
, the age of Louis XFV, both those published in 
foreign countries and in France, as well as proofs 
of the finest productions of modern French en- 
gravers. In the middle of these rooms arc tables 
and chairs, for the convenience of those who wish 
to inspect the engravings. The attendants arc 
always ready to supply any volume that may be 
asked for, upon the person applying to the keeper. 
The following arc the principal officers of the 
establishment: — Librarians for printed bopks, M. 
Van Praet, and M. De Manne; keepers of the 
Manuscripts (Oriental), M. Remusat ^ (Greek and 
Latin), M. Gail; (Modem Tongues), M. Dacter. 
Keepers cf the Cabinet of Medals and Antiques, 



BIBLIOTHEQUE DE ST. CENEVIEYE. 5&J 

M. GosseliD, and M. Rapul fiockette. K^per &f 
the Cabinet of Engravings, M. Joly. The^e gentle- 
men meet every week to consult upon the affairi^ 
of the establishment. 

The library is open for students, aujthors, etc. 
from ten o'clock till four every day, except Sun- 
days and holidays. Visitors are admitted to the 
library as well as to the cabinet of me4£ds aod 
antiques, and the cabinet of engravings; from tjen 
o'clock till two on Tuesdays and Fi^days. The 
vacation commences on the ist of SepteiuJ^er and 
ends on the 17th of October, during which period 
the library is closed. 

With permission of the Minbter of the Inteiior, 
or if acquainted with M. Van Praet, literary op 
other persons well recommended, are allowed to 
have books out of the library. 



Biblioilicqiie dc St. GrJiCi^icvCj, 

Place St. i'tenci'ici'c. 

Of all the libraries in Paris, lliis is the niosi 
regularly arranged. It is said to contain one liun- 
dred and twelve thousand voUimes and about 
two thousand nianuscripls. It occupies a roons 
in tlie upper part of tlie ancient abbey of St. 
r/enevl(jvc (now the CoUege d' Henri IV), whicl* 
fornis a Oreek cross. The left arm of the cross 
being sliorter than the right, Is concealed by JJ 
drawing in perspective by Ledoux. In the centn 
rises a dome pierced with eight windows, in the 
interior of which is a painting, rej)resenting the 
apotheosis of St. Augustine, byKestout. At the end 
td'the ri'^lit arm of the cross is a model ol Ivome. 



568 PUBLIC LIBRAKIES. 

by Gremini. This extremity leads to several rooms 
for the convenience of readers and students ; in 
which is a collection of natural curiosities, a series 
of portraits of the kings of France, from Philip 
le Hardi to Louis XY, and a portrait of Mary 
Queen of Scots, and queen dowager of France. 
At the east end of the library is a model of a 
frigate built at Havre de Grace ^ and along the 
sides are busts of celebrated men, by Gouston, 
Goysevox, Girardon, and others. Against the wall 
of the staircase is the largest dravnng of the moon 
in existence ; it is to be regretted that sufficient 
care is not taken of this beautiful and valuable 
production. The library is open to the public 
every day from ten till two, except from the ist 
of September to the ist of November. 

Bibliothkque Mazarine. 

This library occupies part of the buildings of 
the Institute, although quite distinct from the 
Bibliotheque de Vlnstitut, It was formed by the 
celebrated Gabriel Naude, who collected the most 
scarce and curious books in France and foreign 
countries. Cardinal Mazarin being the proprietor 
of this library, it was open to the public in i66t. 
During the war de la Fronde, whilst still at the 
palais Mazarin, it was piUaged and dispersed. It 
afterwards was greatly augmented, and now con- 
tains one hundred and ninety-five thousand vo- 
lumes, of which three thousand four hundred and 
thirty-seven are manuscripts. The principal room 
which it occupies is adorned vnth some good 
marble busts, of which part are antiques. It 
possesses a very fine terrestrial globe of copper, 



executed by the brothers Bergwin, under the di- 
rection of Louis XVI, for the Dauphin j and a 
marble statue of Voltaire, by Pigalle, the expense 
of which was defrayed by a subscription in which 
even sovereigns were eager to join. On the plinth 
is the following inscription : — A M, de Voltaire^ 
lea gens des lettres, ses compatriotes, et ses contempO' 
rains, 1 776. The Bib lioMque 'Mazarine is open to 
the public, from ten o'clock till two, every day 
except Thursdays and Sundays. The vacation 
commences on the i5th of August and terminates 
on the i5th of October. . 



Bibliotheque de Monsieur^ 

At the Arsenal, rue de Sully, quai des Celestins, 

About the year 1396 the city of Paris built an 
Arsenal upon this spot, which aftervvards passed 

into the hands of the government. A dreadful 
explosion having taken place in i563, the buildings 
were reconstructed upon a more extensive scale 
by order of Charles IX. Henry IV augmented the 
buildings and garden of the Arsenal, and created 
the office of grand master of the artillery, in fa- 
vour of his minister Sully, who then took up his 
residence at the Arsenal, where he was frequently 
visited by his sovereign. It was on his way to 
Sully's house, that Henry IV was assassinated on 
the i4th of May, 1610.^ Louis XIV having caused 

^ In front of a house in the me de la Ferronerie, wlierc 
Henry IV was assassinated, a bust of that monarch may 
^lill be seen, with the following inscription : 

HexrTCI MaGNI RECREAT PRiESENTlA GIVES, 
Oros ILLI yETERNO FOEDERE .lUTfXlT AMOR. 



570 PUBLIC LIBRAKIES. 

arsenals to be constructed on the frontiers of the 
kingdom, the casting of cannon in that of Paris 
was discontinued. The only use made of the 
foundries since that period, was the casting of 
the statues which adorn the garden of Marly and 
that of Yersaiiles. During the regency, in 1718, 
some of the old buildings were demolished to 
erect a mansion for the grand master. In several 
rooms of this mansion, was the valuable library, 
called Bibliotheque de Paulmy, because originally 
formed by the marquis de Paulmy. To this col- 
lection was subsequently added that of the duke 
de la Yalliere and several others, when it took 
the title of Bibliotheque de I* Arsenal, The united 
libraries now form the Bibliotheque de Itfonsieur, 
having been purchased by ihe count d'Artois a 
few years before the revolution. It is very rich 
in history, foreign literature, and poetry, particu- 
larly in Italian works, and contains one hundred 
and fifty thousand printed volumes and five thou- 
sand manuscripts, among which are some beauti- 
ful Missals. 

The apartments of Sully, consisting merely of 
a bed-room and a cabinet, in which be used to 
receive Heniy IV, are still to be seen. They are 
richly gilt, and resemble, in the style of their 
ornaments, the chambre d coucher de Marie de 
Medicis at the Luxembourg. The only piece of 
furniture they contain is a table with a marble 
top of very modern appearance. The painting 
on the ceiling, by Mignard, represents France tri- 
umphant. In the library are two pieces of fur- 
niture which undonbtedly belong to the age of 
Sully j one is a kind of writing desk omaracnted 



BIBLIOTHEQUE DE LA VILLE. 5^1 

ivith black varnish and copper giit^ the iKher is 
a very cumbrous sort of idesk with four boards 
to place books upon, which can be moved about 
in a curious manner.. By an edict of the year 
1788, the Arsenal of Paris was suppressed, and 
its sile destined to form a new guartier. This 
project was never carried into execution. Upon 
part of the garden of the Arsenal the boulevard 
Bourdon was formed in 1806, and upon another 
part the Grenier de Reserve was begun in the fol- 
lowing year. 

The Bibliotheque de Monsieur is open to the pub- 
lic from ten o'clock till two every day, except Sun- 
days, and from the i5th of September to the ist of 
November. ^ 

Bibliotheque de la TOr/fe^ 

Rue da Tourniquet, hcfiind the Hotel de J^ille. 
Tills library, wliich occiij)ics four c^allcries, and 
contains neailv forly tlionsand volumes, possesses 
a rich asscnil)lncre ol" botanical and historical 
Avorks and dra^\ iii^s of y)lants, a good collection 
of" the classics, and all the ^rcal works generally 
consulted bv scholars, ])ut possesses no splendid 
or curious specimens of typography- 'he galleries 
arc ornanKMiled wltli l)usls of the ])est French 
writers, in l)rouze and marble, and a collection 
of models of I'ountains which an as formerly de- 
posited In tlie ciraudc Salle of the Hotel de Yllle. 
T'^rom one of the crallerles inaA^ be seen \hi\ fine 
.nrch o\! \\)c Sdlle St. Jean. The celling, which is 
m\ich admired, was painted by Gerardhil. Tins 
library Is kept in excellcnl ordci', and in wintei 
is warmed ])v a lart(e modern stove. The tal:^lc' 



57^ MUSEUMS. 

are covered with green cloth and amply supplied 
with pens and ink. In the first and second weeks 
of every month, this library is open to the public 
on Thursdays, Fridays, and ^siturdays, from twelve 
o'clock till four. In the third and fourth weeks 
it is open every day. The vacation commences 
on the 25th of August and continues for six 
weeks. 

The Chamber of Deputies^ the Schools of Law, 
of Medicine, of Mines, and of Bridges and High- 
ways, have also libraries, as well as the Hdtel des 
Invalides, and in general all the great institutions 
of Paris. The library of the Council of State con- 
tains thirty thousand volumes ^ that of the Court 
of Cassation tjf enty thousand, and that of the 
Polytechnic S^iool twenty-four thousand. These 
libraries, thoagh not pubhc, may easily be visited 
by any r^eclable person vnshing to make re- 
searche^r to pursue any particular investigation 
in literature or science. In this respect Paris is 
unrivalled, for there is no other city in Europe 
where persons of every class find such facilities 
for literary or scientific pursuits. 



MUSEUMS. 



Musee Rojral^ 

At tfie Louvre. 

This splendid institution is divided into three 
sections, viz. the MuaSe des Tableaux, the Mutie 
des DessinSy and the Mus6e des Antiques, In de- 



MUSl^B ROTAL. $73 

scribiDg this Museum we must confine ourselves 
to the architecture and ornaments of the difTerent 
galleries or rooms, as it would far exceed the 
limits of this work to give a catalogue of their 
contents. Catalogues may be purchased at the 
Museum. 

MusEE DES Tableaux. The grand gallery, which 
connects the palace of the Louvre with that of the 
Tuileries, was, under the reigns of Louis XTV and 
Louis Xy, the repository of models of the various 
fortresses of the kingdom. In 1775, a project was 
formed to transfer these models to the military 
school, and to establish in the gallery of the 
Louvre a royal museum of pictures, statues, and 
anticjuities. The plans in relief >H| removed to 
the Hotel des Invalides in 1784/ buQLe remainder 
of the project was not carried into exeowon. The 
national convention, by a decree of July\7, 1793, 
ordained the establishment of a National Museum, 
and fixed the 10th of August following for its being 
opened to the public. A great number of differ- 
ent objects were collected, among which were 
five hundred and thirty-seven pictures by the 
great masters of different schools, and bronzes, 
busts, vases, marble tables, china, time-pieces, etc. 
to the number of one hundred and twenty-four. 
At this time only part of the interior of the gallery 
was finished. In the year YI (1797, 1798), a great 
number ofpfctures were added from various coun- 
tries of Europe, the exhibition of which was 
of^eued on the i8lh Germinal, an VII (April ytii, 
^^ 99% In tiie year IX, the gallery being com- 
P^ <^ted, it was thrown open to the public with a 
^^^~^ or^ rich collection than it had ever before con- 



^74 MUSEUMS. 

tained. According to a catalogue publisiMd in 
i8i4) the splendid collection in this gallery con- 
sisted of twelve hundred and twenty "four pictures, 
all chefs-d'oeuvres, for none but master-pieces were 
admitted. Upon the occupation of Paris, in i8i5, 
a great number of the most valuable pictures 
were removed. The vacant spaces thus occasioned 
in the walls of the gallery have been filled up by 
pictures from the gallery of the Luxembourg and 
other collections. The entrance of the Museum 
is upon the Place du Museum. Over the door is 
a colossal bust of Louis XVIII in bronze. **" From 
the vestibule a magnificent staircase, after the de- 
signs of Fontaine^ leads to an an ti- chamber called 
the Salle rond^ which separates the grand galleiy 
from the gallrf^ of Apollo. It is decorated with 
twenty-two Doric columns of Flanders marble 
with bases and capitals of white marble. It pre- 
sents three arches, of which that iu the centre rests 
on four columns and those of the sides on. pilas- 
ters. It is richly ornamented with statues, y^BM, 
military trophies and bas-reliefs. The ceilings are 
adorned with two paintings^ one by Abel de 
Pujol represents the revival of the Arts ; and the 
other by Meynier represents France, .under the 
form of Minerva, affording protection to the Arts. 
The Salle ronde presents in the ceiling the fall 
of Icarus, and .^olus exciting the winds against 
the Trojan fleet, by Blondcl; and the combat of 
Hercules and Antaeus j Achilles in danger of being 
swallowed by theXanthuSj Simois exasperated at 
the slaughter ofthc Trojans j and Venus receiving 

''• Formerly it was Bonaparte. 



froiO' Vulcan the a 
(Jer. Theentranw 

of the Sails ronde. 

thirteen hundred i 
which receives lig! 
It is formed into 
of which resis o 
rare marbles, betwi 
and alabaster, bust 
are devoted to the 
to the German, F 
the last three to I 
tremity of the gal: 
the palace of iheT 
is o in a men led will 
cnt orders, which 
perspective. The 
the gallery is twel' 
BiLStE DES Di:ssi 
Museum occupies a looni called go/me iC^poUoa, 
wliich is separated from the grand gallery by the 
Sul/e rond,: The gallery of Apollo was built 
duiiiig the reign of Henry IV. In 1661. whilst 
liLtiDg U|) as a hall room, it was destroyed by lire. 
Louis XIV ordered it to be rc[)aircd, and appointed 
I.ehruii to paint tlie ceiling, but before it was 
KMi=li(-l llial artist was colled lo Versailles. The 
iinnie is derived froi!i tlic sLihjccls uf the paintings 
on the ceiling. Under the Directory, this roon. 
was apjiroprlated as a i-cpository for original 
dr3tviii;.;s, sketches, paiiitiDgs in walci'~colours, 
elchinj!':, enamels, miniatures, Etruscan vases, ami 
curin^^ilies. This gallery was lirst opened to iLr 
l-yMw i,.i the iHih Tliermidor. an V (Au.^l^sl 1 ',fh. 



5^6 MUSEUMS. 

1797), and the number of drawings amounted to 
about eleven thousand. An annual ediibition 
in August was afterwards made, but in the year 
X, the success of the French armies having greatly 
augmented the collection, the gallery was opened 
in the month of Messidor (July, i8oa). It then 
contained five hundred and thirty-one new articles 
in drawings, curiosities, etc. At several subsequent 
periods this Museum was greatly enriched, but, 
like the preceding, was deprived of a considerable 
part of its most valuable contents in i8i5. In the 
centre of the ceiling is Apollo in his car, with the 
attributes of the Sun. In the compartments next 
that of the centre are Spring, by Gallet ; Summer, 
by Durameau j Autumn^ by Taraval j and Winter, 
by Lagren^c. *In an oval compartment towards 
the north is Evening, by Lebrun, and near it, in an 
octagonal frame, Night, by the same artist. In 
the oval frame to the south is Morning, by Renou, 
and near it, in an octagonal compartment the i^^t^ei/ 
des Eaux, by Lebrun. In golden medallions below 
the compartments are to be the months of the year, 
of which eight only have been executed. The 
sculpture of this room, which is worthy of atten- 
tion, was executed by Regnaudin, Balthasar de 
Marsy^ Gaspard de Marsy, and Girardon. The 
designs possessed by this Museum amount to 
twenty thousand, of which only a very incon- 
siderable portion can be exhibited. 

Mus^ DES Antiques. This Museum was origin- 
ally formed of the statues and other pieces of 
sculpture collected in Italy in 1797, in conformity 
to the treaty of Tolentino. Messrs Berthole^ 
Moitte, Monge, Thouin, and Tinet were appointed 



MUSEE ROYAL. 577 

by Uie government commissioners for collecting 
the objects of the Arts and Sciences, and M. 
Raymond was charged to dispose and cmbellisli 
some of the rooms of the Old Louvre for their 
reception. This Museum, which took the title 
of Musee Napoleon, was opened to the public on 
the gth of November, i8o3. In the beginning of 
i8i4, t-he number of pieces of sculpture in the 
Museum was two hundred and fifty-six. In i8i5, 
ihe most valuable objects of the collection were 
removed by the allies, and among others the La- 
ocoon, the Apollo Belvedere, the Venus de Med i- 
cis, and the sublime Torso. Since the restoration, 
a great number of statues, etc. have been added 
to the collection, and five additioi|j|l rooms, bear- 
ing the name of galerie d'Jlngoulemey destined to 
contain the productions of modern sculptors, were 
opened in July, 1824* The different roQnis bear 
llic name of the principal object which they con 
taiii. 

Tn lh(? ccstihidc, over the entrance, is n bas-rcllc!'. 
I)y Chaiifiet, rcprcsenling the Genias of tlic .\r'.s. 
'\\\(i ccilinq, painted Ijy Darthelemy, ropiciMi!-; 
man lorniccl by l^^onielheus, and anlmalcd 1)/ r.Ii- 
ncrva. On the pendcntivcs arc medallions in has 
relief of the fonr schools of the art oi" slaUiar\ . 
l^'rancc points ont the Milo of Crottnia jjy Piij t ; 
Judv, the M<\scs of M. Angcio \ Ei^ypt, the colos: ;! 
statue ol" IMcmnon^ and Greece, the Pylhi; ;i 
ApoHo. 'Hie two Ibrmer are by Lorla, am! i 
Ivvo latter \)\ Lani^e. Over tlie arch leadJM ; i > 
ihc Sail'- dcs Empercnr.i is a beautifid has iiii'; 
bv Cliaudct, representing the three arts ofd.'.ii/i 
Miuh.M- the !iL5\ires of the three Graces. 

i'\i;T r. I'.) 



578 MUSEUMS. 

Salle des Empereurs Remains, The Veiling o 
tbis room, painted by Meynier, represents ihi 
Earth receiving from Adrian and Justinian tb< 
Code of the Roman laws, dictated by Nature 
Justice, and Wisdom. The two grisailles, in imi 
tation of bronze, by the same artist, represent Tra- 
jan causing tlxe aqueducts to be built, and the re- 
establishment of the Via ^ppia, wbich look th( 
name of Fia Trajana, The bas-relief, rcpresentinj 
Marcus Aurelius granting peace to the Marcoraanni 
is by Rolland. The four rivers with which th< 
room is ornamented are the Eridanus, I)y Goi 
junior^ the Tiber by Blaise 5 the Wile, by Bridai 
junior; and the Rhine by Lesueur. 

Salle dee Saisons, The paintings of this roon 
and the three following are by Romanelli, ai 
Italian artist who came to France in the minority 
of Louis XIV- The sculptures and other orna 
menls of the ceilings were executed after his de 
signs and under his direction. The Four Season 
arc painted in the corners of the room. Th 
other subjects are taken from the history of Diaui 
and Apollo, whose emblems relate to the Seasons 
Salle de la Faix. The paintings in fresco o 
the ceiling represent Minerva surrounded wit) 
figures allegorical of the Arts, the Sciences, ant 
Commerce. Peace is seen setting fire to a pile 
arms; and the goddess of Agriculture appears en 
couraging the labours of the field. 

Salle des Romains. The paintings of the ceilin 
represent Poetry and History celebrating the ex 
ploits of warlike Rome. The subjects of the fou 
side pictures are taken from Roman history, am 
represent, i. The Deputies of the Senate briDgin 



to GiDcinnaliu 
of llie Sabine 
Hutius-Scevola 

SalU da CcRi 
represent Virli 
yt»3 destined Si 
paiaUd on ill 
This hall bavin 
iags were addei 
and Renown, 
of ihe Arts, by 
holds the crow 
other Genii ii 
Prudhon. 

The Salle d. 
paintings nor a 



oC llyiiic.i. Tlic oniamciils and ])as-rcliefs wiilch 
SLiiTOiiiiil \\t\s picture nllnde to the same gndcless. 
We sec (Ircitis and Ipliigunia carrying off tlie 
sliilue oriJicTiitiiic Diana, by Pctll^; llie Lace- 
demonian ^ ii^inj dancing in Jiononr of Diana, 
by Car.lcllicri'theGoildcss and lier i^y"'!'''* «*''- 
iii^\ulcaii Toi- hunting weapons, l:y lisptrciciix ; 
and tlio Amazons celclii-atiiig, by dancing, ihe 
[-'oiinilallon i.f ilic Teii.p!o of Diana, at Ephcsiis. 
liy Fiiiiciiii. Tile livo pictures on the lymp.nunns 
arc: Hercules, wlio obtains Troni Diana ihe stag 
Willi golden horns, by Gamier; and IJiana nslor- 
iiig to Alicia, llippolylus, who hud been revived 
by Ivsciilapiu;, by Meriin^e, 

Tlio SaiU du'ribre, ibe sath da Gladiatcur, 



'^^10 MUSEUMS. 



;in(l the salle de la Fallas^ are without paintings 
or archlleclurnl sculplure. 

TUq Saild de Melpomene is adorned with a 
inagnidcent mosaic pavement executed at Paris, 
l>j Delloui, which cost 80,000 francs. It is sur- 
rounded with a gilt railing, and represents Mi- 
nerva in a car, followed hy Peace and Abundance. 
Figures of rivers and other accessaries enrich the 
!>ordcTs. The Salle d*Isis is neither decorated 
wiili painting nor sculptures, but all the walls 
arc covered with coloured marble as high, as the 
cornice. 

Tiic Salic de la Pysche^ the salle de VlJaruspice, 
I he aalle d'llcrcule et I'elephe, and the salle de la. 
Me ?6v, are without architectural sculpture or 
painting. 

The Salle or Corridor de Pan serves for a pas- 
sage Oil the right to the salle de Cariatides^ and on 
llic left to the salle du Gladiateur^ and the salle 
du Tib re. 

Tiic Salle des Car iaf ides was constructed diiring 
the reign of Henry If, after the designs of Pierre 
I.oscot. The sculptures in relief are by Jean Gou- 
jori J and under the regency of Catherine de Medi- 
< is this liall was used for entertainments and thea- 
trical representations. Afterwards, the king's an- 
ti'^jucs were transported there, and the models of 
the n){istcr-pieccs of Italy, among which were 
tiiosc of the Trajan column, which Francis I, it is 
said, nicaiU to have cast in bronze to adorn the 
j;nlacc of Fontaineblcau. These models and casts, 
ahandoncd to damp, were injured by time, and 
llirown soi))e vears ago among the rubbish of 
I he Louvre. This room is forty feet in length 



u 



Musee 

See Gallery of the Luxi ourg, p 



Musee d'Histoire NaturellCj 

At the Jurdin des Plantea. 
At the solicitation of Herouard, his chief phy- 
sician, and Guy de la Brosse, physician in ordi* 
nary, Louis XIII founded the Jardin des Piantes 
iu 1626, but the edict, which was enregistered by 
the Parlement, did not appear till May, i635. Se- 
veral distinguished men, among whom may be 
reckoned Guy de la Brosse, Vespasian Robin, 
Fagon, Aubriet, Duverney, Tournefort, Yaillant, 
Bernard de Jussieu, Hunaud, Lemery, and Cyster- 
nay du Fay, coutributed greatly to the prosperity 
of the establishment, previous to the appointment 
of Buffon, in 17^)9, to the functions of superin- 
tendent. That celebrated naturalist devoted him- 
self with persevering^' zeal to the interests of the 
garden, and before his death, in 1788, the names 
of Uaubcnlon, Anlony de Jussieu, Winslow, Fer- 
rein, Antony Pelit, Faujas de St. Fond, Van Spaen- 
donek, Desloiilalijes, 3Iacquer, Vie d'Air, Four- 
croy, and Porl.tl, shed luslre upon the establish- 
ment. At the revolution, the universities, the 
I'acullles of li^ediclne, law, etc. being suppressed, 
there was reason to fear that the king^s garden 
v.ould be Involved in the general proscription^ 
but, as it was considered national property, and 
visitors of all classes were equally well received, 
;ind as the people believed the garden to be des- 
tined ^o\- th<; culture of medicinal plants, and th.e 



584 "MLSEUMS. 

laboratory of chemistry to be a manufactory of 
saltpetre, it was respected. The wretcheduess of 
the times, however, was sensibly felt. Sluch was 
undertaken and nothing completed. Funds were 
wanting to pay the workmen, to provide nourish- 
jnent for the animals, and to defray the expense 
of the collections. Potatoes were cultivated in 
. the beds destined for the rarest plants^ and the 
establishment was threatened with total destruc- 
tion, ijouaparte, being placed at the head oi 
affairs, turned his attention to the Museum, tc 
which ])e not only furnished funds for continuing 
ihe works already begun but enlarged the garden, 
and made considerable additions to the collec- 
tions. From that p.Tiod to i8i3, the prosperity 
;r.i(l treasures of the Museum increased in constani 
progression, but in the latter year the revenu< 
of the Museum was reduced, and no important 
cnterprize was undertaken. In i8i4, when th« 
allied troops entered Paris, a body of Prussian: 
were about to take up their quarters in the gar- 
! den; but a safeguard for the Museum and an ex 

i; cmption from all military requisitions was obtain 

j.. cd from the Prussian general. In 18 15, upon th^ 

jeturn of the allied troops, there was reason t< 
fear that the Museum w'ould be deprived of j 
\ great part of its contents. The magnificent cabinc 

J- of the Stadlholder was claimed, but it was after 

!" wards agreed that an equivalent should be fur 

nished from the duplicates of the Museum. Severa 
valuable gems were returned to the Pope; am 
I many objects of natural history and books be 

lonvrine to emigrants were restored. Since th( 
' 1 1 

i l>eaco, the king has continued to promote th 



Ml D*] 


E TURELLE. 


iterests of i] s< 


a lO 


ave been ea to 


a Y 


ill sent out into distant 


r ons to examine 



atural productions. The sum of 20,000 f 1 

ear has been appropriated to the support 01 
elling pupils to be appointed by the prof< 
TJiis noble establishment is under the control 
f the Minister of the Interior, and consists of, 
St, a botanical garden, with spacious hot-houses 
ad green-houses j ad, several galleries, in which 
re scientifically arranged collections belonging to 
le three kingdoms of nature^ 3d, a gallery of 
aatomy 5 4tb, a gallery of botany 5 5th, a mena- 
3rle of living animals^ 6lh, a library of natural 
istory; and 7th, an amphitheatre, with labora- 
)ries, etc. for lectures on every branch of science 
jnnected with natural history. 
The lectures, of which there are thirteen courses, 
c graliiltOQS, .'md pernnssion to attend tlicm is 
btaiiicd Ijy application to the Ijiireau de Tad^ 
iinistralion. Tliey are delivered as follows: i . nii- 
:i'alop;y, in T^Iay; 2. chemistry applied to {he arts, 
I June^ J. botany and vcqetal)Ic pliysiology, in 
pril- J. the culture oi" European and I'oreign 
ants, in June ^ 5. the natural liistory of inver- 
hratcd anijuals, in June 3 6. rural hotanv, in 
me ; 7. j^coiui^y, in June ; 8. general chemistry, 
i\hiy^ <). iconography, in July ; 10. birds, qua - 
upeds, and the cetaceous animals, in June; 
ichiiiyoiogy, in April j 12. anatomy, in ()c- 
her, 1"). internal pathology, in JN^ovemher. The 
uscuni enijKoys one liundred and sixty-one per- 
ns, orwlioin ninety-nine arc paid ])y the moiilli 
u\ si\t\ l'v\o In the year. A correspondence is 



586 MUSEUMS. 

kept up with all similar establishments, and a pro- 
digious quantity of seeds, slips, etc. are annually 
• distributed. This Museum is unquestionably the 
richest of its kind in the world. The garden, the 
buildings, and the collections form a magnificent 
establishment, but it is the extent given to instruc- 
tion which infuses life into the institution and 
renders it of general utility. 

Garden. Upon arriving at the gate by the quay, 
the Cabinet of Natural History is seen at the op* 
posite extremity of the garden, occupying its 
whole breadth, and rising above the growth af 
two enclosures, one of which is the nursery and 
the other a square basin, hollowed to the level 
of the river, and adorned with shrubs. On the 
right and left are two large avenues of linden 
trees ; and beyond these, on the right, several cul- 
tivated squares, and the menagerie^ on the left are 
groves of forest trees bordering the rue de Buffoa. 
By the great avenue on the right we arrive at the 
court of the Cabinet, and, following the iron 
railing which separates it from the garden, find 
ourselves at the entrance of the parallel avenue, 
with the Cabinet in the rear, and a little to the 
right the house called the Intendance. We shall 
here begin the circuit of the garden. Proceeding 
from the head of the great avenue of lime trees 
on the southern side of the garden, we see, on the 
right, plantations of forest trees and a cultivated 
square, and, on the left, two enclosures separated 
by a circular basin, the nursery, the square basin 
already mentioned, and several flower-beds. The 
first four squares are composed of trees of every 
species and every country, which pass the winter 



. d'histoire naturelle. 587 

*; among them are a gleditschia 
s, seal from Canada in 1748; a so- 
1, ihe first received in Europe 5 and 
obtained from Worth America. In 
•e is a juniper forty feet in height, 
the Levant. At the extremity of 
I cafe, where refreshments are taken 
hade. Beyond are three squares 
trellis. The first is appropriated to 
in request for the beauty of their 
second is devoted to ornamental 
Its. The third is occupied by the 
trees and shrubs which bear our 
is seen a pretty cluster of Ispahan 
e seeds of which were brought from 
). At the extremity of this square 
1 alley of Virginian tulip trees, and 
other squares. The first is planted 
n trees- the sccoihI, with a variety 
; fruit or loliivjjc ariives at perfection 
• tlie tliird is a thicket of ornamental 
so (hstrihulerl as to present agree- 
in tln^ir foliage, form and flowers; 
h is planletl with trees wliieh bloom 
This S(juare is ])oun(lcil towards 
a lofty hedi^e of the Cliinese Arbor- 
ling hv the terrace to the gale, we 
narrow alley extending to the basin, 
eds on the right and left. The first 
itain medicinal plants for the poor ; 
) are assigned to indigenous plants 
\olics. The two next beds contain 
die most beanlifnl vivacious plants of 
g.arrlen ; and in the two last are cul- 



588 MUSEUMS. 

tivatcd the most beautiful border flowers. We 
now arrive at the square basin enclosed by an 
iron railing. From the beginning of the spring to 
the end of the summer^ it presents a splendid dis- 
play of roses« snow- drops, lilacs, fontanesias, etc. 
We next cross aa alley and arrive at the nursery, 
which is also surrounded by an iron railing. On 
the south is a bed shaded by the lime trees of the 
grand avenue, in which such plants are cultivated 
as require peculiar care. Beyond the nursery are 
two beds enclosed with a trellis, and devoted to 
the multiplication and naturalization of such fo- 
reign vivacious plants as pass the winter without 
shelter in our climate. On the sloping borders 
are tufts of bulbous roots, and each bed is bor- 
dered with flowers proper for edging. In the 
fine season, beautiful trees from the orangery are 
placed in the interval which separates these beds, 
and at the extremity towards the Cabinet. Bcr 
tween the two last beds is a circular basin for 
the cultivation of aquatic plants. Round the basin 
is a subterranean passage, where cryptogamous 
plants which grow in obscurity might be placed 
to advantage. On the right, opposite to the 
squares just mentioned, is a garden with an iron 
railing, where the plants of the orangery are ex- 
posed in the summer. In the rear of the garden 
is the orangery, whose walls are covered with 
climbing plants. By the side of the orangery is a 
small enclosure sheltered on the north and west, 
containing hot-beds and frames for such delicate 
plants as are multiplied by slips. On leaving the 
garden of the orangery, we find ourselves near a 
slope conducting to two hills. One, called the 



MUSEE d'hISTOIRE NATURELLE. 689 

labyriuth, from ils numerous intricate paths, is 
of a conical shape. On the ascent is a cedar of 
Lebanon, which Collinson, a wealthy English phy- 
sician, presented to the garden in 1^34 j it spreads 
its branches at the foot of the labyrinth, and 
with its offspring supplies the pleasure-grounds 
of France. It would have obtained a loftier stature 
if the summit had not been accidentally broken. 
Below the cedar of Lebanon, towards the south, 
are two stone pines of remarkable size. Ascend- 
ing by the path which winds several times round 
the hill, we arrive at an elegant pavilion, encircled 
with bronze pillars and a balustrade. Prom this 
elevated spot a view extends over the garden, the 
greater part of Paris, and the distant landscape 
in the direction of Montmartre, Yiucennes, and 
Sccaux. On the eastern slope, between the pa- 
vilion and the cedar of Lebanon, is a small en- 
closure, in llic ctiUrc of ^vliicli a simple granite 
(olmnn, icstiiu': oti a bise o(" (IKlercnt minerals, 
in;!ils.s the m'ave of Daiihcntoii. In flcscendinii llie 
liill on the norlli we notice a luiantiful maple, 
',\iu\ hclow it llie largest plane tree in Paris. IJe- 
tween the two, on the verge ol" the slope, is a 
<laiiv, to ^\hicll students, ^vho pass the morn- 
ing in liie garden, i(!pair to enjoy a rural repast, 
(^onliiniing to descend we lintl ourselves opposite 
l!,c second hiii, w hleh issmallerj of an oblong form, 
;i:i(|, like the lahyrinlh, intei'scctcd with winding 
paths and planted with evergreens. On the top is 
an esplanade with a picturescpn^ view towards the 
liver. At the loot of this hill is a spacious v\\^ 
Closure, in iVcnt oi the amphitheatre, will- lii ■ 
Si'ed-<farden, the ''reen-house, and the nienai;<iie, 

PA in' 1. r»o 



SqO MUSEUMS. 

on the right, and the dwellings of several profes- 
sors, and a gate leading into the rue de Seine, on 
the left. This enclosure is used for the exposure, 
during the fine weather, of the most beautiful 
trees of New Holland, the Cape. of Good Hope, 
Asia Minor, and the Coast of Barbary, which hare 
pfissed the winter in the green-house. In the 
centre is a large stone table. At the door of the 
amphitheatre are two beautiful Sicilian palms, 
twenty-five feet in height, which were presented 
to Louis XIV. Near the amphitheatre is the en- 
trance of the menagerie. The varied surface of 
the ground, the diversky of the plantations, and 
the singularity of the constructions, give this part 
of the establishment the appearance of a land- 
scape garden. After making the tour of the me- 
nagerie the visitor returns to the terrace leading 
to the green-house. Below the terrace the garden 
of naturalization and that of the seed-beds are 
seen to advantage. From the green-house we 
descend a small declivity, and regain the spot from 
which we started. 

Menagerie. When Louis XIV fixed his residence 
at Versailles, the Academy of the Sciences solicited 
him to establish a menagerie in the magnificent 
park belonging to his palace. This menagerie con-' 
tinucd to be enriched under the reigns of Louis JST 
and Louis XVI. The latter monarch being obliged 
to quit Versailles, the animals were neglected, and 
several of them perished for want of food. Those 
which remained were removed to the Museum in 
*794« Some were placed in temporary buildings, 
others in the groves, and the plan of a menagerie 
was immediately laid out j but it was only by de- 



MUSEE d'hISTOIRE TU] .E. SqI 

grees that the necessary ground s :>btained, and 
the enclosure did not attain its present extent 
until the year 1822. The menagerie is two hun- 
dred and twenty-nine fathoms in length from east 
to west, or from the esplanade in front of the 
amphitheatre to the terrace along the quay; its 
greatest breadth from North to South is one hun- 
dred and ten fathoms, and it communicates with 
the garden by four principal entrances, one on the 
West, one on the North, and two on the South. 
The space appropriated to tame animals, which 
walk about at liberty, is divided into fourteen 
parks or enclosures, six to the West and eight to 
the East of the edifice called the rotunda. These 
parks, round v/hich the public can walk, are sub- 
divided into compartments, each terminated by one 
side of a building, into which the animals retire 
at will in the day-time, and are shut up during 
the night. At llie cxtrcinily of tliesc parks, and 
near ihc river, Is tlic ])ull(ling for the wHd-bcasts. 
On entering the menagerie, at the gate near tlie 
amphitheatre, we Jind an allev to the riglit which 
leads round It, and In front anollier alley which 
crosses It, winding round the parks and passing 
helvveen the rotunda and the aviary. Taking this 
patli wc see, on each side: i. the African sheep 
\N ith a large tail, and llic moruant with vcrv long 
legs- 9.. the cdinclus y/Ipaca, an animal very re- 
mat kal)le lor ihe length and fineness of Its wool; 
5. Alale and female goats from Tarlary and one 
from India, of the true breed which supply wool 
for making the costlv Indian shawls 5 4- ^^^^" goats 
from Lpper Egypt, to which the projecllon of 
their jaw gives a verv singular appearance, and 



592 MUSEUMS. 

those of Napaul, which are remarkable for h&ving 
the curved forehead of the sheep j 5. Some goats 
which scarcely differ from the European species ; 
but which may give rise to a new breed: The 
next enclosure, which extends nearly as far as 
the aviary, is divided into five compartments, in 
the middle of which stands a large circular hut 
thatched with reeds. In the first compaftment is 
a basin where all the smaller species of aquatic 
birds are assembled ; here also are different species 
of tortoises, which either remain in the water or 
creep about on the grass. The second, third, and 
fourth compartments are occupied by a great num- 
ber of long-legged birds and gallinaceous fowls. 
The last compartment is occupied by ostriches. 
To the right of the park just mentioned is an- 
other with three divisions, towards the extremity 
of which is a building resembling a ruin. Two 
compartments are occupied by various animals. In 
the third is a basin for the larger aquatic birds. 
To the south of this park, which is the lowest 
part of the menagerie, we see another more elon- 
gated, extending from the green-house to the ro- 
tunda, sloping towards the North, and divided 
into five compartments. In the middle is a small 
picturesque building with four pavilions, each of 
which serves as a retreat to a species of deer. The 
winding walks which encircle these parks end at 
the rotunda and the aviary. Beyond, we find nine 
other parks upon the same plan. In the middle 
of the first, opposite to the rotunda, is a shed en- 
circled with wooden pillars, in which is a mule 
produced'from an ass and a female zebra. This 
animal is striped like the zebra^ particularly on 



MUSEE d'b e turelle. Sg3 

the legs and thighs. 1 € t following parks 
are occupied by diffeFent species of sheep and 
deer. In the farthest park, the guepard, common 
to Asia and Africa, may be seen in the summer^ 
In front of one of the parks are three deep paved 
courts with cells, constructed for certain animals. 
Several bears formerly occupied two of them^ and 
afforded much amusement to the public j but a 
person having perished in one of them the ani- 
mals were removed. The third of these pits con- 
tains a number of wild boars, which have several 
times unpaved it. Having made the tour of the 
different parks, we return to the rotunda. In this 
ediiicc, which has five large pavilions, are a young 
elephant, from India; five dromedaries; the male 
and female bison; the buffalo, and several small 
animals. On leaving the rotunda we prpceed to 
the cnges where are kept the monkeys and the 
birds otprey, and to the aviary. A great nundjcr 
of nioidvovs Jiavc cxislcd in the menagerie, and 
many have had yount;, of" which several are si ill 
living. On ihe opposile side ol the path is a small 
gallery with glazed doors (which arc kept open in 
sui]iniei) for such small quadrupeds as require 
heat. Next come tlic l/nds of prey. Here arc 
vultures of difierent species, one of wliicli (i'lillur 
papa) wws preseiUed to tlic Museum by the Duke 
()[ Chileans. Tlie vulttir barbatus, which, next to 
tlie tondor, is tiic largest bird of prey known ; 
\\\v, J'alco ecaudalus of Senegal, and several Anit" 
rlcan owls, are also to l)C found Jicre. On turtiin;.; 
U) llie Lil we ai'ri\e in front of the aviary, vvlilcli 
is in (iiciosure planted ^\ Itli shruhs, \vilh a huiid 
i)'L; in llic rear facing tlic South, and divided mlu 



5o. 



594 MUSEUMS. 

compartments for foreign birds. As this enclo- 
sure is devoted to the propagation of rare and 
wild birds the public are not admitted into it. It 
contains the golden, silvery, and common pheasants, 
some foreign species of gallinaceous birds, and many 
curious species of poultry. Going round the aviary 
we return to the extremity of the menagerie to see 
the carnivorous animals. They are now lodged 
in a plain and regular building erected in iSai. 
It contains twenty-one dens which have a southern 
aspect. Behind is a gallery, lighted from above, 
sulliciently large to admit of two persons walking 
in it without danger to see the animals, in winter, 
when the outside shutters are closed. It is also 
from this gallery that the animals are fed and 
their apartments cleaned, by removing them from 
the lodge in which they have passed the night to 
that adjoining. There are now in this building, 
lions and lionesses, one of which has a dog living 
with it} the jaguar; two species of jackall; se- 
veral black bears ; the spotted and striped hyaena; 
foxes and wolves. The menagerie having succes- 
sively possessed a great number of foreign animab 
which have been dissected, has given rise ta the 
most important researches in comparative ana- 
tomy. It has enriched the collections with many 
new species, and has enabled the zoologist to study 
the instinct, intelligence, and habits of animals^ 
the influence of education, confinement, domes- 
ticity, and change of nourishment j the pheno- 
mena relative to their gestation, to the care 
which they take of their young, and to the deve- 
lopement and propagation of certain qualities, 
which in process of time constitute peculiar races. 



MUSEE d'hISTOIRE PfATURELLE. 5g5 

Cabinet of Natural History. The buildiog which 
bears the name of Cabinet or gallery of natural 
history, and of which one room is devoted to the 
library, is three hundred and ninety feet in length. 
It fronts the East on the side of the garden, from 
which it is separated by a court and an iron rail- 
ing. The front, which has thirty-three windows 
on the first floor and the same number on the 
second, is divided into three equal parts. The 
middle part has a small projecting wing on each 
side. The ground-floor is composed of the por- 
ter's lodge to the South, and of several rooms with 
doors and windows of iron grating which open 
into the court. The largest of them contains 
models of agricultural implements^, and is a lec- 
ture-room. The others serve as store-rooms for 
such objects as cannot be placed in the galleries j 
they are lower as they approach the hill from the 
elevation of tlic soil in lliat direction ; so that the 
ceilini|, which is twelve Icct from the ground on 
the South, is onlv llirec Icet on the IXorlh. Larire 
trunks of" pclrilied ^voocl are placed l^ctw^een the 
i;ratinqs. In the middle of the second floor of the 
huIldiuiT Is a very heaullful clock, of which we see 
tlie me( hanism, as It occupies the space of a wui- 
dow, and is hcUveeii two glasses. The interior 
of" the Cabinet is composed of six rooms on the 
first floor, without including the library at the 
exticmity ; and five on the second. The first floor 
is dcvotcH to geology, mineralogy, and the collec- 
tlous of reptiles and fishes. The second is occu- 
pied hy the quadrupeds, lilrds, insects, shells, etc. 
Some of the sciulclrcular sashes w^hich give light 
jrom the i'(tof, are raised and lo^-ered ai pleasure 



59^ MUSEUMS. 

for the admission of air. Curtains are placed 
over the cases wlicn not open to the public. The 
Cabinet is divided into the following sections : 
I. Geological colleclionj i. Minerals; 3. Mam- 
malia; 4* Birds; 5. Reptiles; 6. Fish; 7. Arti 
culated Animals ; 8. luarticulated Invertebraled 
Animals. 

Geological Collection. On the landing-place 
of the stairs, by the side of the doer, is a verj 
large jointed basaltic column from La Tour, ir 
the department of Puy de D6me, surmounted b} 
a beautiful pyramid of rock crystal, two feet sis 
inches in diameter at the base ; the latter wa^ 
found iuLeValais. Next to it are two jointed basal- 
tic columns from the Giants' Causeway in Ireland, 
and other irregular columns from St. Sandouz, ic 
Puy de Dome. The entrance hall contains the 
remains of vegetables and invertebrated animalj 
which are found in a great number of strata 
These remains, which almost all belong to losi 
species, are classed according to the date of th< 
i'ornialions in which they are found. The greatei 
number arc accompanied by a portion of the rod 
wiiich contained them. In this room are also severa 
series of rocks, designed to illustrate the geology o 
different parts of the French territory. The fossi 
vegetables are placed in the cases to the left an( 
those opposite to the entrance. The invertebrates 
fossil animals arc in the cases to the right of th 
cnlrauce. They arc divided into three sections 
the zoophytes or radiated animals; the articulate 
iinimals; and the moUusca. In the other case* 
which are at the bottom of the room to the I'igh 
arc the several scries of rocks. The second rooi 



MUS^E d'hISTOIRE NATDRELLE. 597 

contains a rich and numerous series of fossil ver- 
tebrated animals, and a general and methodical 
collection of the different formations which com- 
pose the mineral crust of the earth. This last col- 
lection is arranged in two large chests of drawers, 
twenty feet in length, placed in the middle of the 
room. The fossil vertebra ted animals are divided 
into four grand sections: fishes, reptiles, birds, and 
mammalia. The fossil fishes occupy all the cases 
to the left as we enter the room. The fossil bones 
of quadrupeds, birds, and reptiles, fill twelve 
glazed cases opposite the windows. They include 
the teeth and bones of horses, elephants, the rhi- 
noceros, the hippopotamus, and other animals. 
The most remarkable for their size are those found 
in digging the canal de FOurcq. The most as- 
tonishing specimen is part of the tusk of an ele- 
phant found near Rome, which at first sight we 
are tempted to take for the trunk of a tree. Some 
liair witli a portion of the skin of the elepliant 
that was found on the ice at the moulh of the 
river Lena is preserved liere as a very inlcreslinf; 
specimen of that animal, which at the lime It ^vas 
discovered had sliil its flesli and skin on. Beyond 
the mammalia are the fossil bones of birds, and, 
further on, tliose of tortoises, crocodiles, and an 
immense number of reptiles. The third room 
})cars llic name of rock-room, and principally con- 
tains a systematic collection of rocks, classed ac- 
cording to ihoir composition and texture. There 
are also the first elements ol a geographical col 
leclion, as Avell as a collection of geological and 
mincraloglcal specimens, widch have been cut atid 
polished. [n this room tlicre are also several 



598 MUSEUMS. 

works of art placed in five cases to 
entering. On the uppermost shelf, arc 
vases of the Yesuvlan lava, a large am 
cup of limpid rock crystal, a large slab 
serpentine, and a mirror of black obsidi 
to those used by the Peruvians before 
quest by the Spaniards. On the secou 
several cups of agate, chalcedony, an< 
different colours, another of rock cryfi 
violet coloured fluate of lime, two c 
jade, a vase of the same material, and s 
of lapis lazuli. On the third shelf we 
merous collection of small slabs of jas 
and chalcedony, a row of small columi 
ihyst, some small cups of chalcedon] 
prase, and amethyst, with several cu 
stones, such as diamonds. Oriental rubie 
sapphires, chrysolite, etc. On the fo 
amongst a second collection of polishc 
variously coloured specimens of rock ci 
facetted and others merely polished, 
are several specimens of artihcial pre' 
Objects varying in fonn and substance 
on the fifth and sixth shelves j amor 
be noticed a beautiful box of yelloi 
veral large slabs of Florentine mar 
tomahawks of savages, a cup of red 
large spoon of greenish jade, which 
a rare and precious object. 

Collection of Minerals, The mir 
lection is divided into four grand cl; 
to the system of M. Hauy, viz. : — 
stances containing an acid, the ; 
systems, a. Earthy substances or 



MUSEE d'hISTOIRE NATURELLE. §99 

flammable substances. 4* Metals. It occupies 
two rooms immediately following those devoted 
to the geological collection. The cases which 
contain the specimens are numbered and divided 
into shelves. The first room contains the two 
first classes of minerals. Beginning with the case 
on the right, we meet with the carbonate, phos- 
phate, fluate, sulphate, nitrate, and arseniate 
of lime, which occupy ten cases : among these 
specimens is a fine crystal of Icelandish calcareous 
spar j metastatic crystals from Derbyshire 5 satin 
spar J the lamellated variety, known by the name 
of Parian marble 5 the lithographic stone ; stalac- 
tite, etc. The three next cases are occupied with 
sulphate and carbonate of barytes ; the latter is 
principally found in England, whete it is called 
ratsbane. In the fourteenth case are the sulphate 
and carbonate of strontian. In the three next 
casc3 are tlic aluniinoiis fliiatc of silcx or topaz 
not tiie Oriental topaz), ^vhicli furnishes several 
precious stones ibr jeAveilery; tlie nitrate of pot- 
ash or saltpetre ; tlie nuiriatc ofsoda, or coninion 
Slit- the borate ofsoda^ the carbonate oi sofhi j 
the muriate of ammonia, or sal ammoniac ^ the 
alkaline snlphale of alnmine. or alum; and the 
allvalinc (biate of alnmine or cryolite. Several of 
these specimens, particularly of the yellow, red, 
ii]\d wliite topaz, are ren!arkal)ly beautiful. The 
second class of minerals, namely, that of stones or 
earthy sidjstances, begins with the eighteenth case. 
The iii'st specimens arc the hyaline quartz, includ- 
ing colourless rock crystal ^ violet rock crystal, or 
amethyst j the rose-coloured, or Bohemian ruby; 
the blue, thp vellow (or Indian) topaz ; the vellovv 



600 MUSEUMS. 

brown, or smoked topaz 5 the dark-greeo, the 
dull-red (or compostella hyacinth), etc In the 
twentieth case arc the agates, among which we 
may distinguish chalcedony, corneHan, sapphirine, 
sardonyx, prase, and plasma. Next come the 
quartz rcsinite, which shines like resin, and the 
jaspers : of tlie former, the most beautifnl is the 
opal j and of the latter, the sanguine jasper. In 
the twenty-second case are the rarest precious 
stones after the diamond. The next case presents 
the corundum, including the ruhy, topaz, and 
Oriental sapphire. Next come the chrysoberjl, 
the chrysolite, the emerald, the beryl, the cor- 
dierite, the euclase, and the garnet. The felspar in 
the twenty-sixth case ; the tourmaline, amphibole, 
and pyroxene in the twenty-seventh and twenty 
cighth j and the lapis lazuli in the twenty-ninth, 
are particularly worthy of attention. In the 
thirtieth case arc some large slabs of mica, called 
Muscovy glass, because it is employed in Russift 
instead of window-glass -, and specimens of as- 
bestos, or incombustible flax, which the ancienls 
spun and wove into cloth. Next come the talc, 
which is interesting on account of its various uses. 
Before the stranger quits this room he should ob- 
serve between the windows a superb vase of the 
brecciated porphyry of the Vosges, and two very 
large groups of prismatic crystals of colourless 
quartz. The second room contains the inflam- 
mable suhstances and the metals. The forme' 
class occupies the thirty-second and twofollowin 
cases. The specimens to be noticed are, nati^ 
sulphur; some superb groups of translucid cry 
tals ; a series of diamonds, rough and cut \ solid a' 



MDSEE d'hISTOIRE NATURELLP. 6ai 

liquid bitumens j blackcoal, jet, and yellow amber. 
Of the latter, several pieces contain insects enve- 
loped by the amber when in its liquid state with- 
out injuring their form. The class of metallic 
substances begins with the thirty-fifth case, which 
contains j3/af«7ia, the least fusible of all the metals. 
In the next two cases are the specimens of gold 
and silver, among which should be noticed an 
enormous piece of massive gold from Peru, which 
weighs sixteen ounces and a quarter; a fine spe- 
cimen of native silver from Mexico ; and the dif- 
ferent combinations of silver with sulphur and 
antimony, and the carbonic and muriatic acids. 
In the next two cases are specimens of mercury 
or quicksilver. The fortieth and two following 
cases present lead in every combination of form 
and colour. In the next two cases are the differ- 
ent varieties of copper. In the forty-seventh 
case, where the iron or(sl)egin, is a numerous col- 
lection of aerolites or stones which have fallen 
from the atmosplicre. llie iron ores occupy six 
cases and present beautiful specimens. The next 
three cases are appropriated to various specimens 
of oxide of tin, zitic, and bismuth. In the (iity- 
scventh and three fbllowiiig cases are arsenic, man- 
ganese, antimony, uranium, molybdena, titanium, 
tungsten, tellurium, and chrome. Here terminates 
the collection of minerals, properly so called j one 
of the most precious in existence, on account ot 
the great numher of choice specimens vvhicli it 
possesses, and the order in which they ar(; dis- 
tributed. 

Collection of JMamriLalia. Ascending to th(^ up 
per stoiy of the Cabinet l)y the grand staircase to 

PART I. 5 I 



602 MUSEUMS. 

the right, we enter the rooms which contain the 
zoological collections. The first three and that at 
the fartbest end contain the mammalia, arranged 
according to the system of M. Cuvier. The inter- 
mediate gallery is occupied hy the hirds and ani- 
mals without vertebra;. The number of mam- 
malia now amounts to about iifteen hundred indif 
viduals, belonging to more than five hundred 
species. The first room contains the family of 
monkeys. Between the two windows is a case 
containing five species of the Ourang Outang. 
In the cases to tlie left of the entrance of this 
room are numerous families of apes, natives of 
the warmest regions of the ancient continent. 
They are extremely lively and active. On the 
side opposite the windows are the apes with long 
faces called cynocephaliy or dog headed. On the 
right, in the corner of this case, we see the black 
ape without a tail from the Soloo islands. Oppo- 
site to the door are two cases in which are the 
howling apes, the sai, thesajou, the sakis or night- 
apes, numerous species of small monkeys, the 
lemurs, nearly allied to the apes but having their 
muzzle as long as that of the fox, etc. Passing 
into the second room, in the cases right and lef 
of the door, we see the different genera of bat* 
so remarkable for the form of their noses and ear 
the length of their toes, and their membranof 
wings. On the lower shelves of the case to t 
left are the hedgehog, the tenrecus, and diffen 
species of moles. The first of the six cases wh 
cover the left wall contains the bears. In 
second case are the iong-nosed coatis, the badg 
the civet of the Gape, the northern glutton, \ 



MUSIEE D*H1ST0IRE NATURELLE. 6o3 

seis, martins, and the sable wbosefur is so valu- 
able. In the third case are the European and 
American otters. The most remarkable is the 
sea-oUer. In the same and the following case are 
different varieties of dogs and the two species of 
European wolves. The fifth case contains thir- 
teen species of foxes. In the sixth case are the 
hjsenas, and below them the seals, vulgarly called 
sea-calf, sea-lion, sea-elephant, etc. On the cor- 
nice of this case is the Arctic walrus, vulgarly 
called sea-cow. In the projecting case which 
terminates this side of the room are the civet and 
genet cats. To follow (he classification adopted 
we must pass to the third room. The first case 
contains ten species of the mangouste, one of 
which is the ichneumon. The other cases on this 
side of the room contain twenty-three species of 
the cat genus, which comprehends lions, tigers, 
leopards, lynxes, etc. After the cats arc the dldel- 
p/iis, or rinlnials with a pouchy it comprehends 
the opossums, kangaroos, etc. Passing to the right 
side of the room we see those of the didelphis 
wlilcli liclong to tlie old world. Tlie largest of 
them are the kangaroos of New Holland. Near 
tlie kanc:a! oos are the dasynra, the perameles, and 
the plial angers. Tlie rodentia, to the numher of 
one hundred species, occupy the three following 
cases. Those most worthy of attention are the 
beavers, the dormouse, tlie hamster, the chinchilla, 
and the alactaga. Near them are twenty-llirce 
sj)eclcs of squirrels, among which is the flying 
squirrel. We then see the aye-aye from Mada- 
gascar, so named from its cry; and on the lower 
■s-liclves are porcupines. The numerous species 



6o4 MUSEUMS. 

and varieties of hares and rabbits, occupy seyeral 
shelves in the last case but one. The order of 
the rodentia is terminated by guinea-pigs, llie 
last case of this room is iiiled by sloths. Retnni' 
ing to the second room, in the case to the left of 
the door, vre see the armadillo of America, and 
the manis originally from India, where they in 
some degree represent the armadillo. The first 
case on the same side of the room, contains the 
ant-eaters, the orycteropus or ground-hog, the 
two homed rhinoceros of Africa, the American 
tapir, and another species of the same genus. In 
the second case are the ornithorynchus^ the large 
flattened mui:zle of which resembles the bill of a 
duck; and the echidna, which has a long muKile 
terminated by a small mouth like that of the ant- 
eater, and the body covered with spines like the 
hedge-hog. The four following cases contain nine- 
teen species of the order pachydermata. The Ara- 
bian horse, the Baskir horse, covered with long 
hair, the zebra and the quagga, are remarkable for 
their beautiful form or variety of colours. The 
different species of wild-boar are placed between 
the legs of these larger quadrupeds, and among 
them the American pecary, which has a glandu- 
lous opening in the back from whence issues i 
f(jetid humour. In the last case are the cetacea 
including the foetus of a whale, a porpoise, a laif 
dolphin, etc. In the middle of the room are 
male and female elephant, the one horned rhin 
ocros of India, the two horned rhinoceros of v 
inatra, the two horned rhinoceros of Uie Cape, 
unicorn of Java, and the hippopotamus of 
CapQ. After having passed through the gal 



MUSEE d'histoire naturelle. Go5 

where the birds are placed, we enter the room 
which contains the order ruminantia. In the 
middle of the room are the giraffe {camelopar- 
dalis), the Jiead of which is eighteen feet from the 
s;round j the buffalo, the aurochs, the camel with 
two humps, the camel with one hump, and the 
elk. In making the circuit of the room, we sec 
in the first case to the right of the window, a 
young camel, the vicunna, a wild Peruvian animal ; 
the lamaj the only beast of burthen in Peru ; the 
musk-deer j and the moschus pygmc^us, the small- 
est and most elegant of all ruminating animals. 
The second cas^ contains the common deer, and 
a species one third larger from North America. 
Before them is the muntjac from Java and Suma- 
tra. In the four following cases are the deer of 
the Ganges, and of Louisiana or Virginia, the 
while and red deer of Cayenne, the roe-buck in 
its l)lack and wlule varlclicSj a male and ftinaK' 
rein (leer, several American deer, llie I5:»rbai \ cow 
and liie caania of the Cape. In itie sevenlii case 
is tJic Barbary antelope. In the eighth. >vhicii i.s 
on the other side oi llie door, arc ll)e slceiijjoek, 
the pkinglnj; goat of the Cape, the stone Icapei , 
the griesbock, and the woolly antelope. In llic 
throe next cases arc the pasan and algazel ol 
iiuKon, numerons species ol antelope, and several 
varieties of the goal. The IvvclftU case contains 
goals, among which is the Ihex ■ and the thirteenth 
■Mu\ lonrlccnlh varions races of slicep. On tlic 
higher shell' olthe fourlecnlh case we see a lac*; 
of sheep originally from Persia and Tartaiv. riic 
tail ol" this rac(] enlarges from the jnscilion, and 
A^radually tianslornis itself into a double lobe oi 



6o6 MUSEUMS. 

fat, weighing from fifteen to twenty pounds. Many 
of the larger auimais of this rich collection wen 
alive in the menagerie. 

Collection of Birds, On leaving the gallery of 
ruminating animals, we re-enter that of birds. 
This gallery is adorned with a bronze bust of Louis 
XVIIl j a beautiful marble statue of Venus Urania, 
by Dupaty; and bronze busts of Linnfieus, Four- 
croy, Antoine Petit, Winslow, Toumefort, Adam- 
son, and Daubenton. The collection comprehends 
upwards of six thousand individuals belonging to 
more than two thousand three hundred different 
species. Almost all are in a perfect state of pre- 
servation, and such means have been found of 
preparing them that they never change. There is 
not so numerous a collection existing any where 
else, and nevertheless it has been formed in a few 
years. The gallery which contains it is divided 
into iifty-scven cases with shelves, on which the 
birds are arranged in a manner best adapted to 
their display. The first two cases to the ief^, on 
entering the gallery from that of the ruminating 
animals, are occupied with ten species of the vol* 
ture genus. On the top shelf of the first are the 
different ages of the king of vultures. The cases 
from the third to the tenth contain the numerous 
species of diurnal birds which Linnaeus united 
under the generic name of/a/co. It comprehends 
the engle, the osprey or fishing eagle, the great 
American harpy, the short tailed falcon, the secre- 
tary of the Cape, the male and female astur, the 
sparrow hawk, the musical falcoi?, the buzzard 
the kite, the ternis, the pygargus, which deserve 
peculiar notice as the Egyptians embalmed an 



MUSEK D*HISTOIRB NATURfiLLE. 607 

worshipped it after its death ; the honey buzzard, 
the common falcon, the jer falcon^ the hobby- 
falcon, and the falco ccb rules cens^ which is thd 
smallest of all birds of prey. The eleventh and 
twelfth cases contain thirty-four species of the 
nocturnal birds of prey, comprising the grand 
duke, the lesser duke, the ulula, the common owl, 
the little duke or scops, the Cape owl, the great 
American owl, and the owl with naked feet. The 
thirteenth and fourteenth cases contaip the beauti- 
ful and numerous family of parrots, which is di- 
vided into cockatoos, lorys, aras, parrots and 
perroquets. In the next case are the toucans, 
whose hills are of an enormous size, the wrynecks 
(yunx), and the woodpeckers. The sixteenth case 
is occupied by cuckoos, among which should be 
noticed the blue cuckoo of Madagascar, the copper 
coloured cuckoo of the Cape, and the golden and 
klaas cuckoos ; indicators of the Cape and barbels. 
In tlic sevenlecnll) case is the numerous family of 
tlic shrikes, o("\vJiich there arc some remarkably 
bcautiliil loreiun snecies. TJie l^rcves from Indla^ 
adorned willi the most beautiful colours, and the 
ant-lhruslies ^vhlcll live on the enormous ant-hills 
In the ioiesis and deserts of America. The eigh- 
teenth case contains the merlins, including the 
cointnou blackbird, the white blackbird, the 
rose coloured liirush, the mockblrd, the singing 
ihiushcs, the azure thrush of Java, the wiilte 
breasted thrusli from Senegal, and the guinea 
thrush or magpie of Paradise. It also conlains 
thcgrakhs, tlie orioles, and the lyra, whose tall is 
reinarkal)le, being composed of three sorts of 
featiiers. The nineteenth case is occupied by the 



6o8 MUSEUMS. 

philedons and the motacilleB j the latter GOmpre- 
fiends the stone-iinchcs, the warblers, the bull 
finches, tlie wrens, and tlie wagtails. The mosi 
celebrated are the nightingale, the robin-red-breast 
the reed-warblcr, and the golden crowned wr«n 
In the twentieth case are the drongos, the eotioga: 
or chatterers^ the numerous family of -the fly- 
catchers, and several birds well worthy of- at 
tention from their rarity and beauty. The twenty- 
first case contains many species of the genus tj^ran- 
nits, the uphones, the tanagers of America, th< 
mauakins from the equinoctial forests of America 
the titmice, and the goat-suckers ; the latter havi 
the light soft plumage of the nocturnal birds, anc 
their mouth is so wide that they can swaMov^ th< 
largest insects. The twenty-second case contains 
the numerous genus of the swallows, the larks 
the starlings, and the cassicus. The nests of the 
latter in two frames above the cornice should nol 
escape observation. In the twenty-third case an 
the numerous family of buntings, sparrows, lin- 
nets, gold-linches, widow birds, grosbeaks, bull 
finches, cross-bills and beef-eaters. In the twenty 
fourth case are the rollers, the Indian grakle o 
Java, the birds of Paradise, the jays, anddiffercn 
species of pies and crows. The sky-blue pie o 
Paraguay, and the pie from the Brazils, prcsen 
beautiful colours agreeably distributed. The twcn 
ty-fifth case contains the hoopoes, the creeper 
and tlie humming-birds. Some of the latter ar 
not more than an inch in length, and are remark 
able for the beauty of their colours and the ele 
gance of their forms ; tlieir nests are placed b 
their side. The twenty-sixth case is filled wit! 



MUSEE D*mSTOIRE NATURELLE. 609 

king-fisiiers and horn-bills. On the first shelf of 
the twenty- seventh case arc the tour acos and 
musophaga, or plantain eater, African birds. The 
rest of this case and the Iwenty-eighlh, are filled 
by the numerous varieties of thedoniestic pigeon 
and the cognate species. Several species are highly 
deserving of attention. The peacocks in the twen- 
ty-ninth case contain varieties prepared so as to 
display the magnificence of their plumage. The 
thirtieth case, the last on that side of the room, 
contains the turkeys. The thirty-first case, corre- 
sponding to that we have just seen, is the first in 
our return along the other side of the room; ami 
is filled with hoccos from the warm countries of 
America, and are analogous to turkeys. In the 
thirty-second case are the quans or jacoos, the 
napaul, or homed pheasant from Bengal, different 
races of domestic fowls, and several wild species 
from India, and tlie IMoluccas. Tlicpheasantgciius 
commences at ll;c ])oUom of ihis case. Amoni; 
these slioulfl i)c nolicecl ific golden pheasant iron) 
China. In the rollowlng is a snpcrl) 'bird called 
the Argus pheasant, the impcyan pheasant, the 
crested pheasant, and t!ic rouloul. Tlic bottom 
of tJjc case is (illcd wllli guinea foAvL:. The nmju 
rous family of the grouse entirely lil'slhe thirly- 
fourlh case. The two next cases contain th<^ os 
triches and two species of cassowary. Tlial oi 
Asia has a prominence on the head, 'i he olhei 
com«s froiH JN'ew Holland. The l)uslaids (il! th' 
thirty-seventh case. Jn liic next case are ihc phi 
vers, the lapvvings and the oyster catchers. 1 ii»' 
hottom of the case is occupied hy the ihis '■' li^ 
most celebrated species is that worshij)ped hv li'' 



6lO MUSEUMS. 

Egyptians. Two mummies brought from Egypt 
have been placed here ; the one has istill its enve- 
lopes on I from the other they have been remoTed 
to exhihit the feathers, which are well preserved 
as to their form and colour. In the thirtj-nintli 
case are the god-wits, the woodcocks, the soipei) 
the ruffs, the reeves, and the turn stonei. The 
sand pipers and boat-hills occupy the fortieth 
case. The heron and the bittern fill the fortj- 
first case. The crane genus fills the forty-second 
case. The sun-bird, the agawi or trumpeter of 
south America, and the royal or crowned craoci 
are particularly entitled to attention. The storks 
are placed in the forty-third case. In the neit 
case are the open- beaks, the tantali and thejabinu. 
The forty-fifth case is occupied by the spoon*l>illfy 
the rails, the jacanas, the screamers, the wster* 
fowls, sea partridges, and flamingoes. The coots 
and the sultans in the forty-sixth case are re^ ' 
markable for the beauty of their plumage. In 
the same case is a rare bird known by the name 
of the scabbard beak. The lower part of the case 
is occupied by flamingoes. The next three cas^ 
are iilled with colymbi, guillemots, the alca trit^ 
tatella and penguins. The fiftieth and fifly-first 
cases contain the tempest birds, the stormy petre)» 
gulls, sea-mews, sea- swallows, and cut-wateis. 
A large bird is called the Cape sheep on account 
of its size, colour, and gregarious habits. In the 
fifty-second and fifty-third cases are the pelicans, 
the cormorants, the frigate birds whose wings 
measure from ten to twelve feet, and the tropiC 
birds, called also straw tails on account of the two 
long beardless feathers in their tail. The fear 



MUSEE d'hISTOIRE NATURELLE. 6i I 

cases which termiDate the gallery are filled with 
the numerous family of swaus, geese, ducks and 
the mergus. The most remarkable are the black 
swan of New Holland, a black necked swan from 
the Brazils, the bernacle goose, the Egyptian goose, 
the cyder duck> the musk duck, the Carolina duck, 
and the fan water fowl from China. Here termi- 
nlates the collection of birds, which for elegance, 
richness, variety of forms, and brilliancy of colours 
equals all that the imagination can conceive as 
beautiful. The centre of the gallery is occupied 
by a set of cases in which the animals without 
vertebrae are arranged. We will notice them after 
we have seen the collection of reptiles and fishes 
which are on the first floor. On the walls, of 
the staircase, which leads to the two rooms below, 
are expanded the skins of large serpents of the 
hca genus, the colours and scales of which are 
well preserved. 

Culiectioii of Reptiles. Reptiles do not arrest 
our alteiillon in an equal degree with birds^ eilher 
by tlieir elegance of ibrin or variety ofcoloi'.rs; 
most of these animals are of an unpleasant or re- 
pulsive shape; and the l)rilliant speckles, whieli 
einheiHshed many ol ihem whilst they were living, 
have completely iaded since their death. But the 
S!n.;ularily and variety of their foiins and their 
diliereiit properties, some fatal to life, and others 
capable oi" being rendered subservient to the wants 
ol man, give to the animals comprised in this ( ol- 
bctiun a liigh degree of interest. This collection 
of reptiles is unquestionably {he richest in the 
world. It consists of eighteen hundred individuals, 
belonging to more than five hundred species. Rep- 



Gr,2 MUSEUMS. 

tiles are divided into four orders, naimely chelonian* 
or tortoises J sauriansy which comprehend the cro' 
codile?, lizards, etc. j ophidians or serpents j and 
hatracians, to which the toads, the frogs, the sala- 
inaoders, etc. are referred. Of the first three orders 
there arc some too large to be placed in the clfes, 
and they have therefore been suspended from the 
ceiling or the wall. Among these should benoUced 
the leather .tortoise. or lute of the Mediterranean; 
the green tortoise; the caretta which fumbhesthe 
tortoise-shell employed in the arts; the great 
cmyd from Cayenne ; the soft tortoise of the MUe; 
the tesludo radiata ; the testudo fimbria ; the crth 
codile of the JNile; the crocodile with a slender 
muzzle; the gavial or long muzzled crocodile; the 
l)icarinated crocodile from India ; the pike nnuiled 
caiman ; the caiman with bony eyelids; the ouaran 
of the JNile ; the dragon of Cayenne ; the safe-guard 
of America; the iguana of South America; th6 
boas; the pithons; the rattle-snake; the yellow 
or spear-headed viper, and the lachesis of Cayenne. 
Round the room from left to right are land tor- 
toises, fresh-water tortoises, box tortoises, the soft 
tortoise of the Nile, the soft tortoise of America, 
the crocodiles, the lizards, the lacerta stellio^ the 
cordyla^ the agamea, the basilisks or long-tailed 
lizards, the dragons, the iguanas, the anolis, the 
geckos, the c.imeleons, the scinks, the slow worms, 
the bons, the pithons, the ringed snake, tlie French 
snake, the smooth snake, the dun snake, the Eacu- 
iapian snake, the ihiboca of India, the coachr 
whip, the iridescent snake, the long snouted snake, 
the hydras or water snake, the rattle snake, the 
spectacle snake, the common yiper, the home4 



hull frog, 



the toad of 
the crested 
guine sirea 

Collectio. 
nbout live 
than two 

species it generally possesses one preserved in 
spirits of wine. Tlie dried fish have been covered 
with a varnish, which has revived their colours. 
On the floor of the great room, among the quad- 
rupeds, is the basking shark {sqaalus maiimus). 
In taking the cases from left to right we meet with 
the laroprey, the shark, the dog-fish, the white 
shark, the hammer headed khark, the saw-lish, 
Xhi: long ray, the lorpcilo my. the torpedo will] 
livu spols, tlie tiiiirlilcd torpudo, llic torpedo ol 
Calviiui, the tlioin-liack, llic rough rov, thcpeailoF 
n.v, the vhim'ura or kin- of the herrings, the 
i-liiiii:ii-a of the Aiil^ircUt; seas, the slurgcon, ilic; 
J'oliiiled polvodoii, ihu sea porcupine, the monii- 
aish, liiu liic-hali, (lie ti-uiik-lish, the pipc-lish, 
mht 5. ;i-lioisc, tiic jn-gasus, the salmon, the lioul, 
Xhc sUKil, the ^raylins salmon, the piraya ofSould 
•~w\iiii;i ii.il, iht hciriiig, the sprat, the anchovy, ihi- 
\iii--lijlt of tho Ciirihbcc Islands, the Siihre-lish, 
.ha gi;;;intii: vastrca, ihc bony scaled pike, ihi- 
/loiyptLii, ihu common pike, tlio (lying lish, ih,. 
'"Onjiyii, die f;ar-pikc, the carp, the harbei, ih.- 
'''■•^iiiii, the iL-iidi, the -old IJsl. of China, ihe ™- 
'■"^-^ ^liychu.-, Ihulochf, liiL- aii!,blep^, the (au.IK^oi 



6l4 MUSEUMS. 

the cypriiii, the family of the siluroideet, the cod, 
the whiting, the hake, the burbot, the grenadier, 
the flounder, the turbot, the dab, the sole, the 
family of the discolobi, the eel, the gynmotus, 
the electrical gymnotus, the gionia, the cepedian 
gymnetrus, the garter fish, the blenny, the goby, 
the sea wolf» or sea cat, the periopthabni^ the«iii^ 
gones, the callionymi, the rainbow fish and other 
species of the labrus, the parrot fish, the family of 
the sparoideeB, the family of the perch, some of 
which are very curious^ the mackarel, the tannyf 
tlie sea crow, the stickle back, the pilot, the sword- 
fish, the dolphin, the sea-unicom, the chastodOD, 
the toxote, the polynemi, the fistulariay and the 
centrisci. 

Collection of articulated animals 'without verti' 
brof. This collection consists of about twenty- 
five thousand species, and is divided into five 
classes, namely the crustacean, the arachnidM^ the 
insects, the annelides, and the worms. On entering 
the gallery of the birds by the small staircase we 
must turn to the right to reach the saloon of the 
carnivorous quadrupeds. The crustaceous animals 
are placed vertically in the upper part of the cases 
which stand in the middle of the room. Thoie 
which were too large to enter the frames are placed 
in twenty-seven glazed boxes on the cornices of 
the cases which contain the carnivorous animalf. 
Among them are a series of lobsters, craw-fish, and 
crabs. The animals in the cases in the middle of 
the room are crabs of various species, scorpionii 
spiders, centipedes, beetles, cockchafers, eoU- 
vptera of innumerable species, earwigs, . codt- 
roaches, camel crickets, locusts, dragon flieSt com- 



MUSEE d'hISTOIRE NATURELLE. 6i5 

311 flies, bees, blue flies, butterflies, caterpUlars, 
k-worms, moths, lantern flies, bugs, plant-lice, 
iter-scorpions, gall insects, cochineal insects, 
ats, gad-flies, fleas, leeches, piscatoria^ the 
nily of the maldanece, and intestinal worms, 
long which are some taken from the human 
»dy, the horse, the sheep, and the human liver. 
Collection of Inarticulated animals without Per- 
brcB. This class comprehends . the shells, the 
hini and the polypi. The animals belonging to 
rtain shells are preserved in spirits of wine; 
ose of a large size, as also the naked moUuSca, 
e placed at the bottom of the third division of 
e chest of drawers, immediately after the collec- 
on of insects. The raollusca form two divisions. 
be first comprehends the univalves or those 
hose shell is formed of only one piece. The 
cond comprehends the bivalves or those whose 
lell consists of two pieces. There are aquatic 
id terrestrial species belonging to the first dlvi- 
ou, but all lliose of the second are aquatic, 
niongst those most entitled to notice are the 
uitilus, tlie ammonites, tlie beleninites, the cone, 
le olive, the cyprcea, the ovula, the music-shells, 
le Chinese parasol, the razor shell, the rising 
ins, the triclachna,, the ducal mantle, the sole, 
le bisliop's mantle, the saddle oyste-r, and the 
icks' bill. Besides the shells enumerated, the 
)ncbologist will find an almost infinite number 
[' others remarkable for their form or colours 
ext to the shells arc the funiciers, marine animals 
ithout heads, and not symmetrical. Then come 
le radia/id, including the star-fish, and the !Mc- 
iisa's he^uls. The echini or urchins have a cal- 



6l6 MUSEUMS. 

careous shell covered with Tong spines, and pierced 
with a great number of little holes. Of this col- 
lection, as well as that of the polypi^ the number 
of specimens is extremely great. Of the tubipores, 
madrepores, raillepores, corallines and sponges, 
the variety is very complete. 

Cabinet jof Comparative Anatomy. Fop this col- 
lection, incomparably the richest in existence, the 
Museum is indebted to the unwearied exertions 
of M. Cuvier, by whom it was arranged, and under 
whose direction most of the objects were pre- 
pared. The first room on the ground-floor con- 
tains the skeletons of the horse, the ass, the sebra, 
and the quaccha, also those of the American tapir, 
of the common hog, of the dicotyles, and a new 
species of tapir from the East Indies. In the next 
room are the skeletons of the male and female 
elephants from India, the African female elepbant, 
the hippopotamus, the rhinoceros from the Cape, 
the rhinoceros from Senegal, six other skeletons 
of the rhinoceros, that of a cameleopard more than 
fourteen feet high, and those of the bear, dog, 
wolf, lion, tyger, hyaena, panther, seal, and dol- 
phin. In the middle of the rooms are three whales 
from the Cape, supported by iron bars. On each 
side of the window, at the upper end of the room, 
we sec the head of a whale and that of a cachalot, 
each fourteen feet in length. An entire skeleton 
of the latter, more than sixty feet long, is seen in 
the adjoining court. To the left of this large room, 
and parallel with it are three others filled with 
skeletons of the ruminating quadrupeds. In the 
iirst are those of the ox, sheep, goat, and antelope; 
in the second, those of the stas tribe ; and in the 



MUSEE D*HIST01RE NATUKELLE. 617 

third, those of the dromedary, lama, camel and 
vicunna. In retracing our steps and crossing the 
room containing the lyhales, we enter another 
occupied by human skeletons of different ages and 
nations: among them we remark that of an Italian 
with one additional lumbar vertebra ; that of an 
ancient Egyptian prepared from a mummy; the 
skeleton of a Boschisman female, known as the 
Hottentot Venus, with a cast of her standing by 
that of the celebrated dwarf of Stanislaus king of 
Poland; and also a model in wax of the skeleton 
of a woman named Supiot, whose bones had be- 
come so'soft that they were ail distorted. A series 
of fuetuses shows the growth from the first month 
of conception to the birth. On the shelves we see 
human skulls from one day old to a hundred 
years. From the walls of the staircase leading to 
llic first floor arc suspended many heads of the 
lioisc, llie sI.il;, \.\\r (Ic)1j>1ii:j, llie iiij)j)opolaiiiu.'^ 
;uid several species oltiic ov Irilic. 'i lie lirst room 
.'d)Ove stairs is (ievnled lo a seiics oleiiLire heads ol 
veiLeljialed aiiiin;ils, a L;rcat mi in be r oi those ol the 
liiiniaii species, l">iiropear.s, 'I'arlars, (Jiitiese, Aew 
Zeahuiders, AeL,n-fH's, liottcntols, and of" several 
American nations; a.li I iMMnoni-vCVS, an)ong \vliicii 
IS an old and a voiinj ouranL; niiLaii''': a considei" 
able nnmber oI the carnivorons animals, amon-.,^ 
v\ hich arc several sjx'cies oi llie seal- clepliaiils anJ 
rhinoceros' h(>a(ls; three canieleopards, and a ^ica: 
nnmber olbnl('ah>cs. ?>earthem istheskuli, loi:;. 
Ill an I'.L^vptian toiid>, of the /^rv c^y .-.v, which \\.i 
an ob|ect (d worship. 'J lie second loom on li. 
sai7ie lloor i:ontains on ihe iii;lit, In^ads ol bnd,-^ 
jishcs, and reptiles. 'I iie other side, as v\ ell as i;h!> 



6l8 MUSEUMS. 

cases in the middle, contain separate bones of the 
head and the foot, classed so that we see the similar 
bones of all the animals together. There are simi- 
lar series of all the large bones, and of the Tertebre 
in the two adjoining rooms. - In the third room sre 
the skeletons of the small quadrupeds. Above the 
cases are afHxed to the wall, the horns of the mau- 
nantia, and on both tables are methodically arrang- 
ed- a complete series of teeth from man to the horse. 
In the fourth room we see the skeletons of Irfrds. 
Those which most deserve our attention are the 
African and American ostriches, the Indian casso- 
wary ; the emu of New Holland -, the skeleton of an 
ibis, taken out of the tomb of a mummy, and the 
skeletons of the humming birdsi The last two cases 
contain the tortoises, amongst which is a very large 
specimen of the sea, and also one of the Indian land 
tortoise, the largest known at this day. The series 
of teeth, beginning with those of the hone and 
terminating with those of fishes, is here continued 
in small boxes placed on the tables. Above the 
cases wc see the skeletons of four large crocodiles, 
and near one, bracelets which were found in the 
stomach of the animal, and which must have be- 
longed to an Indian woman. The skeletons of the 
reptiles, such as lizards, serpents, toads, frogs, and 
salamanders, and a great number of species offish, 
occupy the cases in the fifth room. On the top of 
the frout cases is the skeleton of a boa eonatridor 
fifteen feet long, brought from Java, those of a 
shark and of a sword-fish from the Mediterranean, 
and on each side a scries of snouts of the saw-fish, 
and jaws of several species of sharks, the ray, etc. 
On the tables in this room are the dried larynx, 



MUSEE d'hISTOIRE NATURELLE. 619 

ind hyoid bones of quadrupeds. The sixth room is 
levoted to myology. In the centre is a cast of the 
lumanbody deprived of the skin, and on which the 
auscles are painted of the natural colour.' The 
:ases on one side display small flayed figures in wax 
>f human arms and legs. On the other are two 
.mall statues of horses,' and the limbs of many 
[uadrupeds, and in the remaining cases the dis- 
ected muscles of several animals preserved in 
ipirits. The seventh room contains the organs of 
lensation. The larynx and trachea of birds are 
lisp seen on the tables of this room. The cases 
;ontain flaggons in which are preserved in spirits 
1 series of brains and eyes ; also the bones of the 
sar of all animals from man to the reptiles and 
ishes. We also see here well prepared specimens 
)f skins, furs, feathers, scales, nails and hoofs j 
3thers of the tongue, nostrils, and difTerent pre- 
,)aratJoiis of the nervous system • and a few heads 
Df'savnges wltli lliclr tatooed skin dried on ihein. 
-^reparations of tlie viscera in general, but more 
3artlculaily those lielongiui; to tiie function of di- 
gestion are placed in the eighth room. In one of 
he two large ghiss frames is a model in wax of a 
diild twtlve \(\u\s old, vvitii the breast and abdo- 
nen laid open to show the relative situation of the 
/iscera and of the intestines, and in the other the 
Hiatomy of the hen, exhibiting the several periods 
.)f tin; formation oi the ecfil as well as the internal 
)rgans of th(! fowl. The ninth room is devoted to 
he organs olciicuhition, and those of the different 
lecretions. ft contains a seiics of hearts of mam 
nalia, reptiles and fishes, some injected prepaia- 
ions, a great nntnl)er of dissedcl tongues auH 



620 MUSEUMS. 

larynxes ; the glands belonging to several parts of 
the body, swimming bladders, the organs of gene- 
ration, and some very delicate preparations of 
foetuses belonging to viviparous and oviparous 
animals. On tlie table there are injected and dried 
viscera. The tenth and last room contains a series 
of monstrosities and foetuses of different ages; pre- 
parations of different orders of mollusca, artica- 
lated animals and zoophytes, and preparations of 
shell-fish in wax. The preparations in January 
1823 amounted to eleven thousand four hundred 
and eighty-six. 

Library. The library occupies the last room of 
the building. It is composed of works uponnator 
ral history. Most of the printed works are to be 
met with in every public library, but the manu- 
scripts, accompanied witli original designs, and the 
magnificent paintings upon vellum form an un- 
rivalled collection. The number of volumes is 
about ten thousand. The library is adorned will^ 
a statue of Buffon, by Pajou, bearing this inscrip- 
lion: 

JVIajESTATI nature par IKGENIUM. 

Tlic Cabinet of Natural History is open to the 
public every Tuesday and Friday, fron^ three 
o'clock until six in the summer, and from three 
until dark in the winter. The gates of the Mena- 
gerie are open every day from eleven o'clock till 
six in the summer, and from eleven to three in ihe 
winter. Strangers may visit the cabinet of natural 
liistory and the library on Mondays, Wednesdays 
andSiiturdays,uponproducingtheirpassports. The 
garden is open daily. The library is open three 
times a week to students and artists. 



MusEE d*artillerie; 621 

Cabinets de Mineralogie^ 

See pages a5a, 53o, and 5g8. 



Cabinet d'Anatontie^ 

See pages 5i4 and 616. 



Musee des Mohumens Frangaisj 

Rue des Petits Augustins. 
This Museum no longer exists. It was formed 
during the revolution by M. Alexander Lenoir, in 
pursuance of a decree bf the National Gdnvention, 
and consisted of the monuments from St. Denis 
and other churches arranged in the order of cen- 
turies. By a royal decree of April 24th, 1816, it 
was closed, and the monuments have since been 
placed in their original stations, or in situations 
adapted to llieir nature and object. Tlie only re 
niains are the front of llie chateau d'Anet, that o( 
the cliateau de Gaillon, etc. whicli are worth a 
visit. The Imlidings were originally those of the 
convent des Petits Augustins, and are now con- 
verted into the Ecole des Beaux Arts. 



Mitscc iV Ariillerie. 

This Museum, establislied in the ancient convent 
of the Jacobins, in the rue St. Dominique, was ori 
ginally formed of arms irom the Garde Meuble (U 
la Couronne, the chateau de Chantilly, and olhei 
extensive armories. It contained many thousand' 
muskets, saljres, swords, poniards, maces, etc. of al' 
ages and countries. Among the most rare objects 



622 MUSEUMS. 

were suits of armour of several of the kings of 
FraDce ^ some suits of female armour, among others 
that of the Maid of Orleans ; and a small prayer-book 
which contained a pistol in the interior. Daring 
the late general war, the treasore of the Bfuflemii 
was greatly augmented by the spoils of tbe enemy. 

In i8i4) ^6 Museum was much diminished by 
the removal of arms claimed by the allied powers. 
During the Hundred Days it was re-established ; 
but, in i8i5, according to Dulaure, the Prussiaiis 
carried off five hundred and eighty chests of anqs. 

The remains of this Museum are curious. Al- 
though several additions have been made to it the 
collection is now comparatively smttU, and it ii 
extremely difficult to obtain admission. 



Conservatoire Rojal des Arts et 

Metiers, 

JYo» ao8, rue Su Martin. 
M. Gregoire, bishop of Blois, a member of the 
National Convention, was the first who suggested 
the idea of forming a national repository of ma* 
chines, models, drawings, etc. for the improre- 
ment of machinery and implements connected with 
manufactures, agriculture, and other branches of 
industry. The formation of this establishment 
was ordained by a Conventional decree of the igth 
Vendemiaire, An III (October loth, 1794), and a 
committee, of which M. Gregoire was president, 
was appointed to carry it into execution^ but it 
assumed little importance till 179B. 
^ There previously existed in Paris three reposi- 
tories of machines. At the Louvre were tn 



ATOIRE DES ARTS ET METIERS. 628 

ajot d^Ozembray presented to the Aca- 

lie Sciences, and which had been consi- 

jgmented by that learned body. At the 

: Mortagne, rue de Charonne, were five 

machines, bequeathed to the govern- 

1782, by the celebrated Yaucanson. An- 

epository was in the rue de TUniversitc, 
/ntained a numerous collection of agricnl- 
implements of all countries. These ttire6 
tories were formed into. one by a decree of 
)uncil of Five Hundred^ dated the 17th Flo- 
^n VI ( May 4» 1798), and established in the 
ngs of the ancient abbey of St. Martin des 
ips. Various changes were afterwards ef- 
Lin this establishment. In 1810, a gratuitOQS 
*1 was formed to afford instruction in draw- 
le figure, ornament, and structure of ma- 
s^ in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, de- 
ive gcograpliv, ihc application of these va- 

branches ol thi: inatheniatics to timber and 
-cutting, and the calciualion of machines, 
law of the i7t]i ^ cndcmiaire, An MI (Oc- 

8, i7C)8j, all persons to wliom patents were 
ed were Ijoiind to deposit at the Conserva- 

des Arts et Metiers their original patents, 
her with the description, plans, designs, and 
ds, relating thereto; and the Conservatoire 
authorised to iiave them printed, engraved 
published. 

1817, the I'cposltory was completely reor- 
'.ed, and a Council of Amelioration, consist- 
)f live members, was established. By a royal 
lance, dated November q5, 1819, three courses 
jctures were founded, two of which relate to 



i>2\ MUSEUMS. 

mechanics and ciicmistry applied to the arts, and 
I lie third to inuniiracturing processes. 

The Conservatoire is divided into two parts: llie 
public and the private part. Of the public part, 
the ibllowing arc the principal rooms: 

1 . A vestibule, formerly the church of the Priory, 
contains the most bulky machines, such as Bra- 
mah^s iire-engincs, hydraulic machines, fire es- 
capes, Montgoliiei^s baloon, an enormous carriage 
for transporting columns and statues, agricultural 
implements, an English mangle, etc. 

1. A small room containing models of archi- 
tecture, viz. the Palais de Justice, the Place du 
Palais de Justice, tlie Ecolc dc Droit, a gothic 
building, and a church. 

5. A vaulted room, chiefly containing models. 
To the right is a collection of agricultural imple- 
ments, such asploughs, harrows, and thrashing ma- 
chines j to the left is a correct model of the famous 
machine of Marly, and other hydraulic machines j 
in the centre are models of windmills, wine, sugar, 
oil, and cider presses, steam engines, etc. 

The iirst and second rooms communicate with 
two large rooms containing looms, carding ma- 
chines and spinning jennies, among which are 
Vaucanson^s famous machines for spinning silk. 
These rooms conduct to the grand vcstihule, in 
which is a clock of a rare but not very elegant 
structure, which sets in motion an organ and has 
an armillary sphere on the'top. In this vestibule 
are busts oi Archimedes and Yaucauson ^ a group 
by Rutxhicl j one ofDedalusandlcarusj and one of 
Castor and Pollux. It affords a phenomenon in 
acoustics. A person close to the wall on one side. 



CONSERVATOIRE DES ARTS KT METIERS. 

way distinclly hear the whisper of another, pla» 
on the opposite side. A magnificent stair i 
(on which is a curious time-piece by Breguet^ 
leads to the large galleries, which are one hun- 
dred and seventy-two feet in length. 

In the first gallery on entering are numerous ar- 
chitectural models, machines used in foundries, 
models of vessels, steam boats, levers, sawing ma- 
chines, models of brick and tile kilns, potteries, 
lead-works, etc. on a reduced scale of exact propor- 
tions } at the extremity is another gallery, contain- 
ing stills, culinary utensils, chimneys, machines 
for preparing silk, wool, hemp and cotton. This 
gallery is separated from a similar one on the op- 
posite side by a small room containing various 
specimens of printing types, a turning machine 
made by Merklin for Louis XVI ; several objecls, 
in glass cases, turned by t!»e cclLl;ratcil lj;acau ; 
a small tabic ^villl a picUire in a vcrlical position, 
which, on regard iiii; a jiiirror, lornicrly placed on 
the circle at Ujc o])posilc siilc, pioducetl a corrccL 
ikcncss of I, on is W j two lari^c cnc^ravings ol" Ihc 
rajan and Anlonnu! columns alluimc- a rcpairc(i 
)oklng-t^Iass, \\ Iiicli had been orokeu in ioui 
icces j and a vcNeL iiijitalion oiHaphacTs ^Miig- 
dcn. pcrfecllv Iransparcnl, woven by Grcgoirc, 
'licli <leser\es tlie allcnlion of llic curious. In 
1 adjoining gallery arc dilfcrent weaving ma- 
nes. Among various curious locks is llic model 
1 door vvilli mechanism which detains the roh- 
and alarms the itdiahilants by snapping a pis- 
()n the side olthis and the opposite gallcrv 
^ nnples ol silk, wool, cotton, iicmp, lace, 

I'AKT I. 5") 



626 MUSEUMS. 

embroidery, velvels, ribands, stained paper, hard- 
ware, etc. 

The private collection is contained in seven spa- 
cious apartments, and comprises some indifTerent 
specimens of English manufactures, notwithstand- 
ing which no French article is exhibited near them. 

The room in which they are deposited is never 
shown except the visitor asks for the talU d$s 
echantillons Anglais, and even then he is not al- 
lowed to enter unless he represents himself to be 
a manufacturer. Among the philosophical and 
astronomical instruments is a large machine made 
in England, and obtained by General Andreossy 
in i8oQ« As a proof of its perfection, whenever 
the French Board of Longitude desire an instru- 
ment made with great precision, it is first brought 
to this establishment to have divisions drawn on 
it by this machine. Matrices and different instni- 
ments used in type foundries, stereotype plates, 
moulds for making the paper of the once famous 
assignats, dyes for coining, etc. are also to be 
found here. 

Upon the whole, the disposition of this esta- 
blishment is more remarkable than the ol^ects it 
contains. Nearly all the machines are old inven- 
tions, and a stranger would search in vain for any 
newly invented machine for which a patent lua 
been granted, as they are all either models or 
drawings, and placed in a room to which admi^ 
sion cannot be obtained. 

No patent is granted for a longer period than 
fifteen years, but if at the expiration of that time 
the patentee desires a renewal of his patent,! 



CONSERVATOIRE DES ARTS ET Ml^TIERS. 69.7 

proportionate sum is demanded for the privilege. 
When a person wishes to become acquainted with 
the inventions whose patents have expired, he 
applies to the Director of the Repository, who 
admits him to see the model or a design of the 
machine in the library of the establishment. This 
library, consisting principally of the archives, and 
works relating to the arts and sciences connected 
with the establishment, is only public for such 
purposes, and strangers can with difficulty gain 
admission. 

Pupils are admitted to the school by the autho- 
rity of the Minister of the Interior, at the request 
of the Prefects of the departments or the twelve 
Mayors of Paris. Connected with this establish- 
ment are likewise two royal schools of arts and 
trades established at Chalons and Angers, but 
which are to be removed to Toulouse. T^/eir spe- 
cial object is the education of youth who will join 
a practical knowledge of the mechanical arts with 
enlightened theoretical instruction. The pupils, 
to the number of five hundred, are nominated by 
the king, and supported either wholly or in part 
at the expense of the state. Boarders, however, 
are admitted. 

Few museums are more interesting, instructive, 
or vakiable than this repository. It is a collection 
peculiar to the metropolis of France, and cannot 
fail of producing the most benehclal effects. Un- 
doubtedly it has diffused an extensive knowledge 
of mechanics and a skilful adaptation of the sim- 
plest Instruments to the most complicated pur- 
poses, but the peculiar character of the nation 
has confined this to trifling objects, wlille lliose 



628 MUSEUMS. 

higher hranches of the arts, which arc connected 
with the support and comfort of human life, have 
been comparatively neglected. 

The lectures are delivered at this institution as 
follows : viz. Mechanics, Wednesdays and Satur- 
days, at two o'clock 3 Chemistry, Mondays and 
Thursdays, same hour; Manufacturing Processes, 
Tuesdays and Fridays, same hour. 

The public rooms are open on Thursdays and 
Sundays from ten o'clock till four. Strangers may 
obtain admittance every day from twelve till four. 
Admittance to the private rooms may be obtained 
by addressing a letter of application to M. Ghris- 
tianUy Directeur du Conservatoire des Arts et ATff- 
tiers. 

A catalogue of the contents of both diTisions 
may be bought of the porter. 



Cabinet de Physique et de Chimie^ 

JV,o. 1 3, rue de VArhalete, 

This Cabinet is a dependence of the Ecole de 
Pharmacie. 



THEATRES. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THEATRES, PUBLIC GARDENS, AMUSBT- 

MEINTS, etc. 

The drama in France and England is coeval, 
and tooTc its rise in both countries from the mys- 
teries or sacred dramas, which were represented 
by pilgrims returned from Judea. In Paris a com- 
pany was formed, which took the name of Con^ 
freres de la Passion^ who, for a long period, per- 
formed with success. With sacred subjects were 
associated indecent gestures . and licentious allu- 
sions of tlie most revolting description. The inte- 
rest ins[)iri'fl liy llioiiovellv ofllic rcprcscnlalions 
Li;i\cii by liic C\;////. /t v '/;■ iu J\!.:si<:ii liavnii^" siih 
sided, lliev iinil( d wiln ;i now Iroop called V.'/z/c.'/.-.v 
::'iu:; iioi/ct, wlioacled ;:ireis eiilix one*! -wilIi soti^s. 
AiioiiL llie \(>ar i.ijv, several Ualiaii com paiiie.. 
eaiiH." to I'. ins, hul li > ir ]'epre<-"eiUal!ons cxcitin; 
I'ie |eaIoiis\ olllie Co::!'/( r '■'<■ <.\: la PcI'slou, wliosc: 
j)ii\ iIeL;t's wei'e adv, ;i\s ii!.;!)! v respected !)v11h'/'(// 
/ tiiiiil ^ llic'ii' coiiliiiuar.ee \, as noL of long diiralioii 
^■■liorll^■ allerwards liie i'leiu ii slai:e l)e'j,"an lo as 
Mime a de:;rre of mip.orlaiiec iL iiad never Ixdore 
allalned. ^daucls ltaii:iJi tiai^e'ivoi Soj^/:i>::i .''• 
\,;is Lransl.tled mlo i'lc-tndi. aiid, under llenr\ 1\ . 
.\ U^xander Hardy, a Cer!!;--' dramalie writer, mad- 
hiS app('a..iiac (-avdiii;.! IIu-kIkii caused l\,t 
'i'lealre lo lie elected in Ids lud. •'■<■, iiivvl»i<l! \\r\t 



63o THEATRES. ^ 

performed tragedies, tragi- comedies, or heroic co- 
medies, composed by the Cardinal with the assis- 
tance of Gorneille, Kotrou, CoUetet, and others. 
The French stage is deeply indebted to Rotrou, and 
more particularly to Comeille, for the redemption 
of tragedy from a state of barbarism, and its ad- 
vancement to a high pitch of perfection. It was, 
however, long before this period that the inamortai 
Shakspeare rose, and produced those dramas which 
gave to the English stage a character from which 
it has never departed. 

About the year i65o, some young men, at the 
head of whom was Moli^re, undertook to form a 
company of itinerant actors, and erected a theatre, 
which they called Theatre Illustre. In i658, they 
performed before Louis XIY, who, being satisfiad 
with the representation, gave them a gaUeiyin 
the Hdtel du Petit Bourbon for a theatre. In 
i56o, they removed to the Th^&tre du Palais Royal, 
built by Cardinal Richelieu, and assumed the title 
of troupe royale. Moliere first introduced real 
characteristic comedy, and although in the com- 
position of some pieces be pays a tribute to the 
bad taste of the age in which he lived, in Us 
Femmes Sav antes, le Tartuffe, I'Avare, and l9 Mi" 
santrope, he far surpasses every dramatic writer 
that preceded or has succeeded him. Till the 
reign of Louis XIV no women appeared on the 
stage, but female characters were performed by 
men in female attire. Under the reigns of Louis 
XV and Louis XVI, the number of theatres in 
Paris was considerably augmented, and the pro- 
ductions of Voltaire shed redoubled lustre on the 
French stage. The privileges of the French co- 



THEATRES. 63 1 

medians and the Opera being abolished at the 
revolution, a great number of petty theatres were 
established in Paris. Bonaparte formed the pro- 
ject of reducing them, and in 1807 issued a decree 
by which all the theatres in Paris (amounting to 
thirty) were suppressed, except eight. Since the 
restoration several new ones have been opened. 
There are now in Paris five large theatres, thirteen 
of the second and third order, eleven cafes with 
evening entertainments, and sixty exhibitions of 
curiosities. It is calculated that the inhabitants 
of Paris expend six millions of francs a year at 
theatres and exhibitions ; ai^ that out of a popu- 
lation of seven hundred thousand souls ten thou- 
sand at least, upon an average, pass the evening 
at the theatres. 

It is very remarkable that the French, although 
considered ihc gayest, most volatile and most fri- 
volous people ill Europe, are extremely exact in 
preserving inlliedrania what are called the unities, 
whicli thevsay is an imitation of tlie Greeks. The 
Greek tragedy, however, was evidently a tucIo- 
drama^ and more like a serious opera than a 
French tragedy. 1 he unity of place was not al 
ways ohservcd, and il the scenery remained the 
same, it was hccause the stage was in the open 
air, and on so vast a scale as always to present a 
pleasing variety. The wretched imitations of Shak- 
speare, hy Ducis, met with great success on the 
French stage; and it is likely that a more ijolcl 
and original stvle will in future l)e adopted hy the 
French dramatic authors. It is to he ohservcd 
that the principal eaily tragic writers of France 
«'on lined ihemselves lo ifu; narrow cucle ol (iicck 



()32 THEATRES. 

and Roman history. Du Belloy, in his Siege of 
Calaisy and Voltaire, in some of his la Iter tragedies, 
broke through this custom; and otlier authors 
have followed their example with success. The 
Templiers, by Raynouard, is a fine tragedy; and 
Louis IX and the Sicilian Vespers have been suc- 
cessful. Still, however, an Englishman will find it 
rather diHicult to relish long declamatory speeches 
in rhyme, even in the best French tragedies, or 
delivered by the best actors; especially when there 
is no variety of scenery, little brilliancy of cos- 
tume, and so little of that bustle and action, to 
which he has been accustomed at the theatres of 
his own country. Scott, who says the French are 
certainly a dramatic people, greatly admires the 
French theatres because there is no half-price at 
them, and because they are perfectly free from 
the intrusion, or, at least, from the disgusting 
conduct of the women of the town. Nothing can ■ 
excel the regularity which prevails at the theatres 
of Paris. Sentinels guard all the avenues, and 
preserve order in the interior. The visitors who 
await the opening of the doors are regularly ar- 
ranged in iilcs of two or three h breast ; and al- 
though the crowd probably consists of several hun- 
dreds, no pressure or inconvenience is felt, and 
every person is gently and quietly admitted in hb 
turn.^ At leaving the theatre not the smallest 
confusion or uproar takes place. No person is 
permitted to call his carriage until he is actually 
waiting for it at the door ; and, should not the 

* For some lime previous to the opening of tbc 
doors, a train is generally formed hy a multitude of in- 
iligont persons; who resign their places for a small fee. 



THEATRES. 

/ner step into it in an instant, it is 



y the police and makes way for ai 

his arrangement the companv is c a 

ery short space of lime. *] ; ae oi J 

he theatres in France by a 1 e, or ci oi 

amps suspended in the centre, mo , per , 

riore advant^^geous for stage e ct, 

ively and brilliant than the I plan )ii 

handeliers between the boxes, and i 

bowing off the company to so much s 

^he simple mode of announcing the eve J^s x.^- 

ertainment, totally divested of all ad ;i s 

lid, and resting alone on the merit of tne »v. 

orms a pleasing and striking contrast to the pi 

ng exertions resorted to by the managers of ; 

^ondon bouses. In Paris, likewise, the temples of 

he drama are never violated by the presence of 

lorses, elephants, buffoons, or pantomimes. For- 

ncrl^^ after the curtain had fallen, a favorite actor 

\ as SLimmonctl on die stage to receive the ap- 

)!au.scs of liis admirers- but lie is now strictly 

)roliihiLed to answer llie summons. 

In the theatres of Paris, except at the Ambign 
^omlque, and tlic Gaiele, females are not allowed 
o enter the I'lt. 

The interests of dramatic authors in France are 
)etler secuied than \n England. They participate, 
luring lile, In the profits of their works, in every 
heatre ni the jvini^dom, and the benelit descends 
o their heus for ten years after their decease. 

he remuneration at a Itoyal Theatre is, for a 
(iece o( thiee or live acts, one-twelfth of two 
hiicls of the gioss receipts, and for a piece of on< 
ct, one twenty- fourth. 



634 THEATRES. 

TOTAL RECEIPTS OF THE THEATRES IN PA&I0 VOK ifeo.^ 

Academie Royale de Musique 33o,Qga 

Balls \ a5^i6 

Concerts « l6l.5S{ 

fir. 3^1^ 

Thdfttre Fraocais h fip^j^ 

— Opera Comiqae 7(8^369 

Opera Italien §^3p 

Odc'on S37^ 

Vaadeville 4tt8^75i 

Gymnase ao,5i9 

Varidtes 539,079 

Gaicte... 3S3,5l5 

Ambign Comique , . . • dfj^JSS% 

f Porte St. Martin 5434o8 

' Cirque Olympique 956^9 

fir. 5,076,539 

TOTAL RECEIPTS OF THE PUBLIC GARDBffS FOB l8aO. 

Garden of Tivoli 97f >9i 

Beaujon * 90, 107 

Delta ■ §1,707 

— — — Marbeuf 909146 

fr. 939,154 

The total receipts of all the theatres of Paris are 
not more than those of Covent Garden and Dnuj 
Lane alone | and yet the latter are open only ei|^l 
months, whereas the theatres of Paris are open 
all the year. 

A custom prevails in France of making all the 
theatres and places of amusement pay a tenth of 
their receipts to the poor. The superintendence 

* No statement of a later date has been published. 



THEATRE FRANGAIS. 635 

bie five principal theatres of Paris {theatres 
ux) forms a branch of the attributions of the 
ster of the king's household, and has its seat 
o. 5, rue Bergere. Sums are annually allowed 
ach theatre by the king. At the Intendance 
jwise the scenes for the French and Italian 
pera houses are painted, and preparations are 
ade for all the ceremonies of the court. The 
;iges of the king's chapel reside at the Intendance^ 
/here they receive a liberal edujcation at his ma- 
jesty's expense. It is also the seat of the Ecoh 
Jioyale de Musique et de Declamation* Appli- 
cations are made to Monsieur Vintendant or Mon- 
sieur le Secretaire GSneral de Vlntendance. 



ROYAL THEATRES. 



Theatre Fvanqais ;\ 

iVo. 6, rue de Richelieu. 

Tliis tJieatre is so called because it is consecrated 
to regular tragedy and comedy, and principally to 
the masterpieces of the chief dramatic writers of 
France. It is contiguous to the Palais Royal, and 
w^as begun by the duke of Orleans, in 1787, after 
the designs of Louis. The Theatre Francais is one 
hundred and hfty-six feet in length by one hun- 
dred and five in breadth, and its total height, to 
tlic summit of the terrace, is one hundred feet. It 

^ Sec pap:c 534. 

-}- The Theatre Francais and the Odeon arc the only 
tiicaucs in Paris where regular tragedy and comedy are 
performed. 



G36 ROYAL THEATRES. 

Is surrounded by a covered gallery partly skirted 
with shops, from wliicli three entrances lead into 
liic vestibule. The principal front, towards the 
rue .dc Richelieu, presents a peristyle of eleven 
intercolumniations, formed by pillars of the Doric 
order; another front, partly facing the rue de 
Montpensier, and partly attached to the Palais 
Royal, displays a range of arcades, resting ou 
square pillars, and continued round the bnilding, 
thus forming the covered gallery. On both fronts 
is a range of Corinthian pilasters, with an en- 
tablature pierced by small windows ; thb mass is 
loaded with an attic, two other stories, and an 
immense roof terminated by a terrace. The vesti- 
bule is of an elliptical form, and the ceiling, which 
rests upon two rows of fluted Doric columns placed 
concentrically, i*-edorned with sculpture. In the 
centre is a line marble statue of Voltaire. A com- 
munication is formed between the vestibule and 
the lobbies by four staircases. The saloon, which 
is merely a passage, is adorned with busts of the 
great drai|iatic authors. In 1822, the interior of 
the Theatre Francais underwent a complete alter- 
ation and embellishment, under the direction of 
M. Fontaine. The form of the house is elliptical, 
and the ceiling represents the interior of an ellipr 
lical dom^ibierced with lunetta which serve for 
latticed bo3es. The arch of the proscenium is re- 
markably light and elegant 5 the curtain, repre- 
senting crimson velvet, adorned with gold fringe 
and tassels, is painted in the highest style. The 
king's box is hung with crimson velvet fringed 
with gold, and surmounted by the royal arms. 
The first and second tiers of boxes are supported 



range of Do 
eiling, desiroy 
'he ground of 



he rails, and 
'he fronts of th 
Formerly t!ii 
he dress of Fn; 
roru in the ti 
la demoiselle ( 
uced characte 
tagej but the] 
han the exclus 
ors and the li. 
if the tiger's ski 
crs, the Turk 
■raicli habit ol' l)io ,■ 
«//..-s. ltrcni:iin,af, 
ujiic of Iho I>M,i>lau SI 



ispoi 


Is ll 
hns. 


"- SP'^''' 


Jtu'i" 


to tlie 
net has 


midst of 
I laid his 


is l!iL-ati-u 
rtoiri: of 
jnLfoflh 


Isliglit, 
this lb. 
e iitrlon 


jalrii, ; 
iHcrs, a 


I'nc^*!., 


c disllii- 
decliled 


:|Mh 


; 


' ''■'"■ 


.-.■,MM 


.TalriK 


l.LaroM. 








,l,doi. 


nionri 


3S0, Car- 








-, ALir. 


i, Paradol, l.e 


clor^ 


Mr 

ol 1 


iiiAiloii 


i.i,. D„ 


riiL;' 


.ml ller- 

<:ty Willi 



638 . ROYAL THEATRES. 

joint interests. The rent of the Thd4tre Fran^ais 
is 60,000 francs a year. The duke of Orleans has 
also the three front hoxes of the first tier. 

Prices of admission. 



fr. s. 

First boxes 6 la 

Orchestra 6 13 

Balcony 6 la 

Second boxes (front). 6 la 

Boxes of first gallery. 6 la 

Second boxjss (side) . . 5 o 



fr. f. 

First gallery. 5 

Thircfboxei 3 6 

Boxes in ceiling . . • . • 3 6 

Pit... 2 I 

Second gallery i 16 

Amphitheatre i 16 



The doors are opened at six o^clock, and ths 
performance begins at seven. The number of 
places is fifteen hundred and twenty- two. 



Thedtre Rojral de VOdeon^ or Second 
Theatre Frangais. 

Louis XYI haying given the palace of the Lux- 
embourg to his brother Monsieur, afterwards Louis 
XVUI, he resolved to construct a public theatre, 
to communicate with his palace, by a subterranean 
passage. Messrs. Dewailly and Peyre senior were 
appointed architects, and Monsieur laid the first 
stone in 1779. In March 1799, the Od^onfella 
prey to a destructive fire, which left nothing standi 
ing save the outer walls and the saloon. It was 
rebuilt in 1807, under the direction of Chaigrini 
and opened on the 1 5th of June 1808, by two- 
comic troops, the one French and the other Italian, 
who performed alternately. 

The exterior presents a detached pile of build- 
ing one hundred and sixty-eight feet in leagBtk^ 
one hundred and twelve in breadth, and one hid^- 



dred and Tour in 
ornamented with 
ftscended by nine 
tiuued at the sam 
ing, which preser 
covered arcades, 
number of windo 
receive light by 
attic. The build 
om amenta L joint 
fice are open to 
the saloon are ad 

On the aoth of 



Baraguey, who i 
various pans ad 

sign. The theat 

axis is lifty-siK feet, aad its minor forly-seven. 
It is ornamented with eight pilasters oftheConi' 
poaile order, which arc seen at tiie back of the 
projecting boxes, and four columns of the same 
order at llie proscenium. Between the [lilastcrs 
facing llic stage is the king's hox, the entablature 
of whicli is supported by four colossal carialides, 
and surmounted by the royal arms between two 
i-L'clining figures; the whole is richly gilt. The 
ceiling IS decorated with the figures of the twelve 
divinities, who are accompanied by arabesques, 
in wliich are medallions representing some event 
ir. their life, and beneath them are the twelve 
signs of the Zodiac. The curtain presents a con- 
tinuation of the arch iteclu rill decoration of tin- 



\]^0 llOYAL THEATRES^ 

liouse. The columns rest upon a platform as- 
cended by a grand flight of steps, and support a 
magnificent vault, beneath which is a fountain in 
the centre, and statues of Thalia and Melpomene 
on the sides. 

Upon its last restoration, every possible pre- 
caution was adopted to prevent the flames ex- 
tending from one part of the building to another 
in case of fire. No theatre in Paris affords a greater 
number of convenient outlets; besides the five 
streets which open into the semicircuhir area be- 
fore the principal front, there are two lateral streets 
and one behind, which facilitate the arrival and 
departure of carriages. Six of these streets bear 
the names of the masters of the French stage. The 
Odeon was the first Parisian theatre lighted by 
gas. The actors are united, in a society under a 
director. 

The principal performers are, David, Perrier, 
Delmence, Samson^ Thenard Duparay, Joanny, 
Eric-Bernard, and Lafargue, and Mesd. Georges, 
Georges cadette, Petit-Guerin, Milieu, Dutertre, etc. 

Prices of admission, 
fr. s. 



Stage boxes, ist and 

2nd row 5 o 

Balcony 5 o 

First latticed boxes . . 5 o 

Seals in the orchestra 5 o 

First row boxes 3 lo 

V\i boxrs 3 lo 

Second latticed boxes 3 lo 



fr. s. 

Orcbcstr;^ 3 lo 

Stage boxes, Sd row . a lo 

First gallery a io 

Second boxes a lo 

Boxes, 3d and 4th row i ig 

Second gallery T to 

Pit 1 IO 

Amphitheatre i o 



The doors open at six, and the performance be- 
^;ins at seven. The number of places is seventeen 
hundred and liftv-six. 



6/{\ ROYAL THEATRES. 

cornices and other ornaments, are painted deep 
blue, and enriched with gilding. The house is 
sixty-six feet from side to side, and the stage forty- 
two feet in width by eighty-two in depth. Tnc 
dome is divided into sixteen equal compftrlmenti, 
in eight of which are the Muses \* the others are 
occupied with arabesques. The first tier of boxes 
is ornamented with bas-reliefs upon a white ground. 
The three upper tiers represent carpets thrown 
over balconies, fastened with gold upon a blue 
ground. The interior of the boxes Is blue. Be- 
neath the stage is an open space thirty-two feet 
deep, for the play of machinery; the wall between 
the house and the stage rises a hove the roof. In 
case of fire it can be entirely closed by a sheet of 
iron tissue, and ventilators can be opened to carry 
the flames in any direction. There are also reser- 
voirs of water under the roof. The various parts of 
the house arc aired by flues, and the improyement 
of lighting it by gas instead of oil, produces a very 
brilliant and pleasing effect. The Opera, in this 
country, being under the direction of the govern- 
ment, is conducted on the most liberal and splendid 
scale, less regard being paid to its expense than to 
its perfection ; and in means of support, it enjoys a 
decided advantage, since all the other theatres and 
public places of amusement contribute to maintain 
this splendour by a tax on their gross receipts. 

The scenes are extremely well painted, and the 
machinery is admirable, The pnncijpal actors are 
JVourrit, Derivis, Frovot, and Dabadie ; and Mes- 
damesDabadle, Branchu, Albert, and Grassari.— 
Dancers: Paul, Ferdinand, Anatole, Montjoie j 
Mesd. Anatole, Woblet, and Brocard. Perform- 
ances on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. 

Prices of admission. 

''^ In one pannrl are two Muses. 



prise. Upon tln^'r'cliirn of Louis XVIII, Madame 
Catalatil i>1j(aine.i psrmissLonlo eslablisll an Italian 
troop ill iheTlieAlie FavarL. biit lindinjj it an un- 
pi'olilablesprciilalion, she relinquished it. Shortly 
aflerwards, ihc management ol the llalian Opera 
was nimewed lo that of llic Acadcmie Rnyale de 
MusiqiiK, and the company removed to ihcThcSlre 
Loiivoia; from wlieiico ihey returned in November 
.o_r . _ .1. . r..i .». r. rt.which had been altered 



Tliislhealrcwa< 
of Ilcurlicr, Tor i 
consequence of it 
seldom occupied, < 
who had been dr 
fire or ollicrcause 



rangcn 



If their 

erected in 7783, after the designs 
n Italian Opera Hotise ^ but, in 
inconvenient distribution, was 
xcepl temporarily by companies 
veil from their own theatres by 
, till iS'25, when its interior ar- 
npletely changed, under thedi- 



n of Messrs. Hiltorfi andLecointe: and it 



646 ROYAL THEATRES. 

now one of the mosl commodious and elegant 
houses in the capital. A portico, supported by six 
cokimos of the Ionic order, ornaments the fumade. 
This porlico has been enclosed by frame'work of a 
bronze colour, with windows between the co- 
lumns, for the purpose of forming a covert gallery 
below, and augmenting the size oithe saloou above. 

The vestibuFe is ornamented with four detached 
and twelve three-quarter columns, and four beau- 
tiful antique masks. On the right and left are 
staircases leading to the boxes, and m the angles 
are two flightsof stairs communicating with the pit. 
The stairs and lobbies are wide and commodious. 

The interior of the house is of a circular fonn, 
and contains four rows of boxes. The ceiling is 
supported by consoles, and is divided into twelve 
coinpartinents, separated by Thyrsae in bronze gilt. 
In the compartments are figures of Apollo, uer- 
cury, Pan, Orpheus, Linus, Philamon, Amphion, 
Therambus, Arion, Terpander, Enonua and Dbmo- 
docus. The proscenium is ornamented with three 
pictures, representing Apollo in the midat of the 
shepherds of Thessaly j Mercury lulling to sleep, by 
the sound of his flute, Argus, the keeper of the 
beautiful lo ; and Pan pursuing the nymph Syrinx, 
and discovering by her metamorphosis into reeds 
the origin of the seven-piped flute, of which he was 
the inventor. The fronts of the boxes are deco- 
rated with tripods, griffins, garlands, lyres, and 
birds j and the first row presents, in compart- 
ments, the INine Muses employed in instructing 
mortals. The colour of the house is green j the 
architectural ornaments yellow, and the other de- 
corations, white, red, and gold. The st^ge boxes 
arc liung with crimson velvet, enriched with gold 
eml)roidery and fringe. The curtain is green, or* 
u a men ted with a rich embroidered border, and 
forms three divisions. In the central division is « 
winged figure representing the genius of France. 



Among tlic perloriners wlio lii;ure upon ttiese 
boards from lime lo lime ai-c Messrs. Barllll, Don- 
zdii, Bordogni.U'vasaeur. ProretU.P.'llenriiil.Zuc- 
cliclll, etc. ; Mcsilames Malnvlelile Fodor. Pasta, 
Cinli. Mombolll. Snnla};. Amigu, Demeri, Rossi, etc. 
Prices of ad mission. 

rr. s. fr. 9. 

BalemiT lo o TMrd hoicsifrout).., 6 O 

FirsLbnsfs I., o Tl.ir(lboxM{»iili;s)... 5 o 

Si-coml hoxri.fronl). lo o Foii.tli Ik>ics & o 

Otchcsiri, , lo Pii 3 II 

ItaiEiioirrs 7 10 Ampliilhcilie of llic 

Scomi biisc* isilW. 710 rmirtli boxes i 

Tlic dooii o]>cii al ■;. and iliepcrfoiiiiaDcc begins at S. 

Opera Cnmique, ov Thcdtm Fejdeau. 

Frencli Cnmit: Operas were performed at Paris 
as early as iGda, but it wa5 not till 171 5 that llie 



64B ROYAL THEATRES. 

troop assumed any importance. Their success ex- 
citecT the jealousy of the French comedians, who 
obtained iheir suppression in 1718. They after- 
wards re-appeared and performed at the Hdtel de 
Bourgogne, lill 1780, wnen they removed to the 
Theatre Pavart. In 1801 they quitted this theatre 
and united with the company of the rue Feydeau, 
where they have since remained^ in pursuance of 
the new dramatic organization. 

This theatre was built after the designs of 
Messrs. Legrand and Molinos, upon part of the 
garden of the convent of the Filles de St. Thomas. 
Being enclosed on all sides by private houses, its 
front, which is presented obliquely, can scarcely 
be seen. Its form is a quadrdateral figure pro- 
longed in front by a semicircle described from the 
centre of the house. It is one hundred and thirty- 
eight feet in length by eighty -four in breadth. 
Three spacious open arches in the basement allow 
carriages to enter. Eight cariatides form the deco- 
ration of the first story. Between the cariatides 
are large arched windows which give light to the 
saloon. The front, which is fifty-six feet in height, 
is crowned by an entalilalure, the frieze of which 
is ornamented with roses. The entire front is 
rusticated. The roof of the building, resting on a 
gable, is seen in the back ground. To obtain a 
covered vestibule and other dependencies, such as 
a box lobby, a guard-room, etc., it was necessary 
to form the theatre at the first floor. By this 
means it has the advantage of a public passage 
under the house, with a cross passage uuder the 
stage, which serves as a substitute for the porticoes 
so necessary in buildings of this description. This 
passage forms a communication from the rue 
Feydeau to the rue des Colonnes, the rue des 
Filles St. Thomas, and the rue Vivienne. It is ob- 
scure in the day, hut in the evening is rendered 
agreeable by the light of the shops with which it 



i 



\ 



♦549 
is skirtcfl. The fo f cir- 

cular. Behind n ' \f^e 

twenty-eight Gorin a 

entablature and a sec< l^a \r< 
gallery is seen a range 'ty j c ns oi' 

the Composite order^ i } u *ntabk- 

lure and a third gallery; ana i vre latter, 

opposite the stage, a range of small lun a boxes 
'} is contrived in the ceiling. Between the tirst range 
of columns are two tiers of boxes, and ih the inter- 
columniations of the second range appears a third. 
The archi vault of the proscenium is richly orna- 
mented with caissons and roses in gold; the re- 
mainder is painted in imitation of marble, as is 
the whole of the architecture of the house. The 
capitals of the columns are while enriched with 
gold. The interior of the boxes is blue. The ceil- 
ing represents an ample tent of white canvass orna- 
niciitcd with arabesques, cameos, masks, and giicl- 
iiiL^. The curtain is a rich blue drapery, with gold 
tassels and iVinge. 

INotliing was neglected in the construction ol' 
this theatre to render it sonorous. The amplu- 
iheatrical disposition of the boxes, tlie plain sur- 
face above the upper gallery, the construction oi" 
tlic ceiling with choice wood, and upon the same 
principle as a stringed instrument, and the vault- 
inir beneath the orchestra, which sends into the 
house; the linest notes, all contri]3nte to render this 
tht.ttre eminently favourable to music. 

The Shloon beini' situated above the vestibule 
parlakcs of the circular form of the front. It is 
decorated ^vilh busts of Gretry, Mehul, Dalvirac 
•md jN'icolo. The lustre is the linest in Paris. W itl; 
PA ire L V") 



65o MINOR THEATRES. 

but few exceptions the scenes are indiffereutly 
composed and executed. This is certainly one of 
the most agreeable theatres in Paris. 

The chief performers are MM. Buet, Ponchard, 
Gavaudan, Yizentini, Fereol, and Lemonnier } 
Mesd. Lemonnier, Boulanger, Rigaut, and Pradher. 

Prices of admission. 



fr. s. 

First boxes 6 12 

Boxes, ground-floor . . 6 12 
Fireboxes with lattice 6 la 
Orchestra and Balcony 6 12 

First gallery 4 'O 

Second boxes 4 '^ 

The doors open at six, and the performance be- 
gius at seven. The number of places is seventeen 
hundred and twenty. 



fr. 8. 

Third boxes 3 12 

Second gallery and 
Fourth boxes ..... a i5 

Pit a 4 

Third gallery 1 iS 



MINOR THEATRES. 



Thedire des p^arietes^ 

Bouleuard Montmartre. 
This theatre v^as opened on the 4^1^ of June 1807, 
and was built by a company of associated actors. 
Its front, though very small, is in the purest style. 
M. Gellericr, under whose direction it was built, 
decorated it with two ranges of columns, Doric 
and Ionic, surmounted by a pediment. The 
ground-floor presents a vestibule, from which two 
flights of stairs lead to the first tier of boxes and 
the saloon, which is over the vestibule. This saloon, 
adorned with columns and busts, opens by three . 
large windows upon the outer portico. The house, | 



VAtJDEVILLt. 65 f 

which is nearly circular, contains four tiers of 
boxes and a spacious gallery. Green and gold 
prevail in the decoration. The front of the first 
tier of boxes is ornamented with cameos repre- 
senting the most celebrated scenes in which Bninet. 
and others appear. The distribution and scenery 
of this theatre are extremely good, and the outlets 
are numerous. The pieces performed here are 
farces and similar compositions. 

The chief performers are Brunei, Potier, Le* 
peintre, Odry, Vernet, and Bosquier-Gavaudau 5 
Mesd. Pauline, Jenny Vertpr^, Barroyer, Alde- 
gonde, Cuizot, and Flore. 

Prices of admission. 

fi'. s. fr. s. 

Balcony 5 o 

Boxes, ground-floor 

(stage) 5 

Sfage-!)()xcs (first) ... 5 

Fii.st boxes 4 

Second boxes (fVoiU'). 4 
Sta2;e-br,\e.s '.secoiul 
Gioiind-fioor boxes 



/ 
4 



ffVonT ii 



i 



o 



Oielieslra ."> 10 

First galicrv 3 lo 



Ground-floor boxes 
(sides) 3 

Third boxes (stage).. 3 
Ihitd boxes, baving 

ten places 3 

Second boxes (sides). 3 
Tbiid boxes (sides) . . a 
Amphitheatre of the 

riiird boxes i 

Fourllj boxes and Gal- 
lery I 

Pit 1 1 



lO 

o 

o 
o 

5 



1 
13 



3 



The doors open at half-past five, and the per- 
fotniance begins at six. The number of places is 
twelve hunflred and forty-live. 



llwdtre du VawAes>ille, 

Hue de Char ires. 
The Sj)ecles of melo-drama styled Vaudei'illc- is 
sai<l to liave derived its name from the follovvinu 



652 Mmoa theatres. 

circLiinstaDCc : Olivier Basselin, a fuller, in fiov 
mandy, at the begLnning of the fifteenth century, 
used to compose humorous songs, >vhich he sung 
as he stretched out his cloth in the vaux or valleys 
on the banks of the river Fire. These 8ongs be- 
came popular, and from being first called ¥awe^ 
de-f^ire, afterwards assumed the name of Faudo' 
ville. This small theatre was opened, in i79i» 
for petty comedies, interspersed with song^ «et to 
popular tunes. Any ridiculous novelty 19 laid 
hold of, and more serious dramatic performances 
are sometimes parodied. The principal front, if 
it can be called a front, is decorated with sixPoric 
columns supporting an entablature. The tlieatre 
is at the first story, and beneath it is an open 
vestibule, in which carriages set down* The house 
is a circle thirty-two feet in diameter. It contains 
four tiers of boxes, the fronts of which are white, 
variously ornamented with painting and gilding. 
At the fourth tier of boxes is a range of small co- 
lumns, which support the ceiling. The ceiling is 
traversed by garlands of flowers, which intersect 
each other in every direction. The saloon is ex- 
tremely small. 

The principal actors are MM. Philippe, Isam- 
bert, Laporte, Joly, Cossard, and Armand; Mesd. 
Minette, Yictorine, Pauline-Geoffroy, Clara, Jenny 
Colon, Bras, etc. 

Prices of admission. 



fr. 8. 
Slapc-boxcs, first row 5 o 
lirsi boxes aud bal- 
cony 4 ^ 

Gronnd-floor boxes, 
gallery and orchestra 3 10 



fr. s. 

Second boxes 3 o 

Third boxes a 5 

Pit and Fourth boxes i i3 
Amphitheatre i 5 



GIMNASE pRAlVfATlQUE. 653 

The doors opei;i at six, and the p^rforn^ance 
!glns at seven. The number of places is one 
lousand two hundred and fifty-seyen. 

Gjmnase Dramatique, 

Boulevard Bonne JYouveUe, 

This neat small theatre was erected in 1820, after 
the designs of Rougevin and Guerchy. The front 
presents two ranges of six three-quarter columns, 
Ionic and Corinthian, with pilasters at the angles* 
The doors are surmounted hy pediments, and 
above them are niches with the statues of two 
Muses. The vestibule is small, but the saloon is 
spacious and neatly ornamented. The plan of the 
house is semicircular. It contains fiv^ tiers of 
boxes and two galleries.. The prevailing colours 
of the ornaments are white and light blue, on 
which gilding is introduced with the happiest 
elfect. The lustre is niucli admired. Vaudevilles, 
corncdics, and pclty conilc-operas, are performed 
here. 

The principal perrormcrs arc MM. Bernard Leon, 
(jontier, Numa, Legrand, Bernard Leon, junior, 
Dornicuil, and Klein • and Mcsd. Theodore, Flo- 
rigny, Dcjazct, and Grevedon. 

Prices of admission. 

h". s. 1 f'r. s. 

[5.ilcoiiv and Stage- and ground-floor. . 3 10 

l»n^c.s 5 o Second hoxes 2 10 

riistl)(»\('s ,/j. o Second gallery a 5 

Orclu'.sUa, first gallciy Pit i if^ 

The doors open at six, and the performance 
])egins at seven. The number of places is out 
liiousand l\vo hundred and eighty-seven. 

55. 



654 MINOR THEATRES. 

Theatre de la Porte St. Martin, 

Bouleuard St. Martin. 

The Opera-house having been destroyed by lire 
in 1781, this edifice was planned, buUt, and de- 
corated by Lenoir in seventy-five days. It is con- 
structed almost entirely of wood and plaster, and 
from its size and circular form is very commodi- 
ous. Here the Opera company performed till tbey 
removed to the Th^^tre des Arts, in the rue de 
Richelieu, in 1793. The front is ninety-six feet 
in length by fifty-four in height, exclusive of the 
attic, which is twelve feet high. The basement 
is decorated with eight cariatides, placed as pi- 
lasters on the sides of the three doors. £ight 
coupled Ionic columns rest upon the basement, 
and support a cornice surmounted by a bas-relief, 
by Bocquet, representing the Triumph of the Arts. 
Over three windows corresponding with the doors 
are bas-reliefs. The whole of this decoration is 
enclosed in a slight rectangular recess, and the 
projecting mass of the building is surmounted by 
an entablature with fluted consoles. This theatre 
has no portico, but in its stead a miserable awn* 
ing, which hides the cariatides, and beneath which 
carriages cannot set down. It has no vestibule 
and the saloon is very small. The house contains 
four tiers of boxes, the fronts of which are de- 
corated with draperies, garlands, arabesques^ and 
cameos enriched with gold. The pieces performed 
here are melodramas, ballets, vaudevilles, and 
pantomimes. 

In the autumn of 1822, an English company 
hired this theatre, and were favourably received 



AMBIGU COMIQUE. 655 

a considerable number of respeetable persons^ 
t a cabal being forme4 against them, their per- 
mances were interrupted, and they were corn- 
led to retire to a small private theatre in the 
; Chantereine. 

rhe principal actors are MM. Philippe, DufrSne, 
zurier, Moessard, Signal, Pierson, and Perrin; 
sd. Dorval, Zelie MoUard, Pierson (dancer), 
genie, Mariani, etc. 

Prices of admission. 

fr. s. 
Gallery of grouiid 

boxes and ist row . 9 lo 

Boxes (2d row) I 16 

Boxes (ceintrc) 1 16 

Pit and First anipbi- 

theatre i 10 

Third boxes ^ i o 

Second amphitheatre, o 12 

riie doors open at five, and the performance 
^ms at six. MMic number of places is one thou- 
ul eight iiundrcd and lliree. 



fr. s. 
gc-boxes (ground- 

loor) 4 o 

tliceboxes(islro'w) A o 

Icony ^ o 

le boxes (1st row) . a 10 

chestra 2 10 

ound boxes 3 o 

ipjc-boxcs (2drow). 2 10 



lluultw (le V Anihi'^u Comique, 

Boiileuard clu leJiiple. 
This theatre was built by Gellerier, in 1770. The 
nt is composed of a l)ascment pierced witb three 
:a(]es surmounted by arched windows, separated 
• m each oilier by four Ionic columns, wbich 
^port an entablature with medallions, extend- 
5 the whole length of the front. The attic Is 
oined with a bas-relief in arabesques, and tl»c 
lole crowned with a pediment in which is a 
nlcircular window The extent of the front 



656 MINOR THEATRES. 

is augmented by two symmetrical wingi. The ves- 
tibule is small. The saloon is neatly decorated* 
The form of the house is elliptical. It ooptains 
tliree tiers of boxes, and is ornamented in a kind 
of florid Gothic style. The scenery ia tbo besi 
in Paris. Melodramas intermingled with ballets, 
vaudevilles, and dancing, are peHbrmed here. 

The principal performers are MM. Fr^noy, Gail- 
thier, Paul, Menier, Firmin, and Frederic; and 
Mesd. Levesque, EUonore, Olivier, and Halignier. 

Prices of admission. 

fr. 5. (if. s. 



Stage-boxes 3 la 

First boxes a 8 

Gallery a o 

Second boxes and 
Pourtour i i6 



Pit and Amphitheatro i 5 
A mph i thea tr e and Se- ^ 

cond boxes o i8 

Tbird boxes o la 



The doors open at five, and the performance 
begins at half-past five. The number of places is 
one thousand two hundred and thirty. 



Theatre de la Gaiete^ 

Bouleuard du Temple. 
This theatre, which was erected in i8o8, under 
the direction of M. Peyre, has no external decora- 
tion. It contains three tiers of boxes, exclusive of 
the baignoires. The architecture is painted in 
imitation of yellow marble and the ornaments are 
grey. The decoration has an agreeable eflect. 
The performances here are of the same class as at 
the Thdatre de FAmbigu Comique. Both these 
theatres, being situated between the faubourgs and 
that part of the capital which is inhabited by the 
working classes, arc generally well attended* 



ihc ThiiUt au VaudeyiUe. 

AdmiiaioD :—S[a|;e- boxes. 6 h. ; Stalks, 5 fr. ; Bones 
nf LhegalJerf, fir9l tier of boxes, and latliced boies, jfr. 
10 iousj OreKestra and first gallery, ik. »«ond lier of 
boici, 3 fr. Gallerj of the ibird tier, a fr. lo (ou^i Pit 
ifr.j Amphitbfaire 3a •ons. 

Cirque Olrmpique, 

Boulevard du Temple. 
In thii theatre Mcisre. Fianconi exbibil equpitrian 

in-wbicli horses cul a ficaie. It was opened on the 3i9t 
of March, 1817, bailne bccti built in lest iban d year, t)ic 
former circus havinj; been destroyed by fire in iliu nlfilit 
uf March iSth, 1816. The building M in the form of a 
purallelogiam, and is detached b; Wn nidc passages 
closed by iron gates. The roof is of cast iron . and Uic 
stage, as well as all the entrances leading to it , can he 
completely separated from the honse hy means of a em- 



f)58 MINOR THEATRES. 

tnin and doors of iron. The front is plain, the only orna- 
ments being two restive horses with their grooms at the 
summit of the edifice. The interior present! the form of 
an antique circns, surmounted by a tent supported by 
f;ilt lances, the lower extremities of which terminate in 
chisters of armour. It contains three galleries, and 
thiee tiers of boxes ; the front of the first tier is em- 
bellished with an imitation of bas-veliefi^ representing 
the Olympic games. A circus or sandy area, in which 
the equestrian exercises take place, and which serves 
to augment the pomp of military spectacles, by re- 
ceiving the troops that cannot be arawn up on the 
stage, occupies that part of the house, which in otj^er 
theatres forms the pit. The curtain is plain, the scenery 
excellent, and the lustre, which has lao burners, is the 
finest in Paris. The feats of horsemanship performed 
here are unrivalled, and Franconi's stud is celebrated 
throuffhout Europe. The stranger should certainly not 
(fuit tue French capital without spending an evening at 
the Cirque Olympic^ue, which is uniformly well attenckd. 
Admittance: — First stage boxes, Stalies h.nd latticed 
boxes, 4 ff* i Second Stage boxes and first side boxes, 
3 fr. lo sous ; Balcony, second tier of boxes, and third 
stat'e boxes, 3 fr. ; First gallery, a fr. lo sons: Second 
t^aljcry, 36 sous; Pit, first amphitheatre, and uird gal- 
lery, a5 sous; fouith gallery, i a sous. 

Theatre de M. Comte, 

Rue JVeuue J^entadour and Passage ChoiseuiL 

This small theatre is one of the prettiest in Paris. The 
front is neat, and the interior in good taste. An even- 
ing should be spent here to ilbitness the performance 
of Vaudevilles, etc., in which children are the actors. 
To these are occasionally added tricks with cards, etc., 
and ventriloquism. The performance beeins at 6. Ad' { 
miitance, las., i fr., 3os., afr., 3fr., ana 5 fr. 

Thedtre du MontPamasse^ 

fViihoul the Barrikre du Maine. 

At this small theatre, in the midst of wines-hops, ara 
performed Vaudevilles, comedies, end even tragedies, 
every evening, at 6 o*clock, except Sundays, whenherc 
arc two representations; one at half past 4 o'clock, and 
another at seven. Admittance, 6 sous to i fr. 4 tons. 



MINOR THEATRES. i 

Theatre Montmartre^ 

J^ithout the Barriere des Martyrs. 

This small neat theatre is under the direction 
if the same manager as the foregoing, and the 
lerformances are of the same class. 



Theatre du Roule^ or de Ranelagh^ 

ff^iihout the Barriere du Roule, 

This is a small theatre under the same manage- 
nent and organized upon the same plan as the 
wo preceding. At Ranelagh there is a second 
heatre which is not open to the public, but wberc 
imateurs and pupils perform before select society. 



Spectacle Forain du Luxembourg j, 

'iue de Flcurus^ near the garden of the Luxembourg. 
Comic pieces, pantomimes, and rope dancing, 
;onipose tlie amusements of this small theatre. 
)n Sundays and Mondays there are two perfor- 
nances. Admitlancc, from 6 lo i5 sous. 



Spectacle des AcrobateSy 

Boulevard du leiufylc. 
Tiic name of lliis amusement is derived from 
he Greek, and si^i^nifies to walk on tlic point of 
)ne s toes. Mad. Saqui, well known in London, 
lances on tlie ti^lit rope here, which, with the 
>tlier performances, serves to gratify the visitors, 
n the summer season, the troop occasionally 
nakes a tour in tlie provinces, or in foreign coun- 
ries. Admission, from 4 sous to i fr. lo sous- 



(l6o PUBLIC GARDENS. 

Thedtre des Funambules^ 

Bouleuard du Temple, 

From the Latin /uni^, a rope, and atnbuio, lo 
walk. Here paatomimes, resembling Italian pet- 
formances in England, but very inferior, are to be 
seen, as well as rope dancing. Admission, frdm4 
to i5 sous. 

Theatre du Petit Lazariy 

Boulevard du Templem * 

A species of puppet-show, suited lei amnae tbe 
lower ranks and children. It conisis&s of mock 
parade, and gorgeous imitations. 



PUBLIC GARDENS. 

In some of the public gardens of Paris there are 
artificial mountains, bearing various names^.as 
Montagnes Frangaises, Montagnes de Ti^bU^ Mon^ 
t agues Suisses, etc., down which ears descend 
with astonishing velocity. - In 1817, a company 
established a diversion outside tbe barri^re du 
Roule, which they called ies Montagnes Russee, A 
car capable of containing two persons is placed on 
the summit of a very steep inclined plane, down 
which it descends in grooves. This diversion is 
common in Russia during the winter, when the 
inclined plane is covered with ice. The first spe- 
culators in this novel amusement made immensa 
fortunes. Hundreds were seen waiting for theii^ 
turn to descend, and several thousand franos were 
daily received; but others wbo haye since formied 



Jaid'tn Beaujon, 

^'ear ihn Biirriire de CEloUe. 
This gnrdcii originally iielungcd to ihc rich rinaii- 
cicr wbose name it bears, bul it afterwards waj 
opened lo the public for amusements, as at Tivoli. 
Tlic moil lit a ins termed Montiijfnes Franfaises were 
an Improvi^ment upon the original plan. The cur 
not only descended a very long inclined plane, but 
aTlervvMrds ascended to the spotl'rom wht'iice it set 
out by mcaiisofniachinery se<{n motion by horsei. 
Some serious accidents having occurred, the police 
suppressed the cars ; but as every precaution was 
P*RT (. 56 



662 PUBLIC GARDENS. 

subsequently taken to ensure safety, they were al- 
lowed to travel with as great rapidity as ever. 

In 1824? this garden, which was bought some 
years ago for 200,000 fr. was sold for 800,000 fr. 
for building ground j and in 1826 was closed for 
ever to the public. 



Jardin Marhoeuf, 

Champs Elysees. 

This garden is closed, having been sold for build- 
ing-ground { and the Cafe now serves as a chapel 
for members of the English established church. 

Jardin Belleville, 

BarrUre des Trois Couronnes. 

This garden is on the plan of Tivoli, and the 

arausemenls are the sanie. Here the visitor will 

find mountains down which he may descend in a 

car with amazing velocity. Admittance i fr. to Sfr. 



Jardin Montplaisir, 

IVo. 4, Barriere de MenilnumianU 
The visitor is admitted here gratu^ his only ex- 
pense being for refreshments, dancing, and such 
amusements as in all public gardens are paid for 
separately. 

illjrsee Montmartre, 

Between the barriere Rochechauart and the harrikrt 

des Martyrs. 

This is a garden upon the same plan as the pre- 
ceding. 



PUBUG GARDEffS. 663 

Wauxhall d^hte^ 

Boulet^ard St* Martin. 

This gay spot is open on Sundays and Mondays. 
'etes champetres and balls are given during the 
immer, and in winter there is a rotunda for 
mcing. On Thursdays, during the winter, there 
*e concerts and assauts (Tarmes. This place is 
uch frequented by milliners, mantua-makers, 
erks, and cyprians. The charge is i fr. for a 
mtleman and lo sous for a lady* 



Jardin des MarronierSy 

Faubourg du Temple, 

This garden has been entirely destroyed, and 
ouses erected upon its site. 



Jardin Turc^ 

Boideuard du 7'eniple. 

This garden is much frequented, and certainly 
lould not escape the attention of the tourist, 
o idea can be formed of the rich and cosily style 
1 which it is decorated. In 1824, the garden and 
le cafe attached lo it were embellished at an 
ifpense of -200,000 fr. All the architecture, paint- 
ig, and ornaments are in the Turkish style. In 
le garden, which is called la Tivoli du Marais, 
re borders and a terrace where refreshments arc 
rought to the visitor, who, though perfectly re- 
rcd, has a view of the Boulevards. 



664 EXHIBITIONS AND AMUSEMENTS. 

La Chaumiere, 

JVo, i6y Beulevard du Mont Pamasse^ 
This garden is situated on the southern boule- 
vards, and is a truly pleasant spot. ' ladepcn- 
dently of rope-dancing, tumbling and coD)iu*uig» 
there is an excellent restaurant, a cafe, etc. and 
the price of refreshments is moderate. Here are 
the Montagnes Suisses, There is less confusion 
and bustle here than in some similar estabiish- 
meuls, in consequence of a charge, upon eutering, 
of 10 sous, for which the visitor receives refresh- 
ments, or partakes of the amusements. 



EXHIBITIONS AND AMUSEMENTS. 



Ombres Chinoises de Seraphin^ 

JVo . I a I , Palais Roy a L 
This is a sort of phantasmagoria and puppet- 
show, which will not produce regret at having en- 
gaged a visitor's idle hour. There are two repre- 
sentatious on Sundays, and one on other evenings 
at seven, to the great delight of maids and children, 
who attend in crowds. Admittance 6 to i5 sous. 



Diorama^ 

Bouleuard St. Martin, 

This is one of the prettiest exhibitions in Paris. 
It consists of two paintings so disposed as to pre- 
sent the most complete illusion. The happiest 
representations are the interior of churches, par- 
ticularly if without ligures, or if they are placed 
in the back-ground. The two views are presented 



666 EXHIBITIOIfS AND AMOSEMENTS. 

the instruments of a full band, and has the remaik* 
able power of improvisation in the variations. It 
has no fixed place for exhibition, but is worthy of 
the visitor^s attention wherever he may happen to 
tind it. 

Salon des Figures (Wax-Works)i 

Bouleuard du Temple. 

Those who admire such exhibitions may be am-* 
ply gratified here. 

Exhibition of Paintings^ 

No. 7, rue du Coq St. Honore. 

Herc*are to be seen gratis, every day, from dLeveii 
till four, valuable paintings, aqd other curiosities, 
which are ibr sale, and well deserve inspection. 
Towards the approach of New-year's-day, these 
rooms are much frequented, and display an exten- 
sive assortment of articles of every descripttoa 
suited for New-year's gifts. 

Collection of Paintings^ 

JVo. 17, rue de Bourbon* 

This is a private collection of paintings of the 
twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and liAeenth cen- 
turies, which are offered for sale for the sum of 
55,000 fr. The proprietor shows them readily to 

strangers. 

Galerie Constantin^ 

No. 53, rue St. Lazare. 

Here is exhibited for sale a collection of an- 
cient and modern pijctures and designs. 



EXHIBITIONS I 



This is a public etl 
of art, and curiosities, 
every day except FrJt 
occupies was formerly 
cellor de I'Hapltal, bu 
able in architecture cxi 
an escutcheon over the 



Boulevard Jes IlaUeas. 

This is a spacious room surrounded with gal' 

leries, where tradesmen hire places by the week 

to expose their goods for sale. Strangers should 

visit the Bazar. 



Cafe de la Paioc, Cafe (Jes Cinq Sul~ 
tanes, and Cafe des jlveughs, 

Seep,i^es i;GaT.<l 177. 



Le Prado, 

Plnte <lit Pa!«h <h Justicf.. 
Upon ibesite of the ancient church of St. Bnrlhc- 
lemi, a theatre was erected, which was suppressed 
with several others in 1807. The bulhlins has 
since been converted into an elegant room Tor 
balls and various other a 
i:iilr:inces. Admittance, gentler 



I 



668 EXHIBITIONS AND AMUSEMENTS. 

Idalie^ 

Passage de P Opera, Boult»'ard des Itaiiens. 
This is a subterranean gallery one hundred and 
fifty feet in length by fifty in breadth. It is used 
as a ball room, and coutains t:wo small stage9» one 
for a conjuror, and the other for a grimaci^r. It 
is open on Sundays and Thursdays. Adnuttance 
2 francs. 

Guinguettes. 

Guinguettes are the houses or gardens of frtu-' 
teurs, in the environs of Paris. Fovmerly they 
were frequented by workmen and labourers alone j 
but tradesmen and clerks now resort to thena in 
great numbers, particularly on Sundays. Itiesi 
establishments were originally very meam aud re- 
freshment was obtained at a trifling expensf ; but 
since they have been patronised by the middling 
classes, there are some which afford every kipd of 
luxury. 

The most celebrated are the Jardin de la Gaiet^, 
barrier du Maine j the Salon Denoyez, barrier de 
la Courtille; the Maison Morel, barrier de Menil- 
montant; the Hermitage, upon the hill of Mont- 
martrej the He d'Amour, at Romainyillej Fan- 
chon la Yielleuse, or la Ghaumi^re, boulevard du 
Mont Pamasse ^ Le Salon de Yarlet and the Salon 
du Feu £ternel de la Yestale, boulevard de THd- 
pital. At Belleville and Montrouge most of the 
houses are guinguettes. 

When a guinguette adds an orchestra and a ball- 
room to its other attractions, it is called a kaa* 
tringue. Tlie houses which sell only wiue and 



670 EXUIBITIOVS AND AMUSEMEITTS . 

Italian Opera-house, or the iDtendance dc8 The4. 
ti es Royaux. In the winter and the spring several 
distinguished artists give musical mornings and 
evenings by subscription. 

Reviews. 

From the military character of tbe French, re- 
views are always attended by a great concourse of 
spectators. The grand reviews and military evo- 
lutions take place in the Champ de Mars^ or the 
Plaine de Grenelle, In the court of the Tuileries 
the troops who mount guard at the palace exerciM 
every day, at noon in winter, and at nine o^clock in 
summer. They are then inspected by a marshal of 
France, and frequently by a prince of the Royal 
Family. The troops in garrison at Paris are in- 
spected quarterly in the Champs Elys^s. 



Horse Races. 

Seepage 271. 



Skaiting. 



The places most frequented for this exercise are 
the basin de la Yillette, the octagonal basin in the 
garden of the Tuileries, theGaredela Bastille, and 
theGare, faubourg St. Jacques. 



Public Fites. 

The public f(ltes are held in the Champs Elysees. 
On St. Cliarles^s Day (Nov. 4th) a fSte is regularly 
given to the popul ce of Paris \ besides which 



EXHIBITIONS AND AMUSEMENTS. 67 1 

i lake place in the event of any ejLtraor-' 
f occurrence in the course of the year; as in^ 

on account of the baptism of the Duke of 
auxy and in ]823, upon the return of the 
of Angouleme, after the Spanish campaign. 

different areas are rope-dancers, jugglers, 
3ns, orchestras for dancers, mats de Cocagne^ 
;ages for dramatic representations. Provi- 
ind wine are likewise distributed, and in the 
tg the avenues and walks are illuminated, as 
IS the garden of the Tuileries. Althoagh 
these occasions the multitude brought to* 
' is immense but few quarrels ensue, and in 
lithe greatest order and good humour prevail* 



THE CARNIVAL. 

il the reign of Louis XV the Carnival com- 

:cl on the day after Twelfth Night, or the 
' Jaiuiarv, and continued till Ash Wednes- 
durlng which period numerous balls and 
ilnuients were given, and many marriages 
aled. It is now held on the fifteen days 
iini; Ash ^V ediics.lay j but the principal days 
3 DiniancJu', tiie Ijiindi, and the Mardi Gras, 
e 'J hursday of Mid-Lent. A number of per- 
lu disL^uise, masked and exhihiling every 
> of lolly, parade the streets. The Carnival 
I'ohlhitcd in 1790, and no more celehrated 
: period when Jionaparte was appointed first 
. Its restoration was a cause of great joy 
Parisians, and ibr some years nothing could 
the beauty and richness of the costumes 
ed upon this annual festival; but it has 



67a EXHIBITIONS AND AMUSEMEITTS. 

now lost its charms, and tbe masks are few and 
unmeaning. The places of general resort are the 
boulevards on the north bank of the Seine, aiid 
the rue St. Honord. After parading tbe streets, 
tbe masks repair to the balls in the capital^ or 
ihe'guinguettes of the environs, for the night.. 

Masked Balls. These balb, which at tbe time of 
the Carnival take precedence of every other kind 
of amusement in Paris, were introduced under tbe 
regency of the Duke of Orleans. The CSieyalier 
de Bouillon conceived the project of converting 
the Opera-House into a ball-room, and a Gar' 
melite Friar, named Father Sebastian, invented 
the means of elevating the floor of the pit to a 
level with the stage, and lowering it at pleasure* 
The tirst ball was given on tbe 2d of January, 
17 16. They now commence about the end of 
January and continue on fixed days throughout 
tbe carnival. The most select company is found 
at the Opera-House, where tbe balls begin at mid- 
night, and are kept up till day-break. Besides 
masks, fancy dresses are common, and gentlemen 
have the privilege of going unmasked. The charge 
is six francs. Refreshments and supper may be 
had. At the Odeon tbe middling classes of society 
assemble. The charge is 5 francs, and daaciBg 
commences at eleven o'clock. 

Masked Balls are likewise given at the ThMtre 
de la Porte St. Martin, Franconi's Circus^ and va- 
rious other places. 

The Boeuf Gras. For ages there has been cele- 
brated at Paris, upon tbe last days of the GamWal, 
the procession of the Boeuf Gras, when an ox, 
which has obtained the government prize, pve- 



EXHIBITIONS AND AMUSEHESTTS^ 67 S 

ceded by music, and accompanied by a nume- 
rous train of butchers fantastically dressed, is led 
through the streets of the capital. The oi is Co- 
vered with tapestry, and his head adoriied with 
laurel. Formerly the ox bore on his back a child, 
called Rol des Bouchers, decorated with a blue 
scarf, and holding iu one hand a gilt sceptfe and 
in the other a sword. The child now follows the 
Boeuf Gras in an ornamented triumphal car, but 
without the sceptre and sword. This innovation 
upon the ancient custom first took place in 1822. 



Combat des Aninuuix, 

Barriere du Combat. 

This exhibition, which is only held on Sundays 
and festivals, is consecrated to the genius of vul- 
garity, whose disciples preside at the ceremonies, 

in the shape of butchers, carmen, etc. There is 
not the least resemblance between this amusement 
and the huU-balllngs of Spain. The exhibition 
consists of an enclosure, round which there is a 
gallery, and under it dens of ferocious beasts, to- 
gether with a kennel of dogs, who are always 
ready for battle. Wolves, bulls, and bears, the 
latter with their teeth filed down, encounter trained 
c\o^^ ; but the latter seldom kill their opponents, 
as amusement, not destruction, instigate the com- 
bats. The bulls have their horns sawn off. There 
are also fire- works exliibiled, in which is to be seen 
a bull-dof; laiscd fifty feet by a rope, which lie 
i)olds between his teeth, regardless of the flames 
which sunound him. The spectacle commences 
at four o'clock. Admittance from 12 to 3o sous. 

PAKT I. 67 



674 KXHIBiTIONS AND ABHISEMENTS. 

Jeux de Paume (Tennis Courts). 

There are several buildings appropriated to these 
exercises, as they arc favourite resorts of the Pari- 
siaus. Among them the principal are those of the 
rue Mazarine, which is that of the Prioces ; and 
those of the rue de Crenelle 3t. Honor^, the rue 
des Ecouffes, the rue Beaurepaire and the Place 
St. Michel. 

Academies d'Aimes (Fencing-Schools), 

A distinguished professor of this manly art is M. 
Goulon, No. 555, rue St. Honor^. M. Lebron, 
No. 72, rue Mazarine, is also celebrated. 



Gaming-Houses ^ 

See pages 178, 293, and 3o3. 



Lotteiies, 

In the fifteenth century there were lotteries at 
Paris under the name of blanques or tontines^ from 
their having been established by an Italian named 
Tonti. Louis Xiy frequently exercised his muni- 
ficence by means of lotteries composed of valii^ 
able prizes, which fell to his favourites without any 
stake, as chance might determine. Under Louis 
XV, when money was wanted by convents or 
churches, the government authorised them to raise 
it by means of lotteries. Louis XVI suppressed 
all lotteries except that of the Hospice des £nfatis 
Trouves, that of the U6pital de la Piti^, and the 
Loterie Royale de France. On the 16th of No- 
vember, 1794? lotteries were abolishjed by the Na-? 



EXHIBITIONS AND AMUSEMENTS. SjS 

dl Convention as immoral establishments, ^ Thfe 

!ry of France, or of Paris, was re-established 

he 3oth of September, 1797, by the Directorial 

ernmentj and Bonaparte created five others, 

Strasbourg, Lyons, Lille, Brussels,* and Bor- 

ux, which are drawn three tiroes a month. 

;h lottery contains ninety numbers, of which 

! nominally, but only four in reality, are en- 

ed to prizes. The system is this: an extrait^ 

Ich is so called when only one of the numbers 

•sen comes up a prize, is entitled to fifteen 

es the amount staked. If two numbers come 

, that is, an amhe, two hundred and seventy 

les what is staked. If three be prizes the gain 

Lve thousand five hundred times what is placed 

the compartment appropriated to the terne, 

d if four numbers be prizes, the gain is seventy- 

j thousand times the sum placed on the guateme, 

twilhstandlng this inviting prospect of becoming 

1, it cannot I^e concealed that in this kind of 

Lcry, as in every other, the purchasers of tickets 

the dupes of their credulity and avarice. The 

• lit of tlie managers is immense, and this branch 
ihe revenue yields to the state more than twelve 
lions of francs a year. There are in Paris se- 
al hundred offices where tickets are sold. T